Method of biomelioration of degraded rainfed lands
SUBSTANCE: method includes the excavation-free diagnostics during the survey, the mapping of the site, the preparation of the programme for switching on and off the operating elements from the control panel and linking the coordinate system via the GPS receiver of the combined unit with the reference to the geographical coordinates, and transmitting the results to the control processor of the combined unit performing the simultaneous processing. Shrub growth, stems of herbaceous plants and soil aggregates are mechanically ground with separating into fractions, bulk subsoil loosening is carried out. The soil is chemically treated with distributing an ameliorant and mineral fertilizers, liquid manure and a solution with nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms are introduced in the soil, seed mixtures are additionally sown at strip cultivation of plants, seed mixtures of legumes and an integumentary grain crop are sown over the screen, and on the marker strip - seed mixtures of drought-tolerant halophytes, treated with growth stimulants. Bulk subsoil loosening is carried out with the formation of a curved surface of the loosened soil bottom for draining the products of chemical reactions with water from the soil to the strip with halophytes without being carried to rivers and water bodies. Screens waterproof during the period of atmospheric precipitation and permeable by the roots of plants during drought are formed, the organomineral mixture in the gas shell is supplied to the screens through the cavities of the racks of voluminous rippers under dumps, with its composition, vol. %: 35…50 - plant residues and humus, 3…10 - montmorillonite, 15…40 - marine mixed sediment type, 0…15 - iron vitriol, 15…37 - clay. Wherein the main treatment of strips with dump-free depth-adjustable cutting of the upper soil layer is carried out and simultaneously the underlying layer of soil and subsoil solonetz is treated. The chemical ameliorant is applied to disintegrated lumps, an interlayer of 0.03…0.08 m from liquid manure is formed in a cavity between the cut-up soil layer and that treated with introducing an ameliorant.
EFFECT: shortening the terms of reclamation works and favourable air and nutrient regime for the development of the root mass of plants and increasing their yields allows to reduce labour costs for pre-design studies, to obtain on rainfed lands desalinated soil with a moisture reserve while regulating the volumes of water accumulated above the screens and in the loosened ground, contributes to the implementation of works with directed treatment of hummocks, curtains of bushes, solonetz with savings of introduced ameliorants, prevents the development of wind erosion.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a device of drainage trench with a drainage pipe laid on its bottom with a protective-filtering material, the filtering elements in the form of prisms of soil of humus horizon, arranged in a trench to the arable layer, and the final backfilling the trench with soil of humus horizon. Each drainage trench is made with the depth of at least 1.1 m and the width of at least 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface waters at an angle of not more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. The drainage pipe with protective-filtering material is sprinkled with soil of humus horizon, cut off from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above the pipe crown. The filtering elements are made in the form of a single block composed of the nth odd number (n≥3) of the vertical regular prisms parallel to the trench walls, in which the prism of soil of humus horizon alternates with the prism from the excavated soils. The width of the prism from the excavated soil is two times greater than the width of the prism of soil of humus horizon, and the width of the trench B and the width of each odd prism of soil of humus horizon b"n" are related to each other as b"n"=2B/(3n-1).
EFFECT: improvement of hydrological action of the closed regulatory network, increase in efficiency of the use of topsoil and the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of average-loamy soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises undercutting soil on the contour lines of the slope, its turnover and laying not in their furrows. The layer is undercut in cross section in the form of rectangles of different widths. The two extremes layers are undercut to a depth of (0.7…0.8)h and placed in the furrows formed by ploughing of the middle layers, without turnover, where h is the depth of treatment with double bodies (middle layers). The device comprises a frame, a disc blade, joggers, double body, right- and left-handed plough bodies. The right- and left-handed plough bodies are made with a cylindrical working surface. The plough bodies are mounted on the frame vertically higher than the double body by the magnitude Δh=(0.2…0.3)h, where Δh is the distance between the blades of ploughshares on the vertical.
EFFECT: such technology and constructive implementation enable to increase the efficiency of retention of meltwater on sloping lands at optimal costs.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural engineering and is intended for embedding into soil of hard-crushed plant residues such as stalks of oil flax. The pusher is mounted at an angle to the direction of movement and is mounted either in front of the tractor or in the rear part of the plough at the side of the untreated field.
