Advanced coal gasification

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: gasifier for producing synthesis gas comprises an upper gasification zone in a fluidized bed, which has inlets to allow the introduction of materials selected from the group consisting of carbon, fine carbon particles of greater than 75 micrometers and less than 10 mm in size, gas and steam in fluid communication through a venturi nozzle with the lower gasification zone in co-current which has inlets to allow the introduction of materials selected from the group consisting of coal, fine coal particles of less than 75 micrometers in size, gas and steam.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of gasification, lower costs.

16 cl, 1 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the chemical industry. To obtain synthesis-gas from biomass by carbonisation, preliminary drying and dehydration of the initial biomass are carried out. After that, low-temperature carbonisation is performed at atmospheric pressure and isolation from oxygen at a temperature in a carbonisation furnace of 200-400C, rate of the temperature growth 5-20C/min and the time of the initial biomass keeping of 20-90 min. Products in the form of pyrolytic gas and charcoal are obtained. Charcoal is cooled at an outlet from the carbonisation furnace to a temperature of 60-280C and transported to a storage tank. Pyrolytic gas is separated from powder-like charcoal. A part of separated pyrolytic gas is supplied into a combustion layer for burning, and the other part is heated by hot smoke gas, formed in the process of burning in the combustion layer. Heated pyrolytic gas is supplied into the carbonisation furnace as a heat source. Discharged hot smoke gas after heat exchange is supplied into a zone of preliminary processing of the initial biomass for drying. Separated powder-like charcoal is supplied into the storage tank. Powder-like charcoal is milled with obtaining a suspension, which is introduced into the furnace for gasification by a high-pressure pump.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase gasification efficiency, stability and reliability of the system for obtaining synthesis-gas from biomass.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid fuel gasification. A gaseous product containing CO, H2, CH4 is obtained from biomass in an apparatus 1. The apparatus 1 has a reactor 2 which is bounded by a base 5 and reactor walls. The reactor walls have a peripheral wall 10 and a top wall 11. The reactor 2 has an inlet hole 18 for feeding the biomass, a rising pipe 24 for chemical conversion of the biomass to the gaseous product. The rising pipe 24 has an upper end 28 and a lower end 26, as well as an outlet hole 44 for releasing the gaseous product. The rising pipe 24 is attached to the reactor wall 10. The base 5 of the reactor 2 consists of two lower sections 7 and 8. The lower end 26 of the rising pipe 24 lies above the lower section 8 of the base and is at such a distance from the lower section of the base 5 that it can freely move in the longitudinal direction as a result of thermal expansion.

EFFECT: invention reduces damage to the rising pipe as a result of thermal expansion.

16 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes a gasifying step for gasifying solid biomass (2) in a gasifier (6) to obtain raw synthetic gas (3). Further, conditioning of the raw synthetic gas (3) to purify the raw synthetic gas (3) to obtain purified synthetic gas (4) having a molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide between 2.5:1 and 0.5:1; one of the conditioning steps is catalytic treatment in a reformer (18). Further, using the purified raw synthetic gas (4) for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a Fischer-Tropsch reactor (5) to obtain a liquid hydrocarbon product (1). The invention also relates to apparatus for realising the present method.

EFFECT: present invention provides a novel method and apparatus for producing liquid biofuel from solid biomass.

37 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in chemical industry. Proposed fluid bed reactor 300 comprises reaction vessel 302 with first wall part and second wall part, first heat transfer module 310 connected to vessel 302. First heat transfer module 310 comprises first pulse furnace 312 connected to first acoustic chamber 311 with first and second faces. First pulse furnace 312 comprises, at least, one exhaust pipe 314 terminating in first acoustic chamber 311 between first and second faces, and multiple heat transfer pipes 326. Every said heat transfer pipes 326 stays in fluid contact with acoustic chamber 311 via said wall part. Combustion products from exhaust pipe 314 along first channel of every heat transfer pipe from first wall part and, then, along second channel toward wall first part. Resonance tube of first pulse furnace 312 does not extend inside reaction vessel 302.

EFFECT: efficient conversion of carbides into gas.

