Method for measuring object's magnetic moments
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: measurements of the difference of signals between two pairs of magnetometres, mounted at opposite, symmetrically located points relative to the object's coordinate center, are carried out. According to the results of measuring the difference of the similar components of the magnetic fields and the known coordinates of the magnetometres position relative to the object's center, the components of the multipole magnetic moments are determined. Using the system of contours located around the object, the conditions for finding the object in any latitudinal zone are simulated and the required magnetic moments of the induced and remanent magnetization in this area are determined.
EFFECT: increased noise immunity and accuracy of measuring components of object's multipole magnetic moments.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: for determination of magnetic mass of railcars first the calibration with allowance for ambient temperature is performed, and the bulk density of cargo in railcars is determined. A sequence of delivery of railcars and their amount, initial time of delivery to the zone of measurements and leaving the zone of measurements. Then the changes of parameters of a coil current, instantaneous values of voltage and current in a coil, speed of movement of railcars, railcar height, load level, temperature are determined, and instant values of quality-factor and inductance of the coil are evaluated. Then using these results the integrated inductance and quality-factor of a railcar and magnetic mass of a railcar are determined. For implementation of the method the system is offered which comprises the devices for determination of quality-factor and inductance 1, devices for temperature measurement 2, ultrasonic level sensor for a railcar 4, photo-electric position sensors of a railcar 5, optical speed sensors 6, video camera 7, volumetric density sensors 8, and also the processing and control unit 9.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of determination of magnetic mass of railcars and other containers.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, represents a method to measure magnetic properties and thickness of nanosize magnetic films and may be used in magnetic nanoelectronis to characterise heterogenic magnetic elements in memory devices, in sensor devices, etc. In realisation of the method the film with the help of an inductive system of open type is magnetised in alternating field in presence of direct field, they measure even high harmonics, arising as a result of symmetry loss by direct field, and for analysis they use the ratio of their amplitudes.
EFFECT: increased functional flexibility of the method, also its applicability for in situ characterisation of magnetic films, and expanded range of its application, in particular, to characterise nanosize film structures.
SUBSTANCE: use: to determine magnetisation of saturation of a magnetic fluid. The substance of the invention consists in the fact that fluid is placed into the outer magnetic field, induction of which may be varied, they measure intensity H and induction B of the magnetic field inside the fluid, and they determine magnetisation of fluid M=(B/µo)-H, at the same time they determine magnetisation M=M1 at B=B1 at the initial section of the magnetisation curve, where the Curie law is met, they determine magnetisation M=M2 at higher induction B=B2 at the section of the magnetisation curve, where the Curie law is not met, from the equation (M2B1/M1B2)=3La(ξ2)/ξ2 they find the Langevin function La(ξ2), then determine Msat=M2/La(ξ2).
EFFECT: provision of possibility to determine magnetisation of saturation of magnetic fluid by two values of magnetisation in a weak field.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: attached electromagnet to a coercive force meter comprises a U-shaped magnetic conductor, cores 1 of which are connected with a magnetic conducting link 2. In the body of the magnetic conducting link 2 there is a sensitive element 4 fixed by a composite material 3, for instance, a Hall sensor, the axis of sensitivity of which is arranged axially to the magnetic flux of the link. On cores 1 there are magnetisation 5 and demagnetisation 6 coils are installed, connected to elements of the measurement circuit 7. Installation of the sensitive element in the magnetic conducting link with the axis of sensitivity axially to the magnetic flux and application of magnetic conducting composite makes it possible to concentrate and evenly distribute the magnetic flux from the controlled item in the magnetic conducting link.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity of an attached electromagnet, increased accuracy of demagnetisation current measurement, coercive force and mechanical properties of a controlled item.
SUBSTANCE: device for research of magnetic properties of magnetics additionally includes: a HF coil L3 with coupling loops Lc1 and Lc2, besides, L3 is included into a DRS between the coil L1 and coil L2 of a subsequent circuit, and also the second low frequency filter LFF 2, an amplifier-limiter with additional amplifiers ω at its inlet and its outlet, a pre-amplifier of a signal 2ω, the second shaper of a reference signal 2ω (RSS2), and a diode shaper of a reference signal is inductively connected with the coil L3 of DRS via the coupling coil Lc1, besides, the outlet of the second shaper RSS2 via a switch, HFF 2 and Lc2 is also connected to the coupling L3, and the inlet RSS2 is connected to the outlet of the amplifier-limiter, to the inlet of which a signal ω is sent from the coupling coil Lc2 of the coil L3 via the LFF-2, and the phase of the signal is connected to the phase of the harmonic field at the sample, and a pre-amplifier 2ω is connected between the HFF-1 and the receiver 2ω, in which the LF part is replaced with a stable DC amplifier. All contacts between elements within a DRS are soldered.
EFFECT: higher sensitivity of research of magnetic nanoparticles and complex magnetics that test phase transitions or phase separation resulting in coexistence of several magnetic phases.
