Sorbent for cleaning water environments from ions of arsenic and method of its production
SUBSTANCE: sorbent for clearing of water environments from an arsenic is offered. The sorbent contains 98-99 wt % of iron nanoparticles and starch. To produce the sorbent, ferric sulphate and starch are dissolved in water to form a complex of iron ions with starch, nitrogen is passed through the solution, the iron-containing complex is reduced by borohydride to obtain iron nanoparticles. Further, centrifugation, washing of the precipitate with ethanol and drying are carried out.
EFFECT: sorbent possesses high adsorption activity in relation to arsenic ions.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to biology and medicine, and can be used in clinical practice for therapy of diseases related to lipid storage disease and disorders of lipoprotein metabolism. What is presented is a sorbent for removal lipoproteins (LDLP) from human plasma and blood, which contains a non-woven microfiber matrix of polypropylene and polyacrylic acid covalently bond to a matrix surface. The sorbent is produced by photo-induced graft polymerisation of acrylic acid on the surface of the sorbent matrix. The sorbent matrix is processed with a photoinitiator solution in a volatile solvent and air-dried. The sorbent matrix is then immersed into an aqueous solution of acrylic acid, removed from a solution of acrylic acid, laid on a flat substrate, coated with an ultraviolet-transparent plate from above and exposed to ultraviolet through this plate. The produced sorbent has the high sorptive capacity and LDLP selectivity.
EFFECT: method is easy to implement and cost-effective.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of analytic chemistry. Carrier is modified with organosilicon compound, containing -SH or -NH2 group, is processed with colloid gold solution. After that, sulphur-containing organic compound is covalently fixed on the surface of gold nanoparticles.
EFFECT: claimed is method of obtaining separation material, containing silicon dioxide-based carrier and gold nanoparticles.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of water purification. Method includes interaction of metal aluminium with hydrochloric acid solution, further introduction of additive into mixture and mixture exposure of with obtaining polymerisation product. Activated carbon with particle size 100-10000 nm is introduced into mixture as additive in amount 9-12 kg/ton. Polymerisation product contains polyaluminiumhydrochloride with polymerisation degree about 70% and index of basicity 5/6. Method of water purification with obtained means is realised in apparatus, which contains mixer, flocculator and flotator.
EFFECT: claimed is method of obtaining means for water purification based on chloroaluminium-containing coagulant.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves boron industry waste (borogypsum) processing with the waste containing calcium sulphate dehydrate and amorphous silica. The waste is processed by means of a stoichiometric amount of potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide in a solid-to-liquid ratio 1:(19-20).
EFFECT: producing the high-capacity sorbent in relation to heavy metal ions.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes coprecipitation at pH 8.9 of magnesium and aluminium hydroxides taken in molar ratio of 4:1, moulding the precipitate and granulating by drying. Successive modification with polyhexamethylene guanidine and 1,8-dioxynaphthalene-3,6-disulphonic acid is then carried out.
EFFECT: increased selectivity of the sorbent.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of producing a sorbent, which includes mixing sodium salt-preactivated bentonite clay and crushed paraffin. Mixing is carried out at 60-70°C for 20 minutes. Particles with size of 2-5 mm are moulded from the mixture. Moulding is carried out while stirring the mass with an anchor mixer rotating at 50-60 rpm.
EFFECT: low cost of the sorbent while preserving quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining ferromagnetic carbon sorbents, intended for water purification. Cellulose-containing raw material is impregnated with water solution of iron salt, moisture excess is separated and obtained mixture is subjected to pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is carried out in pyrolysis chamber at 400-500°C, realising a series of successive 0.1-1.0 s long heat impulses with 10 s interval between impulses. Mixture heating is realised by means of nichrome rods, connected with electric generator and placed in the volume of pyrolysis chamber with separation of chamber into locally heated cells.
EFFECT: invention provides reduction of energy consumption, time for the process realisation and its cheapening.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process of production of magnetic sorbents. The sorbent comprises humic acids as a polymeric binder and a magnetic filler comprising magnetite. The size of magnetite particles is 7-30 nm. The magnetite:humic acid ratio is from 1:4 to 4:1. The efficiency of aquatic environment decontamination by introducing the sorbent depends on the nature of contaminants and amounts to 97-100%.
EFFECT: product possesses magnetic properties and high sorption capacity.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of a sorbent for equipment for protecting respiratory organs. The method of producing a sorbent includes mixing powdered calcium hydroxide or oxide with water with weight ratio Ca2+/H2O of (0.70.3)/1 and adding a calculated amount of potassium orthophosphate having density of 1.41±0.05 g/cm3. The orthophosphate solution is prepared with molar ratio KOH/K2HPO4, of (0.9-1.1)/1, or molar ratio KOH/KH2PO4 of (1.9-2.1)/1. The obtained mixture is stirred, held and moulded. The granules are dried to residual moisture content of 16-21 wt %.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a sorbent having a high chemisorption rate, high dynamic capacity for carbon dioxide and mechanical strength.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sorbents for chromatographic separation of fullerenes. Sandwiched nanotubes are subjected to heat treatment at 800-1000°C and mixed with disperse Teflon. Said step are performed in the medium of nitrogen or inert gas.
EFFECT: simplified production of efficient sorbent.