20 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: system includes coal gas generator 2, high-temperature separator 3, heat exchanger 5, low-temperature separator 4 and heat recovery steam generator 6, which are connected in series. Coal gas generator 2 is equipped with primary air inlet 21 and at least one secondary air inlet 22 to supply high-temperature gasifying agent to gas generator 2. Gas generator 2 is also equipped with inlet 23 for circulating coal. Primary air inlet 21 and primary air inlet 22 are connected to heat exchanger 5. Inlet 23 for circulating coal is connected to high-temperature separator 3, low-temperature separator 4 and heat exchanger 5. System can include venturi scrubber 7 connected to HRSG 6, gas cleaning column 8 connected to venturi scrubber 7. At that, sedimentation tank 9 is arranged at the bottom of gas cleaning column 8, and slag removal device 11 is located at the bottom of sedimentation tank 9. Cooling tower 10 is arranged between cooling water inlet and cooling water outlet on gas cleaning column 8.

EFFECT: system has low coal consumption level, high calorific capacity, high efficiency and low cost.

15 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: boiling layer is created from coke particles in the grid 11, which is supplied from fuel supply facility 10. Coal is sent to gasification chamber 5, where it is coked with coke gases exhaust. Part of gasification products is discharged through nozzle 14 to consumer, and remaining products are supplied to the top part of layer for afterburning. Air is supplied to boiling layer in burning zone along pipes 9, which are welded into pipe plate 6. Pipes 8, which are welded into pipe plate 7, serve for collection of technological gas supplied to consumer from horizontal section of reactor. To provide proper mixing of some gasification products with supplied air, inhibiting visors 18 are fixed to pipes of secondary air 9 supply.

EFFECT: provision of complete auto-thermicity of the process, reduction of gasification products consumption, increase of plant efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: pyrolysis and gasification of solid organic agents or mixtures of organic agents.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introduction of raw materials in one or several drying and pyrolysis reactors with one or several reactors with movable bed or one or several rotating reactors or one or several rotating reactors and reactors with movable bed for contact with material of fluidized combustion bed containing only ash of organic agent or unburnt carbon residues of organic agents and additional material of fluidized bed for contact with material of fluidized bed and reactor wall of fluidized combustion bed. As a result, water vapor and pyrolysis products containing condensable components and solid carbon residues are formed. Solid carbon residues or solid carbon residues and part of water vapor and pyrolysis gas with condensable components and material of fluidized bed are returned to fluidized combustion layer where carbon reside of organic components is burnt. Material of fluidized bed is heated and is again directed to pyrolysis reactor where pyrolysis residues performing function of stationary fluidized bed are burnt. After drying, water vapor and pyrolysis gases with condensable components are subjected to treatment in additional reaction zones of indirect heat exchanger at addition of vapor, oxygen and air or their mixture to pyrolysis gas or to heat exchanger in order to obtain gaseous product at high calorific power. Device proposed for realization of this method includes pyrolysis reactor, fluidized combustion bead for pyrolysis residue and reaction zone for pyrolysis gases.

EFFECT: increased calorific power.

15 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

The invention relates to the gasification furnace for gasification of fuels, including coal, municipal waste, and so on, and to the gasification system, which uses such a gasification furnace

The invention relates to a thermochemical reactor with indirect heating and to methods for conducting thermochemical reactions, including gasification and steam reforming of heavy oils and toxic organic substances, regeneration of black liquor and energy use and conversion of renewable resources such as biomass and energoresursa waste streams

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the chemical industry. To obtain synthesis-gas from biomass by carbonisation, preliminary drying and dehydration of the initial biomass are carried out. After that, low-temperature carbonisation is performed at atmospheric pressure and isolation from oxygen at a temperature in a carbonisation furnace of 200-400C, rate of the temperature growth 5-20C/min and the time of the initial biomass keeping of 20-90 min. Products in the form of pyrolytic gas and charcoal are obtained. Charcoal is cooled at an outlet from the carbonisation furnace to a temperature of 60-280C and transported to a storage tank. Pyrolytic gas is separated from powder-like charcoal. A part of separated pyrolytic gas is supplied into a combustion layer for burning, and the other part is heated by hot smoke gas, formed in the process of burning in the combustion layer. Heated pyrolytic gas is supplied into the carbonisation furnace as a heat source. Discharged hot smoke gas after heat exchange is supplied into a zone of preliminary processing of the initial biomass for drying. Separated powder-like charcoal is supplied into the storage tank. Powder-like charcoal is milled with obtaining a suspension, which is introduced into the furnace for gasification by a high-pressure pump.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase gasification efficiency, stability and reliability of the system for obtaining synthesis-gas from biomass.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: dust coal and high-temperature gasifying agent are fed into a coal gas generator to obtain coal gas. Heat exchange takes place between coal gas coming out of the coal gas generator and the gasifying agent to obtain a high-temperature gasifying agent. After heat exchange between the coal gas and the gasifying agent, heat exchange takes place between coal gas and water to obtain steam. The obtained steam is a component of the gasifying agent. Dust coal is separated and fed back into the coal gas generator. After heat exchange with water and further removal of dust and desulphuration, coal gas is output.