EFFECT: invention provides offset of roller of plant residues by the pusher in the furrow opened by the plough, compaction of the roller at the bottom of the furrow by the tractor wheels moving on it, and then ploughing of the compacted roller and uncut stubble by the plough bodies with trash covers.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises milling the soil as strips. The soil of milled strip is subjected to separation. Unseparated part of the soil is subjected to impact action, followed by separation, accompanied by crushing of undisrupted clumps of soil on the rods and pushing them into the gaps between the rods of the separating grid. The device comprises a milling drum, a rear rotor the separating grid located behind it. The working bodies of the rear rotor are made in the form of rubber blades. The blades strike the clumps falling on a wide plate fastening the rods of the separating grid.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of agronomically valuable aggregates over the entire thickness of the treated land.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to the technologies of precision agriculture. The device comprises a bearing frame connected to the means of moving on the field, a support element mounted on the frame and determining its position above the ground, the knife-milling chisel plough placed on a frame, creating longitudinal slit channel in the soil during motion, a measuring unit with the measuring sensors, made elongated along the direction of motion, of the same thickness with the knife-milling chisel plough and mounted behind it in the direction of motion, the assembly of stepped depth adjustment of the position of the measuring unit in the longitudinal slit channel when moving on the field, the assembly of protection of the measuring unit from damage by collision of the knife-milling chisel plough to the obstacles, the control unit of measurements, collection and conversion of the measurement information, the on-board computer and the receiver of the geopositioning system for registering measurement information and mapping. And the housing of the measuring unit is made in the form of a monolithic metal plate with a pointed and bevelled downwards and backwards frontal anterior edge and is fixedly connected to the bearing frame by the front and rear racks. The sensors are embedded in the measuring unit and located on its side walls along the common straight line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements from the soil surface. The support element is made in the form of a support skid located under the measurement unit, pivotally connected with the rack mounted on the bearing frame. And this rack is mounted on the bearing frame with the ability of a stepped change in the given distance between the sole of the support skid and the straight horizontal line with the same depth of location of the sensing elements in the measuring unit from the soil surface. The said knife-milling chisel plough mounted on the frame in front of the measuring unit, has an axial connection with the frame, ensuring the formation of a common vertical longitudinal plane of symmetry with the measuring unit and made with the ability to control the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough in this plane. The knife with the cutting edge has a length that ensures creation of the slit channel in the soil with the depth enough for embedding the measuring unit until it stops of the support skid on the surface of the soil at any given distance between the sole of the skid and the horizontal line of position of the sensors and any specified angle of the knife-milling chisel plough mounting. The upper end part of the knife-milling chisel plough, located on the other side of the axial connection, is fixed by the safety shear bolt in the assembly of stepped fixing of the angular position of the knife-milling chisel plough located on the frame, and this assembly is equipped with a stop for fixing the position of the blade of the knife-milling chisel plough along the frontal measuring unit when collision to the stone and cutting the safety shear bolt, moreover, to retain the measuring unit in the vertical plane of symmetry coinciding with the direction of movement of the device. The bearing frame is provided with a rigid drawbar to connect with the vehicle for motion on the field.
EFFECT: unit provides measurement efficiency of agrotechnological characteristics.
17 cl, 24 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to vegetable farming. The method is implemented by means of laying of milled soil for the formed furrows to the surface of unprocessed soil. For long-term provision of cultivated crop with accessible (capillary) water entering the soil mass with capillary porosity, formed within a long period after qualitative autumn treatment the dried surface layer of this mass id destructed and removed. Meanwhile newly formed surface layer additionally compacted, that prevents to excessive loss of capillary water. The soil with non-capillary porosity hard-worked on the usual mass making side slopes and sowing layer, forming the hole soil mass as a furrow slice. The device includes the power shaft, fixed on the frame, with interspaces between milling drums with covers, shaping furrow slices. Meanwhile it is equipped with chains fixed on the driving shaft in interspaces between the milling drums.
