Stand for tests on high-intensity shock effects of devices and equipment
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of the hammer, the hammer suspension, the swiveling frame, the bed plate, the fixing device, the anvil for equipment mounting, the recording sensors. At the same time, the anvil is made in the form of the rectangular replaceable metal panel, rigidly fixed to the stand bed plate by means of the threaded rods, while the replaceable metal panel is made with recesses of rectangular shape and the ribs between the recesses. Moreover, all ribs are the same, and the distance from the metal panel edge to which the shock effect is applied, up to the recesses is at least 2 times larger, than the longitudinal size of the recess, but not less than 2 times smaller, than the distance up to the opposite relative to the shock effect place of the metal panel end. In this case, the natural frequencies of the ribs lateral vibrations do not coincide with the frequencies of the plate longitudinal vibrations before and after the recesses, and the rods axes, providing the fastening of the replaceable metal panel to the bed plate, passing through the recesses and do not coincide with the ribs, besides, the vibration gasket is installed between the replaceable metal panel and the bed plate.
EFFECT: accuracy and stability improvement of the shock effect playback, that is given by the acceleration spectrum.
11 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: prior to analysing hydraulic drive components to be tested, first, character of vibration signals is defined for those picked up at sound units composed of new and repaired units to compose the data base ranked by types and brands of said units (N new and M repaired units). For this transducers secured at tested object structure are used to register and to process the amplitude-frequency spectrum in rated-mode operation. Ideal unit frequency spectrum oscillation signal amplitude will be calculated with due allowance for amplitudes of new and repaired units in a narrow band of frequencies and for their quantity. Therefore, definite-type ideal unit frequency spectrum is created in data base from spectra of sound units and defined are zones of oscillation control corresponding to various conditions of the units. In testing, measured spectra of analysed object and ideal object are compared to conclude on availability of absence of faults.
EFFECT: expanded range of diagnostics, possibility of diagnostics in closed housing with no access to assembly units and parts, higher accuracy.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in implementing the method, a mathematical model of the structure is created, the adequacy of fluctuations of the real structure and its model is determined, the energy parameter for each of the elements of the structure in selected points is determined, and the change in the energy parameter of the structure is determined. At current values of change in energy parameter, different from a single value within a predetermined threshold value, the absence in the relevant registration points of the stress-deformed states is estimated, in excess of the value of change in the energy parameter of the predetermined threshold, followed by continuous growth of the value, the conclusion is made on the presence of stress-deformed states of the controlled object at such point.
EFFECT: increase in the operation speed and accuracy of determining the stress-deformed state of the controlled object, the ability of use of the method in the construction of automated systems of monitoring of engineering structures of buildings, enhanced functional capabilities, extension of the scope of application.
5 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: equipment testing.
SUBSTANCE: stand comprises a base on which there are additional plates with vibration isolated devices fixed on them, and the recording equipment. At that on the base the aircraft equipment is mounted, including two identical on-board compressors for compressed air on board of the aircraft, at that one compressor is mounted on regular rubber vibration isolators, and the other compressor is mounted on the test dual-mass system of vibration isolation. This system comprises rubber vibration isolators and an elastic-damping intermediate plate with vibration isolators, for example in the form of plates made of polyurethane. The latter, as well as regular rubber vibration isolators of the compressor are mounted on a rigid partition which is mounted through the vibration-damping pad on the base, and on the rigid partition between the compressors the vibration sensor is fixed, which signal is fed to an amplifier and the recording equipment, for example an octave spectrometer operating in the frequency band. Then the amplitude-frequency characteristics are compared, obtained from the operation of each of the compressors, and the conclusions are made on effectiveness of vibration isolation of each system on which they are mounted.
EFFECT: expanding the technological capabilities if testing objects having multiple elastic connections with housing parts of flying object.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: test engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to test engineering. The method is implemented as follows. The test product is affected with harmonic vibration reproduced on a shaking table, and which is equivalent to the shock effects arising from the transportation of the product. The parameters of impulse force of harmonic vibration Ihv are determined preliminary by calculations, the determining of impulse force is carried out throughout the frequency range of 5-60 Hz. Then, the received pulses Ihv ≥ Ii are compared, where Ii is impulse force of equivalent impact, with the proximity of the impulse forces, at that the frequency of vibration exposure, at which the impulse force of harmonic vibration Ihv, close to the average value of impulse force of impact, was obtained, corresponding to the condition Ihv ≥ Ii, is taken as the frequency at which the test for transportation is carried out.