EFFECT: invention enables to lower coal consumption and increase heat value of the produced coal gas.

10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: solid fuel gasification.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processes for production of combustible gases from solid carbon-containing fuel, in particular to gasification of lump and granulated fuel, and can find use in chemical industry and heat-and-power engineering. In the process according to invention, solid fuel (peat, brown coal, or wood) is heated to temperature not higher than 150°C in presence of metal oxide (iron and aluminum oxides) catalyst under blow conditions, which blow is carried out with overheated steam at 150 to 400°C.

EFFECT: increased degree of solid fuel conversion, raised combustion heat of resulting gas, reduced temperature, and reduced production cost.

3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: pyrolysis and gasification of solid organic agents or mixtures of organic agents.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introduction of raw materials in one or several drying and pyrolysis reactors with one or several reactors with movable bed or one or several rotating reactors or one or several rotating reactors and reactors with movable bed for contact with material of fluidized combustion bed containing only ash of organic agent or unburnt carbon residues of organic agents and additional material of fluidized bed for contact with material of fluidized bed and reactor wall of fluidized combustion bed. As a result, water vapor and pyrolysis products containing condensable components and solid carbon residues are formed. Solid carbon residues or solid carbon residues and part of water vapor and pyrolysis gas with condensable components and material of fluidized bed are returned to fluidized combustion layer where carbon reside of organic components is burnt. Material of fluidized bed is heated and is again directed to pyrolysis reactor where pyrolysis residues performing function of stationary fluidized bed are burnt. After drying, water vapor and pyrolysis gases with condensable components are subjected to treatment in additional reaction zones of indirect heat exchanger at addition of vapor, oxygen and air or their mixture to pyrolysis gas or to heat exchanger in order to obtain gaseous product at high calorific power. Device proposed for realization of this method includes pyrolysis reactor, fluidized combustion bead for pyrolysis residue and reaction zone for pyrolysis gases.

EFFECT: increased calorific power.

15 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

The invention relates to the gasification furnace for gasification of fuels, including coal, municipal waste, and so on, and to the gasification system, which uses such a gasification furnace

The invention relates to a thermal decomposition of various solid carbonaceous materials: solid fuels (brown coal, shale, lignite, peat), solid household and industrial waste (lignin, paper, wood, polymeric materials) using solid heat carrier (ash fuel, lime, river sand) in order to obtain a high-calorie gas mixture, which is used as energy fuel or as a source of valuable chemical products through further processing, energy (high temperature flue gases) for use in steam boilers or waste heat boilers and obtain a solid product for use as building materials or adsorbents for the purification of oil-contaminated wastewater

The invention relates to a device for thermal processing of solid fuels: peat, coal, wood, other hydrocarbon solids, and metal-containing materials

The invention relates to the field of chemical engineering and can be used to produce synthesis gas from solid fuels

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to generate electric power from feed stock containing carbon, specifically from coal and/or dry biomass. Method of power generating from feed stock containing carbon includes stage of dry feed stock gasification in the gasification reactor by gas flow mainly containing CO2, at high temperature with generation of the first gas flow mainly containing molecules of carbon monoxide; oxidation in oxidating reactor by oxygen carriers in oxidized condition (MeO) at high temperature with generation of the second gas flow containing CO2 and oxygen carriers in restored condition (Me); activation in activation reactor of the oxygen carriers in restored condition by the activation gas flow containing oxygen components, and with creation of the oxygen lean activation gas flow; and conversion of thermal energy part of the activation flow in the electric power.

EFFECT: invention generates electric power from biomass containing carbon, and creation of the valuable product of common energy to supply the electric power generating system, such as turbine alternator.

15 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for producing synthesis gas by combined gasification in a solid and fluid fuel ash flow. The above fuel is supplied separately into a coal gasification reactor through a number of burners; the burners have a combustion angle of more than 0 that reduces carbon formation and increases a degree of conversion. A solid fraction is supplied in a combination with an inert gas into the gasification reactor. The ash solid fuel contains at least partially fine coal particles produced by coal recovery and cannot be applicable for gasification in a fixed coal bed. The ash fluid fuel contains a residue of gasification in the fixed coal bed.

EFFECT: assisting the gasification with the combined use of the ash fluid residue of gasification in the fixed bed and small coal particles, which cannot be applicable for the gasification in a fixed coal bed, as well as minimising the carbon formation.

10 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

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