EFFECT: group of inventions allows to prevent an excessive loss of capillary water and for a long time to provide the cultivated crops with accessible water.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises cutting, crumbling of the treated soil layer, the layer turnover, the destruction of "plough pan" and formation of slits with the inter-slit distance of 70-90 cm. When crumbling the upper part of the treated layer its turnover is carried out in both directions with respect to the rack of the working body and movement to the field surface with the formation of cavities in the passage ways of the working bodies to form a ridge on the untreated part of the field surface. Then with the working bodies of the second row the process of formation of cavities is repeated. Then with the working bodies of the following rows cutting, crumbling of the untreated surface of the field to greater depth is carried out, moving it into the formed cavities and forming slits. Then the surface of the field is levelled. The tool comprises a frame consisting of longitudinal and transverse beams. The frame is provided with replaceable working bodies located to form parallel rows, enabling treatment of soil over the entire working width of the tool. The working bodies are made in the form of removable A-blades mounted on the rack, consisting of right and left ploughshares in the direction of motion. The ploughshares are made of triangular or quadrangular form, located with displacement of the cutting edges and have mouldboards. The working bodies are fixed to the longitudinal beams of the frame using the racks. The left and right ploughshares are mounted with displacement of 0.5-1.5 width of the ploughshare relative to each other horizontally and are located at an angle of 20-35° to the horizontal and 30-55° to the vertical planes. The cutting edges of the ploughshares are formed with displacement of 0-30 mm relative to each other vertically. On the rack of the working body over the ploughshares the right and left mouldboards are mounted at an angle of 25-50° relative to the side part of the rack in the horizontal plane and at an angle of 25-40° relative to the front part of the rack in the vertical plane. The lower edges of the mouldboards are made with the cutting at an angle of 20-40° relative to the horizontal plane. In the front part of the rack at the junction place of the left and right mouldboards the fairing is mounted made of a rod with the cross-section of a circle or part of a circle, corresponding to the length of conjugation of the mouldboards from the upper part of one of the ploughshares to the upper part of conjugation of the mouldboards. Two last rows of the working bodies consist of a rack, a fairing and a chisel, fixed through the side slot on the front part of the rack of the working body, which is attached to the equalizer by means of brackets. The working bodies of each of the next row are located with displacement with respect to the working bodies of the previous row.
EFFECT: technology and constructive implementation enable to improve the quality of soil treatment and to reduce the tractive resistance.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises undercutting of contaminated topsoil, throwing to the bottom of the furrow and piling it with an uncontaminated layer. The contaminated soil layer is undercut by the soil tillage body of a scraper type and moved aside to form a ridge, and the uncontaminated soil fertile layer is opened. The open uncontaminated soil layer is undercut by the combined working body and lifted to the conveyor without the layer overturning. The soil layer is transported first up, then down, leaving a passage for the contaminated layer undercut by the lateral working body of a scraper type under the ridge of the contaminated layer formed by the first working body, and together they are moved to the bottom of the furrow. Then the contaminated soil layer is compacted and closed with the uncontaminated layer passing down from the conveyor. After that the soil is levelled and compacted to the operating width of the device. The device comprises a rectangular frame, support wheels, a mechanism of attachment to the tractor and the working bodies. The first and the lateral working bodies are made of a scraper type. The device also has a combined working body composed of two arranged towards each other rigidly interconnected working bodies of the mouldboard type plough. The total mouldboard part of the combined working body is made truncated in the form of a trough. Behind the combined working body there is a conveyor with ascending, horizontal and descending parts, having a drive of PTO of the traction unit through the power shaft, a reducer and a chain drive. Behind the conveyor a pusher is mounted for levelling the surface of the field after the passage of the device and a packing roller, which is a support one in the transfer of the device to the transport position by the hydraulic cylinder attached to the median longitudinal bar of the frame.
EFFECT: improving the quality of treatment of soil contaminated with radionuclides and heavy metals by avoiding mixing of the contaminated and uncontaminated soil layers in the process of their moving.
7 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to restoring of the productivity of perennial grasses in the chestnut soil zone. The method comprises chisel ploughing of soil under perennial grasses to the depth of 40 cm. The spacing between the working elements is set in the gap providing first the continuous loosening the soil until appearance of untreated soil surface, equal to the width of capture of one working element.
EFFECT: method enables to enhance replenishment of perennial grasses by discontinuous chisel ploughing of soil.