SUBSTANCE: pressure force arising between two ferromagnetic samples, between which a piezoelectric sensor connected by its outputs to a piezoelectric emf metre is placed, is measured. The ferromagnetic samples are entered into a magnetic gap with a saturating magnetic field with entry speed V, the value of which is matched with the constant of relaxation of magnetic viscosity τ of the ferromagnetic material and length L of the magnetic gap with the saturating magnetic field according to the expression V=L/eτ, and the size l of the ferromagnetic samples in their direction of movement in the magnetic gap with the saturating magnetic field is selected to be many times smaller than the size L of that magnetic gap.
EFFECT: wider range of means of measuring dynamics of magnetising ferromagnetic material.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, the method for determining the weight of ferromagnetic material involves one spiral-type coil and at least one screw-type coil as electric coils; inductance of screw-type coil is measured and total surface area of cross section Se of ferromagnetic material is determined; after that, weight of ferromagnetic material is determined as per known formulae. Device used for implementation of the above method includes a measurement module, a container with ferromagnetic material and electric coils located at a certain angle and related to an inductance metre transmitting a signal to a computing complex that computes and displays the weight of ferromagnetic material.
EFFECT: invention allows detecting availability of ferromagnetic material and determining its weight out of total volume of non-homogeneous material.
4 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has a rotating ferromagnetic ring and a resolving processor. The ring consists of the investigated ferromagnetic material and part of it is placed in the magnetic gap of an electromagnet. Input and output magnetic sensors are placed on edges of the magnetic gap of the electromagnet in the direction of rotation of the ferromagnetic ring. The magnetic sensors include inductance coils connected to corresponding first and second variable capacitors. Oscillatory circuits formed by the coils and the capacitors are part of first and second high-frequency generators.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring magnetic viscosity and broader functional capabilities of the device.
SUBSTANCE: device has a ferromagnetic ring made from the investigated ferromagnetic material, an oscillating circuit coil and a Hall sensor. The ring is placed between poles of an electromagnet connected to a controlled direct current source. The coil is made on the ferromagnetic ring and is connected to a high-frequency generator. The Hall sensor is placed in the magnetic gap of the electromagnet. The high-frequency generator is connected to a frequency metre and the Hall sensor is connected to the input of a magnetic field strength metre.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring the magnetisation curve of a ferromagnetic material in a wide range of magnetic field strength variation.
SUBSTANCE: secondary ferrite meter device (2), in addition to the existing converter 3, further includes a converter 5 of a signal proportional to SFF to a signal proportional to temperature, the unknown equivalent temperature. The ferrite meter is also provided with conversion parameter setters 6-9.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring equivalent operating temperature of the outer surface of steam superheating tubes made from austenitic steel for a shutdown boiler.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: cylindrical conductor with radius of r and specific conductivity of δ is connected to secondary winding of step-down transformer through reference resistor. Primary winding of step-down transformer is connected with ac generator with f frequency. Longitudinal resistance Z of tested cylindrical conductor is measured at 1-meter length section. Magnetic conductivity μ is determined from the relation of μ=(Z²r²υ)/(2f10‾7).
EFFECT: reduced labor-intensity due to measurement of conductor's resistance.
SUBSTANCE: device has magnetic system, pipe, made of non-magnetic material, portion of which is placed in magnetic field between end pieces of magnetic system, radio-frequency coil, electronic signals processing block, pressure sensor and temperature sensor, while portion of pipe which is positioned in magnetic field between poles of magnetic system, made with such a diameter, where conditions for realization of nuclear magnetic resonance are realized, i.e. relative change of magnetic induction in any direction within that volume does not exceed 10-3, radio-frequency coil, positioned between Faraday screens and connected to electronic signals processing block, is positioned coaxially inside central pipe portion in such a way that axes of inter-polar space of magnetic system and radiofrequency coil were positioned perpendicularly to each other, while center of coil constructively is positioned in the center of inter-polar space of magnetic system.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher efficiency, simplified construction, lesser dimensions and weight.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises re-magnetizing winding made of two sections spaced at a distance equal to their radii. The winding comprises the additional compensating winding that is connected with the controllable DC power source and provided with a mechanism for control of magnetic axis. The measuring winding is wound on two frames arranged within the length of the specimen to be tested. The windings are connected with the input of the second amplifier. The magnetic axes of the windings are parallel. The voltage controller and the source of reference power have indicators of the amplitude of the re-magnetizing field and value of the field of remagnetization.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measuring.
FIELD: engineering of magnetic-force scanning probing microscopes, possible use for measuring local magnetic characteristics of a sample with nanometer resolution in external magnetic field.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, magnetic-force microscope with variable magnet contains control block, probe indicator holder with probe indicator and sample holder, mounted with possible mutual movement, and also variable magnet, including measuring duct with polar end pieces. At least one polar end piece is spatially separated from magnetic duct. In accordance to one variant of invention realization, spatially separated polar end piece is built into sample holder, while another polar end piece is mounted so, that probe indicator is positioned between polar end pieces. In accordance to another variant, both polar end pieces are built into sample holder, while both polar end pieces are spatially separated from magnetic duct.
