Method for nonchemical cleaning of saponite-containing water and compaction of saponite-containing sediment
SUBSTANCE: in order to carry out the method, the contaminated saponite-containing water from the source of its formation (1) through a pulp pump station (3) and pulp line (4) is discharged to the offshore part (I) of the tailing dump (9) along the entire inner perimeter. A number of floating acoustic modules with emitters (14) are installed in the peripheral part (II) of the tailing dump (9) adjacent on the inner part to the k (I) and hydroacoustic signals of the sound and ultrasonic frequency range are generated and emitted, and continuous emission of signals of low sound frequency range is generated. The hydroacoustic signals of the sound and ultrasonic frequency ranges are formed with an acoustic pressure amplitude of at least 102 Pa at a distance of 1m from the hydroacoustic radiator, they impact on saponite-containing water for degassing, hydroacoustic coagulation of saponite-containing slime particles, and compaction of the saponite-containing sediment. The formation, amplification and emission of continuous hydroacoustic signals of a low sound frequency range are carried out in the frequency range from tens of Hz to units of kHz, with an acoustic pressure amplitude of at least 103 Pa at a distance of 1m from the hydroacoustic radiator and impact on the saponite-containing sediment. During the freeze-up period, an acoustically compacted saponite-containing sediment is raised to the ice surface and laid on the ice in the non-working offshore part of the tailing dump. In the summer period, the saponite-containing sediment is thawed with separation into a finally compacted saponite-containing sediment and clarified saponite-containing water with its subsequent use in the technological process.
EFFECT: method provides a quick and qualitative separation of the saponite-containing tails of the concentrating plant into two phases, the compaction of the obtained saponite-containing sediment and the body of the waterproof dam, the clarification of large volumes of saponite-containing water, and the increased environmental safety of the tailing dump operation.
8 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of natural waters containing pollutants for drinking and processing purposes. This process comprises degassing-aeration processes, chemical and biological oxidation of organic and inorganic matters in aerobiofilter and contact filtration through floating bed in separate filter combined with aerobiofilter by hydro automatic flushing system. Aeration and degassing are performed by low-pressure vacuum-jet ejection or injection and jet spraying in water-air medium. Chemical-biological oxidation of organic matters is carried out in combined floating granular-fibrous bed in partially unsubmerged state and partially submerged state at initial stage of operation. Additionally, water is coagulated and flocculated by feed of reagents to different points of flushing water bellow, over its height. Clarification-sorption process of deep afterpurification is conducted as well as decontamination by filtration in upflow through granular bed and coal-silvered cartridges. These are fitted at floating bed top ply to double as purified water collection and discharge system to force water to clean water tank for uniform distribution of the filter area at bed flushing conditions.
EFFECT: deeper treatment of natural waters.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for biological cleaning of industrial effluents. Effluents are mixed to separate solid suspensions in sand trap. Obtained effluents are neutralized in two steps by lime milk at calcium oxide concentration therein making at least 100 g/dm3. At first step, lime milk is added to the flow of effluents at flow rate of 5-20 m3/h and mixed by mechanical mixer and bubbler for 1.0-1.5 h. At second step, neutralisation is performed in settler at lime milk flow rate of 0.1-5.0 m3/h. After neutralisation, effluents are processed with aqueous solution of Praestol flocculating agent at feed rate of 2.2-6 m3/h and flocculating agent-to-effluents ratio of 1:(95-110). Suspensions are directed to settler and divided into purified effluents and sludge. Said sludge from settling step is mixed during 1.2-1.5 h with that of neutralisation step and that of processing with Praestol flocculating agent at its weight ratio of 0.5-0.8 wt % and sludge-to-Praestol ratio of (10-20):1. Produced mix is subjected to separation of centrifugation into filtrate and solid residue to be used as a protective material at sites of solid industrial and household wastes, dumps and pits.
EFFECT: better cleaning
7 cl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes homogenising waste water, mixing with a solution of an aluminium-containing coagulant, correcting pH, pressure floatation while saturating the waste water with air and removing floatation sludge. Correction of pH is carried out while homogenising the waste water to a value not lower than 10.5 by adding a 4% suspension of slaked lime in the presence of ethanolamine borate in amount of 4.0-6.0 mg/l. The aluminium-containing coagulant used is 10% aqueous aluminium chlorohydrate in amount of 10.0-20.0 mg/l. Before pressure floatation, 0.2% aqueous flocculant solution and ethanolamine borate are added to the mixture in amount of 15.0-25.0 and 3.0-5.0 mg/l, respectively. Saturation of the waste water with air during floatation is carried out by forced supply under a pressure of 0.11-0.25 MPa purified recycled effluent after treatment thereof with an ultrasonic field with frequency of 25-35 KHz with simultaneous supply of compressed air.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the purification process, reduces purification time and broadens technological capabilities of the method.