SUBSTANCE: it can be used in nonchernozem belt, as well as industrial, municipal, township and other territories and can be used in the design, construction and maintenance of drainage systems and the use of drained soils. The method comprises carrying out land clearance operations and construction of a closed collector and sparse parallel drains. The construction breakdown of the drains attached to the collector is carried out, followed by shrinkage of soil of humus horizon - the arable layer on the pathway of drain by the bulldozer with an angled blade. The trenching with depth of not less than 1.1 m with a given slope is carried out. The bottom of the trench is levelled and the pipe is placed on it, wrapped with protective filter material. The drain pipe at least 20 cm above its crown is padded with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil of binomial deposits cut from the trench shoulders. The filling of the trench is carried out, which has the width of not less than 0.5 m, to plough pan of the arable layer by its ploughing also with water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil by monohull hinged brush-and-bog plough PBN-100A with mould and hanging cutter. The levelling layer of soil is carried out excavated during the digging of the trench, in depressions construction band of drain and reclamation of shrinked soil layer on the construction band with a bulldozer with angled blade. Planning of the soil surface and ploughing the soil is carried out. For sustainable spilling the water-permeable loosely cohesive sabulous-sandy soil in the loosened area of cohesive poorly water-permeable soil, as well as the slit behind the drive rod and the rack of the ripper and plough pan of the moving ploughshare and fixed feet pad of the ripper the continuous deep cross loosening of soil is carried out with vibration ripper in the period when the level of soil water stand id not higher than the bottom of the trench of drain to a depth of not less than 30 cm less than the minimum depth of the drain location. Deep loosening of soil is carried out in two mutually perpendicular directions at an angle of 45 degrees to the drain direction.
EFFECT: reliable hydrological effect of subsurface drainage in the course of its operation is provided, creation of optimised mineral soil with improved soil, water and environmental properties of the root layer, and ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of these soils is increased.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, basic tillage of soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves calculating required power of individual and string-type cumulative charges; providing field marking and forming holes in soil; placing cumulative charges in holes; sequentially blowing charges so that after explosion soil is transferred from one strip onto adjacent strip; leveling field surface by means of any known farm machine.
EFFECT: increased quality and effectiveness of plowing soil.
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves shallow plowing, deep basic tillage and surface tillage (cultivation) of soil by cutting furrows; after harvesting of cereals, performing simultaneously shallow plowing, surface tillage of soil to depth of up to 16 cm, crushing of soil lumps, compacting, leveling and mulching of soil top layer; in September, providing deep tillage of soil on fields arranged on slopes with gradient exceeding 5 deg while forming vertical slits to depth of 40 cm and inclined slits; simultaneously with slitting procedure, forming water-accumulating vessels, holes and intermittent furrows. Apparatus has hitch, carrier wheels, bearing system and replaceable working tools in the form of disk batteries, flat narrow hoes, rippers with chisel, ring-and-serrated roller, and leveling drum. Blades of leveling drum are arranged at an angle α=30 deg relative to drum axis.
EFFECT: reduced soil erosion and provision for retention of moisture in soil root layer.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, plant growing and feed production, may be used for growing of spring rape in fodder crop as postcut forage crop.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing soil and seeds; sowing; providing care for young crops; harvesting. Seed sowing is carried out during period of mass development of cruciferous weeds and die-off of first generation of wintered cruciferous fleas Phyllotreta spp. Spring rape is grown in postcut forage crop. Before seed sowing, soil is cultivated by rotavation or two-three-staged disking by means of harrows to 8-10 cm depth immediately after harvesting of preceding crop. Seed sowing is performed during 2-3 days after harvesting of said crop. Spring rape is cultivated in single-course complete fodder crop rotation mode. Winter wheat is used as preceding crop. Early ripening rape seeds with growing period of up to 100 days are commonly used. In the Middle Urals zone, rape seeds are sown in June, 15 to 30.
EFFECT: increased yield of spring rape grown for forage in risky agriculture regions at intensive utilization of plowed field in fodder crop rotation mode without use of pesticides.
4 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting soil by means of plow share having strut diagonally extending from lower part of moldboard to frame to provide for ripping soil open from inside. Employment of strut allows force acting upon plow or cultivator to be reduced and prevents plow or cultivator from clogging with plant remains.
EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage and reduced power consumption.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, minimal tillage of soil for cultivation of farm crops on farm and home plots.
SUBSTANCE: method involves deep mellowing, disking and rotavation of surface layer by combining local deep mellowing of soil to 25-32 cm depth and disking by semi-helical mellowing by means of out-of-phase spherical half-disks of intermediate mid layer disposed at 14-32 cm depth and rotavation of upper layer by means of L-shaped knives to 8-12 cm depth, said processes being effectuated in single cycle. Disking is provided by shifting of layer under process at an angle of attack in direction opposite to direction of backward motion of unit by means of one "from the right to the left" type half disk and backward motion by means of other "from the left to the right" type half disk from mid portion of full width of paired half disks. Deep mellowing is provided along longitudinal axis of symmetry of tractor in front of one pair of paired half disks, which is united with L-shaped cutter knives, and along passage tracks of tractor propeller before batteries of two pairs of paired out-of-phase half disks.