EFFECT: increased resolution of magnetic-force scanning probing microscope with variable magnet.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining magnitude and angle of longitudinal resistance to conductor Z under study. The magnetic permeability is determined from relation μ=(Z2r2σ/2f10-7)e-j*2(45-φ).
EFFECT: high accuracy of measurement.
FIELD: magnetic measurements.
SUBSTANCE: structurescopy method can be used for investigation of physical properties of materials as well as of their structure and composition. Method is based upon detection of crystalline nano-phase in amorphous array of nano-crystalline material; for the purpose parameters of Barkhauzen' jumps are used. Method concludes in re-magnetization of checked material by variable magnetic field, in registration of Barkhauzen's jumps, on measurement of their parameters and in judgment on structure of material on base of characteristics of the parameters. Checked material is re-magnetized locally by variable magnetic field with frequency of 10 kHz. Oscillogram of envelope of flow of Barkhauzen's jumps is taken as measured parameter received from primary converter. Shape of oscillogram is used to judge on presence of crystalline nano-phase in amorphous array of nano-crystalline material. According to preferable version of manufacture, local re-magnetization is carried out by attached primary converter.
EFFECT: improved reliability of measurement of parameters.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physical-chemical research of solid, liquid and gaseous samples of materials.
SUBSTANCE: device for detecting and measuring magnetic penetrability μor relative magnetic penetrability μr, or relative magnetic susceptibility (μr-1) of sample contains sample chamber and at least two inductance coils, where aforementioned two coils surround aforementioned chamber for samples, and aforementioned chamber for samples has at least one aperture for insertion of sample or vessel for samples which contains a sample, where aforementioned device is also provided with an electric circuit, which measures the difference in inductance between two coils.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity of detector.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: processes for heat treatment of cast iron parts with spheroidal graphite.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of testing initial structure by means of coercive force meter and selecting heat treatment modes on base of testing results. Parts are subjected to austenization at 880 - 930°C; interim cooling of parts in furnace till temperature in range Ar3 - Ar1 ; cooling at rate 5 -10°C per minute till temperature in range between temperature of starting A - P conversion and temperature exceeding by 50°C maximum-stability of temperature of austenite being converted to upper bainite or troostite. Then part is subjected to isothermal soaking at such temperature till maximally possible degree of A - P conversion. After cooling structure is inspected by means of coercive force meter for detecting tendency of pearlite and tempered bainite to changes at further nitriding. Depending upon inspection results tempering mode is selected and after such tempering final testing of structure by means of coercive force meter is realized according to index values of scale developed on base of investigating relationship of readings of coercive force meter from initial structure and its changes at nitriding process and also from growth and warping of parts at nitriding.
EFFECT: possibility for producing stable structure resistant against changes at nitriding process.
2 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: non-destructive testing.
SUBSTANCE: coil inductance is measured together with cylindrical samples having the length ls five times more than their diameter ds(Lc.s. ). then the samples are removed from the coil and the coil inductance is measured in the ambient air (Lc.a.), the magnetic permeability of chosen zone material μs= Lc.s./ Lc.a. is determined; the sample electrical Rs resistance is measured and its material conductivity σ is calculated by formula σs=4ls/πRs(ds)2 at that beforehand the transducer is affixed to the particular zone, the inductance of the transducer with the part Lp is measured and using the value of transducer ambient air inductance La the conditional part magnetic permeability in chosen zone is calculated by formula μp.c..=Lp/La then the correction coefficient is calculated by formula Kμ=μs /μp.c.. After that transducer is affixed to the zones of remaining i parts of the lot and Lpi is measured; then the zone conditional part magnetic permeability of every i-th part of the lot μp.c.i =Lp.i/La is calculated and magnetic permeability μp.i = μp.c.i.Kμ is determined. In addition in the chosen zone of entire parts on the base equal to ls and on a frequency of ωs.=l/π(ds)2μs σs the electrical resistance Rp is measured in the layer with thickness ds; the conditional specific conductivity of the particular zone.
EFFECT: SUBSTANCE: σc=ls/2Rp(ds)2 and the correction coefficient Kσ=σs/ σc are calculated For the remaining parts of the lot as well as for parts used in the articles in the same zones on the base ls and on the same frequency of ωs the Rpi is measured and σci is calculated, then the zone specific conductivity of every i-th part is determined by formula σip=Kσσci.
EFFECT: development of the effective express method of magnetic permeability and non-destructive testing of specific conductivity in parts particular zones.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to measurement of alternating magnetic values and magnetic properties of samples and products and can be used for determining coercive force of ferromagnetic materials. The add-on device of the coersimeter consists of a magnetising element and a magnetometric unit with magnetic field measuring device. The magnetising element is autonomous, rigid or hinged to the magnetometric unit. The device is made with provision for displacement relative the controlled product in the direction from the magnetometric unit to the magnetising element.
EFFECT: wider functional capabilities of the device; lowering of its power consumption; increased efficiency of control and documentation of the measuring results.
15 cl, 9 dwg