6 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method includes homogenising waste water, correcting pH to a value not lower than 10.5, mixing with aluminium sulphate solution and a flocculant solution with concentration of 0.1-0.2 wt %. The method includes pressure floatation by feeding into the waste water 40-60 m3/h of a purified recycled effluent at pressure of 0.11-0.25 MPa while simultaneously feeding compressed air and removing floatation sludge. Before feeding into the waste water, the purified recycled effluent is treated with an ultrasonic field with frequency of 25-35 kHz. Correction of pH is carried out by adding to the waste water a suspension of slaked lime or sodium hydroxide or sodium carbonate solution. Flocculant consumption is equal to 30-40 mg/l. The flocculant used is high-molecular weight cationic flocculants. Ultrasonic field treatment is carried out using a water-gas ejector with a jet-edge generator while feeding compressed air into the ejector at a pressure of 0.25-0.45 MPa.
EFFECT: simple purification process, reducing time for purification from ions of nonferrous and heavy metals, suspended substances, oils and fats to 16-20 min while maintaining given purification efficiency.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied for purification of surface sewages and oil-polluted industrial discharges. To realise method purified water is preliminarily processed with flocculant with hydrophorbising properties. Then water successively passes stages of sedimentation of sand and large particles, fine mechanic purification from suspended substances, sorption of free and emulsified oil products, additional sorption of soluble oil products on sorbent with fixed microflora. Preliminary introduction of flocculant with hydrophorbising properties reduces load on sorbent, which makes it possible to reduce its volume. Stage of fine mechanic purification is carried out in layer of charge, which consists by 25-35% of the total charge height, made from cylindrical rings with diameter 10-40 mm with ratio of length to diameter (1-2):1, filled in bulk. Additional sorption of soluble oil products is carried out on sorbent with fixed microflora with supply of air oxygen. Dose of flocclulant with hydrophobilising properties constitutes 0.5-2.5 mg per 1 l of processed sewages. Supply of air oxygen is realised with consumption of 1-5 volumes of air per 1 volume of sorbent. Supply of air contributes to more effective regeneration of sorbent with fixed microflora, which makes it possible to prolong term of its service.
EFFECT: method ensures removal of suspended particles in compressed sediment of smaller volume due to reduction of its humidity.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for reagentless purification and disinfection of water comprises two hydraulic cyclones 20, 21, a reactor tank 1 with an air-stripping tower 2, in the top part of which there are two ejectors 3, 4, mixing chambers of which are directed towards each other. Over the mixing chambers there is a cupola-shaped reflection shield 5, over which there is a filter cartridge 8. The reactor tank 1 is divided by two vertical perforated partition walls 9, 10 into two compartments. The first compartment 12 of the reactor tank 1 contains a settling tank 15 linked to a drainage system. The second compartment 13 of the reactor tank 1 is equipped with upper 17 and lower 18 water level sensors. The outlet of the reactor tank 1 is connected to the feed line of the water to be treated and a pipe for feeding water to the consumer. The hydraulic cyclones 20, 21 are connected to the feed line of the water to be treated and the drainage system, and through mesh filters 22, 23 to inlets of receiving chambers of the ejectors 3, 4.
EFFECT: invention increases the water/air contact area and provides further dispersion, cavitation, agitation, aeration and degassing of the treated water.
9 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment plants. Proposed BBC plant comprises prefiltering unit 1, primary cleaning unit 2, decontamination unit and control unit. Additionally, this plant comprises water accumulator connected with prefiltering unit and water feed unit connected with primary cleaning unit and decontamination unit. Said primary cleaning unit 2 is composed by nanofiltration and hyperfiltration devices.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of filtration.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in technology of performing Fischer-Tropsch reaction in industry. Method of purification of water flow, output after Fischer-Tropsch reaction, includes processing with inorganic base, with pKa higher or equal 6.5, and its supply into evaporator; two output flows are obtained p flow of vapour from head part of evaporator and water flow from lower part of evaporator. Flow of vapour is condensed, and water flow is supplied into distillation column. Organic base with pKa higher or equal 7, is added into water flow, output from head part of column, with combination of it with water flow, obtained after vapour flow condensation. Obtained combined water flow is supplied into saturator, into which technologic gas is supplied. Formed gaseous flow, output from head part of saturator, is supplied into installation for obtaining synthesis-gas.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to use, at least, part of flow, output after Fischer-Tropsch reaction, as technologic water in installation for obtaining synthesis-gas, further supplied into Fischer-Tropsch installation for obtaining hydrocarbons.