EFFECT: improved quality of soil tillage, substantially reduced draft and stabilized depth of advancement of tillage tools in longitudinal-vertical plane of movement of tillage unit.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, amelioration of mineralized soil grown up with stunted brushwood.
SUBSTANCE: method involves dressing sod while grinding bush and plowing-in wood remains under plow layer, with bush being bent at an angle to dressing direction before dressing of sod and with plowing-in of wood remains being performed in direction of bending of bush. Optimal angle of inclination of bush is determined as: αoa=αw-αs, where αw is optimal angle of wood cutting; αs is optimal angle of sod cutting. Apparatus has basic tractor and lifting working tool with two sections of disk batteries, with front section being mounted on frame hitched to tractor and rear section being pivotally joined with frame to be raised relative to it. Bending device is made in the form of shaft with pressing plate and positioned forward of tractor on individual frame for displacement in vertical plane. Moldboard is positioned perpendicular to optical bending direction. Width of moldboard is equal to width of front section of disk harrow. Pressing plate is positioned between tractor and front section of disk harrow on related frame. Width of pressing plate is at least equal to width of track between tractor caterpillars.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of power and high-quality preparing of soil in the process of development of bushy lands.
FIELD: agriculture, microbiology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agents used for recovery of soil rich and discloses a method for it preparing also. The biopreparation comprises a porous carrier based on glass-like meta-phosphates and physiologically active microorganisms immobilized into pores of carrier artificially. The biopreparation comprises foamed glass-like silicophosphates with transient composite and non-uniform structure as an active grain carrier with density 1.5-1.9 g/cm3 with communicating pores. As physiologically active microorganisms method involves using the following enumerated ones: proteolytic and amylolytic microorganisms - Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Spirillum; actinomyces - Streptomyces, Streptoverticillium, Actinomadura, Nocardiopsis; nitrogen-fixing microorganisms - Azotobacter, Aerobacter, Achromobacter; cellulose-decomposing and humus-decomposing microorganisms - Trichoderma, Rhizoctonia, Cytophaga, Sporangium, Cellovibrio; denitrifiers - Aerobacter, Micrococcus. Method for preparing the biopreparation involves submerged culturing microorganisms in liquid nutrient medium, preparing a sterile carrier, surface culturing and impregnation form microorganisms in solution on a carrier.
EFFECT: improved preparing method, valuable properties of biopreparation.
3 cl, 5 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, spring care for winter ear crops.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing single-cut disk mellowing and crumbling of soil and simultaneously undercutting of weeds along rows or along diagonal line of geometric figures of field during cross drilling. Toothed harrow comprising frame and teeth built into frame. Teeth have mounting, core and curved working parts. Core part is made in the form of elliptical cylinder. Working part of each tooth is made in the form of elliptical cone with its base defined by core part of ellipse and its conical surface defining working side surface of tooth. Core and working parts of tooth have front and rear cutting edges extending along larger axes of ellipses. Mounting part of each tooth is disposed in harrow frame so that curvature of its working part and curvature of harrow advancement line are oriented in opposite directions. In case tooth working part is curved within the range of 15-30 deg relative to its vertical plane, thickness of cutting edges does not exceed 2 mm. Tooth core and working parts are made of equal length to facilitate effective crumbling of soil.
EFFECT: improved quality of soil owing to increased crumbling extent and substantially reduced damage to plants.
3 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, accumulation of moisture in soil including thaw water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing autumn plowing; leveling field surface and cutting furrows in plowing and subsurface soil layers so as to form staggered cavities, with space between end of previous cavity and beginning of subsequent cavity in row being 50-150 cm. Cavities are made 1.5-4 m long and are arranged at 5-50 cm depth. Cavities are provided by means of rotating working tool. Method allows yield to be increased by 10-15%.
EFFECT: increased amounts of moisture accumulated in soil and, accordingly, increased crop yield.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, sowing in erosion dangerous zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing furrows and sowing seeds therein, with following embedding of sown seeds by transferring soil from adjacent intermittent furrows; providing sowing transverse to slope so as to form soil roll above sown ridge, with intermittent furrows being also formed transverse to slope; simultaneously providing slots arranged vertically and axially of adjacent furrows along the entire length of furrow and in spacings intermediate thereof, with slot pitch being equal in size to that of spacing so that total volume of furrows and slots be equal to average month precipitation in the given region minus average infiltration for the same period.
EFFECT: increased erosion resistance of soil on slopes.