EFFECT: ability to replace the test for transportation with the harmonic vibration tests.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to test of columns for central and non-central compression, and also truss web elements of large-sized industrial and civil structures. The method of upgrade of two-column universal test machine with hydraulic and mechanical drives and the base, fixedly anchored in the basement on which a fixed U-shaped frame comprising a pair of parallel columns the pier caps of which are joined by a spreader bar with a hydraulic pulsator, and also having a frame movable in vertical direction and assembled from the top bearing spreader bar and suspended to it on a pair of screw rods of the bottom spreader bars of the movable frame moved along the vertical line by a worm drive. The hydraulic pulsator is dismantled, the central through hole in the spreader bar is released, the movable spreader bar of the movable frame is dismantled, and screw rods of the movable frame are attached with flange nuts to the spreader bar of the fixed frame. The hydraulic pulsator housing is mounted fixedly at the centre on the machine basement, its plunger is fitted with a spherical hinge, from the control panel the worm drive is started, the design mark is corrected and fixed by height of the top bearing spreader bars of the movable frame. The boundaries of tests of columns are expanded by height up to 5…6 m, the pier cap of the tested column is fitted with the spherical hinge, the column is pulled up, passing it through the released hole in the spreader bar of the fixed frame, the spherical hinge of the pier cap is rested in the centre in the top bearing spreader bar at the design mark.
EFFECT: decrease of labour input of tests of large-sized models of columns, improvement of accuracy of tests in the operating laboratories of universities and institutes.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the testing equipment used during strength testing (in particular strength testing of electronic PCBs during manufacturing). Device contains power framework including fasteners for electronic PCB installation and support poles on which the pressing mechanism, metering probe and indicator are secured. The power frameworks is made out of four support poles connected by rods along the perimeter, at that to two opposite rods cross-bars are secured with installed fasteners for electronic PCBs with possibility of PCBs movement along the parallel rods and cross-bars. Above PCB of the support poles a conductor is installed made out of the ring with top and bottom meshes, in mesh cells indentors are installed till rest against PCB surface. Above the conductor in the support poles the press mechanism is installed, it contains crosspiece with plate, and metering probe and indicator are secured in the suspended assembly on the cross-bars under PCB. Number of points for the indentors installation is determined as per equations.
EFFECT: designing of simple loading device for mechanical testing of the electronic PCBs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to inspection technology and may be used in engineering structures equipped with systems of continuous seismometric monitoring. The method includes the following stages: preliminary examination of an engineering structure by the method of standing waves, detection of shapes of internal oscillations of the engineering structure, identification of nodes and antinodes of internal oscillations of the engineering structure, installation of three-component seismi sensors, performance of continuous seismometric monitoring of the engineering structure. At the same time three-component seismic sensors are installed in areas corresponding to areas of antinodes of engineering structure internal oscillations shapes. The device comprises three-component seismic sensors that perform continuous seismic monitoring of the engineering structure. At the same time the sensors are installed in areas corresponding to areas of antinodes of engineering structure internal oscillations shapes.
EFFECT: increased validity of determination of parameters of seismic effects at an engineering structure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, and namely to automated monitoring systems of a technical state of structures of a building or a facility during its operation. Control of changes of a stress-and-strain state of the building and the facility is performed by calculation of correlation coefficients in matrixes of groups of closely connected sensors (association groups) above recesses in a sliding time window. Reduction of an average value of a determination coefficient of sensor relative to determination coefficients of the rest sensors of the group indicates a defect of the corresponding sensor (drift, stumbling, fixation), and reduction of average values of determination coefficients of several sensors relative to determination coefficients of the rest sensors of the association group is an indicator of change of the stress-and-strain state of the corresponding structural members of an object and initiates a procedure of detail investigations. An analysis of readings of sensors is performed in space of correlation characteristics (determination coefficients) that level (ignore) such large-scale defects in settings of sensors as spread of initial values and scale coefficients.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of a system, its reliability and enlargement of a calibration interval of sensors.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to vibration equipment, namely to vibration generation devices. A device includes a shaft, the main end-type rotor, an unbalanced rotor, a base, jackets of guides, a spring-loaded platform, elastic elements and a rotor drive. The rotor drive is made in the form of an end-type stator.