23 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in technology of artificial soil production, which is applied in road-transport construction, as manure for roadside landscaping, forestation, revegetation of polygons of solid household wastes and polygons of industrial wastes, for biological revegetation of disturbed lands. To realise the method changing of initial sewage sediment humidity is carried out. Sampling of suspension of sewage water sediment from sludge accumulator is carried out. Suspension of sampled sediment is pumped via pipeline with simultaneous determination of content of dry substance in it in unit of sediment preparation, where dilution of suspension with its further disinfection, sedimentation of ions of heavy metals and neutralisation of unpleasant smells are carried out.
EFFECT: method ensures possibility of utilisation of considerable volume of public utility sewage sediment in its transportation via technological line.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of waste water containing organic contaminants in industry, agriculture and household conditions. The waste water treatment method involves treatment of the initial waste water with a coagulant and flocculant, separation thereof into sludge and clarified waste water. Further, the clarified waste water is treated with nanostructured boehmite until achieving a given degree of purity of the clarified waste water and then separated into purified waste water and a solid residue. The solid residue, which contains contaminated nanostructured boehmite, is collected and regenerated, while undergoing supercritical aqueous oxidation. The regenerated nanostructured boehmite is collected for subsequent recycling.
EFFECT: method enables recycling of treated waste water and nanostructured boehmite.
SUBSTANCE: claimed is method and deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters. Deammonifying installation for purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters contains aeration tank and hydrocyclone for separation of sludge from aeration tank into relatively heavy fraction, which includes bacteria, performing anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and relatively light fraction. Hydrocyclone contain input, connected with aeration tank, for return of separated relatively heavy fraction into aeration tank and upper output, connected with aeration tank, for discharge of separated relatively light fraction from hydrocyclone. Hydrocyclone contains cylindrical segment and conic segment. Surface of internal walls of conic segment is rough on certain parts. Rough surface of internal walls of conic segment has higher degree of roughness than surface of internal walls of cylindrical segment. Method of purification of ammonium-containing sewage waters is realised in deammonifying installation.
EFFECT: simplification of ammonium and nitrite conversion into elementary nitrogen.
33 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and environmental protection. For cleaning filtering system is erected and used on soil slope surfaces. Filtering system is composed of the slope soil top layer processed with aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte complex. The latter comprises the mix of hydrolysed polyarcylonitrile and polyethylene polyamine at the ratio of 1:3.5-1:4.5, wt %. Processed soil sorption capacity saturated, said soil is removed and disposed or recovered.
EFFECT: simplified cleaning, higher erosion resistance of run-off surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. Mixed coagulant from mineral raw material is obtained by dissolution of boehmite-kaolinite bauxide in autoclave with hydrochloric acid with concentration 220 g/l with ratio S:L=1:6 for 1-3 hours in interval of temperatures 150-180°C.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase coagulation ability of mixed coagulant - hydrooxichloride of aluminium and iron with concentration by Al2O3 2,32-6,87 and by Fe2O3 0,94-1,02 wt %, in water purification: by turbidity and colour.
2 dwg, 6 tbl
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: vacuum deaerator contains a branch pipe for supply of chemically purified deaerated water to the distributing header, the first jet plate fitted with a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet, the second jet plate having a finned overflow edge and a punched steam discharge sheet. Fins of overflow edges of the first and second jet plates are made rectangular at an angle 30-60° to vertical line with inclination towards drain from overflow edges of flows of the deaerated water, the cross-flow plate with cross-flow and overflow edges, three punched pipelines for supply of heating water to the cross-flow plate, the bubbling sheet with overflow edge, the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least, two pipelines for discharge of non-evaporated heating water to the inlet of the bubbling sheet, the partition blocking discharge of non-evaporated heating water into the flow of deaerated water drained from the bubbling sheet, passing through the bubbling sheet at least two L-shaped boxes of heating vapour cross-flow, installed evenly along the deaerator housing in the space between the overflow edge of the bubbling sheet and the punched pipeline for supply of heating water under the bubbling sheet, at least one branch pipe for discharge of vented steam and one branch pipe for discharge of deaerated water.
EFFECT: increase of overall performance of the vacuum deaerator.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of pressure test of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and can be used for degassing the working fluid in technical devices using in their constructive solutions the flowing hydraulic tanks of open type. The method comprises degassing the working fluid on the grid in the flowing hydraulic tanks, imparting the grid of low-frequency transverse vibration, and at the inlet of the grid by bubbling the gas liquid layer is created with a high-frequency pulsating low-intensity pressure. The flowing hydraulic tank of open type (1) comprises a lid (2), partitions (3, 4), a grid (5), the pipes of discharge (6) and intake (15) of the working fluid, a drain (7), intermediate (18), intake (14) cavities and involves the installation of a grid (5) on the elastic supports (8). Below the grid (5) on the side of the flow outlet into the cavity (18) a pneumatic dynamic vibrator (9) is mounted with the modulated phase of gas oscillation, the outlet nozzle (10) of which is mounted on the grid (5).