2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes processing of water, which contains bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium and iron hydroxide, with sorbent in form of fibrillated cellulose fibres, which contains, in wt %: not less than 90% fibres with length not longer than 0.47 mm and not less than 50% fibres with length not longer than 0.12 mm, with sulphuric acid with formation of dispersion, which is then processed with carbonate and hydroxide of sodium. Obtained composite material is removed from dispersion by method of pressure flotation with obtaining softened purified water.
EFFECT: softening and deironing of water in water supply systems.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed is sorbent, which consists of two components: thermally processed at 250-300°C sunflower husk sunflower and aluminium oxidecontaining waste product of ceramic production.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective purification of sewages from heavy metal ions.
SUBSTANCE: sorbent contains peat and a hydrophobising agent. Peat represents a residue from peat hydrolysis with hydrogen peroxide and ammonia, representing waste of the production of the plant growth stimulator from peat. Peat is preliminarily dried, separated, and dispersed. After that, a homogenous distribution of the hydrophobising agent on peat is realised. The obtained mixture of peat with the hydrophobiser is dried and supplied to sifting with obtaining the final product in the form of powder with the particle size of 0.5-5 mm.
EFFECT: sorbent is ecologically pure and possesses high characteristics of capacity, hydrophobicity, buoyancy, the time of saturation with oil to a limit value.
9 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection technology and chemistry of organosilicon compounds and can be used in purifying contaminated ground water, bottom sediments and soil by establishing reaction barriers. Disclosed is a method of producing a humic derivative by reaction of a humic substance with aminoalkoxysilane in an aqueous medium, followed by distillation of the aqueous solvent and heating the obtained substance at 120-150°C. The invention also discloses the humic derivative obtained using said method and versions of uses thereof. The obtained coating is resistant to possible changes in acid-base or redox ambient conditions, which prevents the possible release of associated ecotoxicants.
EFFECT: present method enables to obtain humic silanol derivatives capable of strong sorption on mineral hydroxyl-containing solid surfaces, which can be used in both dissolved and immobilised form.
13 cl, 10 dwg, 7 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: carboxyl group carrier used is hydrolysed lignin with moisture content of 0-30% with particle size of 1-2 mm.
EFFECT: use of the disclosed sorbent enables to localise toxic rocket fuel at spill sites owing to rapid binding of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine with the sorbent without forming toxic by-products, and also enables to recycle hydrolysis wastes using lignin as a sorbent.
SUBSTANCE: method of removing endotoxins from aqueous solutions is carried out by passing a solution through a chitosan-modified zeolite, which is further successively treated with copper sulphate and potassium ferrocyanide solutions.
EFFECT: high efficiency of treatment.
1 dwg, 3 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: humic substance is sorbed on the surface of dispersed particles of loamy minerals at pH 3-8. Humic-loamy complex contains 0.5-20 % of humic substance or derivatives thereof that makes 0.3-10% in terms of organic carbon and features wetting angles of 30-90 degrees. Application of proposed stabiliser for cleaning the water area surface contaminated with oil or its products involves its application of oil film as suspension or powder to make oil emulsion in water. Oil drops negative buoyancy makes them slowly immerse to bottom to be decomposed at fast rate owing to increased contact surface with aboriginal microorganisms - oil destructors.
EFFECT: cleaning without evacuation, accumulation and disposal.
19 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining sorbents from agricultural wastes. Claimed is method of obtaining carbon sorbent from sunflower husk. Husk is subjected to drying at temperature 115-125°C for 4-6 hours, carbonisation at temperature 400-500°C for 35-45 minutes and cooling to 55-65°C.
EFFECT: invention provides high output of sorbent and improvement of its quality.
1 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental conservation technologies, cutting-edge agricultural technologies and chemistry of organosilicon compounds and can be used to restore the structure of disturbed soils by stabilising water-stable aggregate. In particular, the present invention employs water-soluble humic silanol derivatives that are modified in a special way to endow them with the capacity to be irreversibly sorbed on surfaces of mineral particles and other hydroxyl-containing carriers. Humic derivatives are added to the degraded soil in form of aqueous solutions.
EFFECT: method for use in agricultural technologies includes using humic derivatives as structure-forming agents (soil ameliorants) by via attachment thereof to the surface of soil aggregates in order to endow the latter with water-stable properties.
8 cl, 11 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of industrial waste water or recycling water with weakly alkaline reaction of heavy metal ions through conversion thereof into partially water-soluble compounds whose mobility in natural media is strongly limited, and specifically to production of reagents for treating said water based on peat. The method involves crushing and grinding peat, diluting the ground peat with water, mechanically activating the obtained mixture by adding an alkali solution, subjecting to intense mechanical action and neutralising the obtained reagent with an acid. The reagent is produced using peat with natural moisture content, crushing and grinding of which is carried out while mixing said peat with water. Alkaline extraction and activation are carried out simultaneously by directly adding alkali to the activator, and the obtained product is treated with oxalic acid until full neutralisation of the obtained reagent. The water used to dilute the mixture, acid and alkali is not heated. The disclosed technique of producing the reagent is easy to implement, does not require large capital investments and is completely wasteless.
EFFECT: reagent is effective in removing heavy metals from industrial water.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: biohybrid composite material for sorption and degradation of crude oil and petroleum products is proposed. The material is a thermoplastic polymer with fibre-forming properties - acrylonitrile copolymer with methyl acrylate. It comprises incorporated phosphorus-containing cationites and/or nitrogen-containing anionites, the cell walls of aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (Lemnaceae) and immobilized cells of bacteria-oil destructors.
EFFECT: composite material has high adsorption capacity and a higher degree of biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.