EFFECT: enlargement of a dynamic range of vibrations to a low frequency range.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of experimental research of energy scattering characteristics and may be used in research of dynamic characteristics, strength and stability of structures and materials. During realisation of the method the width of resonant peaks is defined as a difference of two specific frequencies produced from crossing of resonant curves at an arbitrary height of a straight line parallel to the axis of frequencies. Further logarithmic decrements of oscillations are calculated by appropriate formulas.
EFFECT: simplified research process.
FIELD: determining strength of buildings and other building structures, namely dynamic strength thereof to define their stability under the risk of natural or man-caused hazards and to work out measures to eliminate structural and material defects.
SUBSTANCE: method involves initiating vibrations of object to be tested at natural frequency by seriously applying shock pulses of low amplitude to object; measuring oscillations by sensors installed on object; summing oscillation amplitudes and determining dynamic characteristics of above object on the base of measured parameters of summary oscillations; experimental determining of surface strength value and/or bulk strength and/or reinforcing parameters of structure components and/or settlement and/or object displacement and/or tilt thereof and/or basement depth and/or surface or bulk strength of object basement and/or natural oscillation period for ground under object and/or around thereof determined from at least the first oscillation tone and/or logarithmic decrement of oscillation damping and/or subterranean water level. Oscillations are performed by impact device in at least one direction selected from directions parallel to object spatial location axes along length, width and height thereof. Natural oscillation periods determined from at least the first tone and/or logarithmic decrement of oscillation damping sensed by at least one sensor located on object and spaced maximum distance from point of oscillation application along line of oscillation propagation in above direction are compared with normalized values of above parameters defined for particular object structure and materials. If difference between measured and normalized parameters is more than metering error sensor is moved towards point of oscillation application along line of oscillation propagation in above direction up to obtaining minimal measured values of natural oscillation period. Part of object structure defined by area with maximum value of natural oscillation period and area with minimum value of natural oscillation period are experimentally investigated to expose all structure defects. Change of object acceleration along at least one spatial axis for at least one oscillation frequency value is experimentally calculated and all experimental values are taken as initial ones to perform comparison with that obtained from theoretical models calculated for a given object structure and materials to determine building and structure stability by expert judgment method. If building is erected in seismically hazardous zone relation between natural oscillation period and/or logarithmic decrement of oscillation damping in ground and object structure are taken into consideration. System for building stability determination comprises impact device assembly, electrical clock pulse generation unit, converting unit to convert oscillations into electric signal, analog-to-digital converter unit to convert electric signal; digital memory unit and control unit for digital memory unit, data input unit to input experimental and/or calculated values of surface and/or bulk strength and reinforcing parameters of structure components and/or settlement and/or object displacement and/or tilt thereof and/or basement depth and/or surface or bulk strength of object basement and/or natural oscillation period for ground under object and/or around thereof determined from at least the first oscillation tone and or subterranean water level, comparator unit to compare experimental data with normalized ones calculated for given structures and materials, composition of the ground under structure and/or near thereof and data reproduction unit. All above components are linked one to another and to another operative system units by control buses.
EFFECT: increased accuracy due to taking into consideration all factors acting upon parameter to be determined.
19 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording signals from measuring units mounted at the sites of structure to be tested and comparing the signals with reference signals. The device comprises measuring units, transducers, connecting lines, and controller.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of testing.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: bench comprises base provided with spring unit for vertical compression, mating ring for securing an object to be tested, and device for measuring inertia overloads of the object. The bench is provided with movable platform mounted at a given level with respect to the spring unit, guiding pillars secured to the base, carriages, which are secured to the movable platform and provide vertical movement of the movable platform along the guiding pillars, device for locking the movable platform with respect to the guiding pillars, balancing weight, and damping device mounted on the movable platform from below from the side of the spring unit. The mating ring for locking the object is set on the movable platform from above and is provided with devices for adjusting its slope and displacement in the plane with respect to the movable platform.
EFFECT: improved design.
1 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording characteristics of deformation of road structure when vehicles come through. The characteristics of deformation are recorded with the use of vibration pickups which are mounted on the surface of different members of the road structure: road covering, soil substrate, soil-geological bulk and are oriented in vertical, transverse, and longitudinal directions with respect to the road. The characteristics are stored in a computer and are processed with the Fourier transformation to obtain amplitude-frequency characteristics.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of testing.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of quality control of materials and manufacture goods for assessment of resistibility of rails to destruction due to contact weariness.