EFFECT: invention provides increased efficiency of degassing fluid, the degassing process intensification, which enables to improve and expand the indices of quality of electro-hydraulic-mechanical systems and their components.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a polymer obtained via condensation polymerisation. The polymer is obtained from at least two monomers: acrylic monomer and alkylamine. Said polymer is modified such that it contains a dithiocarbamate salt group capable of cleaning one or more compositions containing one or more metals. The polymer has molecular weight of 500-200000.
EFFECT: obtaining polymers for various media as means of purification from metals, including waste water systems.
13 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to production of desalinated water and can be used for obtaining drinking water from sea and salt waters. Extraction of water from saline solution is carried out with application of selective solvent, containing carboxylic acid, which has carbon chain from 6 to 13 carbon atoms long. In order to realise the method saline solution emulsion in selective solvent is prepared, selective solvent is heated before and after contact with saline solution to obtain first phase, which includes selective solvent and water from saline solution, dissolved in selective solvent, and second phase, including highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution. After that, first phase is separated from second phase, first phase, including selective solvent and dissolved water, is extracted from highly-concentrated remaining part of saline solution or highly-concentrated remaining part is extracted from saline solution from first phase. First phase is cooled after extraction to precipitate water from selective solvent and precipitated water is removed from selective solvent.
EFFECT: invention provides obtaining almost pure fresh water.
19 cl, 15 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for desalting of sea, hard and/or contaminated water by direct osmosis desalting. To this end, contaminated feed solution with water at first osmosis pressure is forced through semi-permeable diaphragm to discharge side that has the flow of carrier solution with second osmosis pressure on discharge side of semi-permeable diaphragm. Diluted discharge solution is heated to agglomerate discharged diluted substance to two-phase flow containing liquid phase of agglomerated dissolved substance and liquid water phase. Then, agglomerated dissolved substance is separated to get enriched flow to be cooled to obtain cooled single-phase water-rich flow to be subjected to removal of residual dissolved substance to produce purified water.
EFFECT: higher quality and desalting and purification.
23 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of purification of phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk includes preliminary desiliconisation of phenol-containing sewage waters by their processing with hydrochloric acid with precipitation of solid and separation from solution of silicon-containing product and electrochemical oxidation in presence of chloride ions in electrolytic cell with application of direct current. Process of electrochemical oxidation is carried out with concentration of chloride ions 0.10-0.11 mol/l in non-diaphragm electrolytic cell with application of ruthenium-titanium oxide anode and titanium cathode for 70-90 min with current density 100-150 mA/cm2 with constant mixing. Required concentration of chloride ions is provided by dilution with water of phenol-containing sewage waters after their desiliconisation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase degree of purification of polydisperse concentrated phenol-containing sewage waters of alkali-hydrolysis processing of rice husk from phenol and other organic pollutants.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a flotation device, a frame, a hydraulic drive. On the frame the longitudinal rods are pivotally mounted, and on their cantilever portion the linkage for attachment of the drum is mounted with the ability of movement in a vertical plane. The drum is mounted with the ability of replacement of the drum holder, at that the drum is rotated by the hydraulic motor through the belt drive in the direction opposite of the flotation device movement.
EFFECT: improvement of quality of the implementation of the technological process of cleaning the water reservoirs from blue-green algae and reduction of energy intensity.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for pretreatment of drinking water, for treating recycled, industrial and domestic waste water. The method is realised via treatment in a first settling tank by periodic and successive generation of travelling hydroacoustic waves in the audible and ultrasonic frequency ranges, in a second settling tank - by periodic generation of standing hydroacoustic waves in the audible frequency range, in an acoustic hydrocyclone in a revolving hydraulic stream under excess static pressure, irradiation with intense hydroacoustic waves in the audible frequency range at an automatically tuned frequency corresponding to the resonance frequency molecules of pure water of 12.4 kHz. The acoustic hydrocyclone used is a magnetoacoustic hydrocyclone. Further, the treated water is exposed to a low-frequency electromagnetic field at frequency of 24.8 kHz, which is intensely rotated opposite the movement of the hydrodynamic stream of water and the treated water is also irradiated with UV light. Colloidal particles, heavy metals and oil products are removed by further mixing the treated water with an aluminium oxychloride reagent solution. The wet residue is collected, sorted and dried, and safe and hazardous residues are separately packed for subsequent transportation, treatment and recycling.
EFFECT: method provides quality treatment of large amounts of water with complete environmental safety.
11 dwg, 1 ex