SUBSTANCE: contact weariness is induced by high-frequency dynamic components of interaction of wheels and rails, which become apparent at moving at high speed. The mode of testing railway rails on contact weariness is in that tested samples of rail steel are rolled by pinch rolls in longitudinal direction until appearance on the surface of the sample of dents and also deep indents. As samples test rails are used. The diameter of a pinch roll is chosen under condition of equality of reduction ratio of linear size of the site of contact of the pinch roll with the rail along the axis of the last in comparison with corresponding size responsible to conditions of exploitation and speed reduction ratio of rolling motion of the pinch roll along exploited rail.
EFFECT: the invention allows to increase reliability of test rails' control at danger of resulting defects from contact weariness caused by contribution of high frequency components in dynamic interaction of wheels and rails which becomes apparent at the moving of trains at high speed.
FIELD: construction, particularly working measures on existing buildings.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separating building structure into zones along structure height, wherein each zone includes 3-5 stories; arranging permanent three-component vibration detectors at the border of each zone; applying dynamic load, for instance inelastic impact in the form of wide-band impulse with frequency range covering natural oscillations range of building structure zone to be detected, to building structure; sequentially determining oscillations in three points, namely in point near dynamic load application and at upper and lower borders of the zone; determining transfer functions for each zone to be inspected as ratio of power distributions of simultaneously recorded signals in two points, namely in point of recording dynamic load response in the form of impulse passing through the zone and in dynamic load application point.
EFFECT: possibility to determine exact building structure part in which deflected mode is changed to inspect the structure and to make a decision on further usage or reconstruction thereof.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of metal working by cutting.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of identification of a technological system is in that that on the input of the technological system's input polyharmonic stimulant influence is given, changes of an amplitude and of the frequency of the output signal are registered and as regards of the amplitude of the output signal to the amplitude of the input signal of corresponding frequencies form and coefficients of the dynamic model are determined. At that polyharmonic stimulant influence is formed by the profile of a half-finished product. At that the height and the quantity of slots of the half-finished product are determined according to mathematical expressions.
EFFECT: acceleration of the process of identification.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: construction is subject to loading step by step at increase in amplitude of influence. Reaction of construction is registered at check points and relations of load are built depending on reaction of construction to load. Construction is loaded step by step as by means of low level harmonic vibration and by means of shock influence generated by devices of the same class and with same maximal amplitude as devices used among tested items. Common frequency range is selected for shock and vibration influence. Transmission functions for amplitude spectra are determined by harmonic vibration and for shock spectra by shock influence. Factors of relations of transmission functions are calculated for received shock and amplitude spectra and in case if those factors decline from 1 for value being higher than error admitted during test, non-linearity frequency ranges are reported in the construction.
EFFECT: improved precision.
FIELD: the proposed mode and the arrangement are designed for definition of the forms of surface vibrations.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement for definition of the forms of surface vibrations has a source of light, an investigated surface with an indicator, a recorder, a source of vibrations. Such arrangement has a matrix of photoreceivers, a matrix of electronic keys, an analogue-digital transformer, a block of controlling the keys. At that the beam of light reflected from the investigated surface is optically connected with the matrix of the photoreceivers which outputs are successively connected through the first inputs of the matrix of the electronic keys , the analogue-digital transformer is connected with the input of the recorder and the outputs of the block of controlling are connected with the second matrixes of the electronic keys. At that the source of vibrations has a kinematics connection with the investigated surface.
EFFECT: expands the field of application.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technology for controlling vibration characteristics of technical devices.
SUBSTANCE: characteristics of vibration field are measured or controlled by means of indicators or oscillations exciting means, rigidly connected to working surface of executive tool. In accordance to given values of oscillation movement parameters and spent power of vibration platforms, by means of mathematical calculations position of oscillation node points is determined, positioned, depending of physical properties of executive tool, on its surface or outside this surface, but rigidly connected thereto, wherein total value of any characteristic parameter of vibration field: amplitude, frequency, kinematic characteristics of linear or angular oscillations - are equal to zero. Relatively to oscillations nodes values of vibration characteristics are determined in given surface points of researched object. By altering power for realization of oscillations, position of oscillations node is altered, and therefore vibration characteristic in given point on surface of researched object as well. By setting value of vibration characteristic in given point of field, knowing position of oscillations node, required value of spent power is determined.
EFFECT: production of precise value of vibration field characteristics and control over their values.