Method for quantitative estimation of violations of right ventricle myocardium perfusion based on data of one-photon-emission computer tomography
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to quantify the violations of right ventricular (RV) myocardial perfusion according to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is performed, and the ratio of the intensity radiopharmaceutical (RP) accumulation by the right and left ventricle (LV) is measured. At the same time, RV outflow is performed semi-automatically using the "restriction" and "masking" modes to obtain quantitative polar RV perfusion maps in addition to similar LV maps. Quantitative parameters of RV perfusion abnormalities are defined similar to LV, including data on absolute statistics of the account in each RV segment. Then the RV/LV(s) coefficient is calculated using the quantitative polar map data: RV/LV(s)=CmaxRV/CmaxLV, where Cmax RV, LV is the maximum value of the number of pulses in segments related to the RV and the LV, respectively. For RV/LV(s) values <0.3 the RV condition is interpreted as normal, the values of 0.3<RV/LV(s)<0.5 are interpreted as boundary values, RV/LV(s) values >0.5 are interpreted as signs of RV overload and hypertrophy.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity, accuracy of quantification and diagnosis of violations of right ventricular myocardium perfusion, characterized by easy reproducibility and operational independence.
4 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: water-soluble iodine-containing contrast substance is introduced to a patient intravenously, computer tomography is carried out, after which the point measurement of densitometric indices is carried out before and after obstruction in each contrasted coronary artery (CA). If the density of the contrasted CA lumen before and after obstruction at least in one of them differs by more than 80 HU, the degree of injury is considered to be haemodynamically significant, and surgical treatment is indicated to the patient.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to estimate the functional significance of CA stenosis in a single step and with high accuracy due to the integrated CT estimation of the coronary blood flow in the entire CA.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to computed tomographic scanner. Proposed device comprises: radiation source (2) and detector (6) to generate detection magnitudes depending on radiation conical beam (4). Unit (12) generates weights for combination of image voxels and detection magnitudes for weighing said detection magnitudes. Beam generator generates the radiation conical beam (4) so that for at least for a portion of magnitudes dispersion inversion of appropriate magnitude positively correlates with the mean values of weights of appropriate combinations of voxels. The latter correspond to appropriate magnitude of detection.
EFFECT: higher quality of reconstructed images.
13 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine, oncology and can be used for two-phase scanning in multispiral computed tomography while following up abdominal and retroperitoneal oncologic cases. A non-ionic contrast medium is administered in a general dose. The dose is administered by two successive boluses in ratio 2:1. A time interval of the two administrations is specified so as to provide forming a combined image of arterial and venous contrast enhancement phases within one scanning procedure.
EFFECT: method provides reducing a radiation dose considerably - by 50% as compared to the traditional two-phase scanning by only performing one scanning procedure.
3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: physics, computer engineering.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to generation of X-rays, and specifically to a method and a system for simulating dose reduction during X-ray imaging. A method of simulating dose reduction when collecting X-ray system data comprises a step of providing first X-ray information containing first noise, wherein the first X-ray information is collected with a first dose adjustment parameter, a step of providing a second dose adjustment parameter, a step of determining noise difference to obtain simulated second X-ray information collected with a second dose adjustment parameter, and a step of incorporating the noise difference into the first X-ray information to obtain simulated second X-ray information containing second noise. The noise difference is a local noise difference which depends on the local intensity distribution of the first X-ray information.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to optimise the signal-to-noise ratio without deterioration of image quality.
13 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to means of obtaining movement images, for instance, y means of positron-emission tomography. Method of detecting movement in the process of obtaining images by means of medical system contains stages at which subject's image is obtained in order to form data of obtaining images, which include time-of-flight data, time-of-flight data are controlled in the process of obtaining images, time-of-flight data are analysed to detect movement. Method of estimating respiratory movement in data of obtaining images contains stages at which subject's electrocardiogram is additionally obtained in the process of obtaining images and used to gating image data in order to form cardiosynchronised data, after which cardiosynchronised data are divided into time subintervals in order to obtain respiration-synchronised heart images, centre of activity is determined in respiration-synchronised heart images and centres of activity in different respiration-synchronised heart images are compared in order to form vectors of respiratory movement. In the second version of evaluation method electrocardiogram is used to divide data of obtaining images into cardiac cycles, centre of activity in cardiac cycles is determined and centres of activity in different cardiac cycles are compared in order to form vectors of respiratory movement.
EFFECT: application of invention makes it possible to reduce probability of errors in synchronisation of examination with respiratory movements.
15 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: performed are: introduction of a radio-opaque preparation in the blood stream and multispiral computer-tomographic MSCT - arteriography with single-step return multispiral computer-tomographic MSCT-portography. Selective catheterisation of the celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is carried out simultaneously, the first portion of the contrast preparation is introduced into SMA in a volume of 25.0-35.0 ml at a rate of 1-2 ml/sec under a pressure of 200 PSI. After 13-17 s the second portion of the contrast preparation is introduced into CT and SMA in a volume of 12.0-18.0 ml at a rate of 3-5 ml/sec under a pressure of 200 PSI. Scanning is realised in one phase 2-4 sec after the introduction of the second portion of the contrast preparation, direction of scanning is cranio-caudal or caudo-cranial, parameters of scanning are the following: thickness of the cut - 1.5 mm, speed of the tube rotation - 0.5 sec, 100-140 kV (kilovolt), 250-350 mA (milliamper). Tumour invasion of vessels is verified by the condition of vascular wall contours on the obtained images.
EFFECT: reliable determination of the vessel invasion by the tumour at a pre-operative stage, with good visualisation of both the external, and internal contours of the vascular wall simultaneously contrasted arterial and venous vessels, minimisation of the radiation exposure of the organism with the maximal self-descriptiveness, extension of the arsenal of diagnostics means in patients with tumours of the biliopancreatoduodenal zone.
SUBSTANCE: method involves the nasoenteric administration of 99mTc-pertechnetate into a small intestine at 1.0-14 MBq/kg diluted with normal saline to an amount of 20 ml. That is immediately followed by a dynamic scintigraphy by means of two-detector rotation gamma-chamber for 60 minutes with a gamma-chamber detection mounted above a projection of the intestine and liver. Following the examination results enables calculated an absorption coefficient of a radiopharmaceutical agent (K); thereafter the scintigraphy is continued in the mode of "The Whole Body", which provides a basis to determine a percentage of the radiopharmaceutical agent (A) absorbed from an intestinal lumen. If the absorption coefficient is less than 3 and the absorption is less than 50% from the administered radiopharmaceutical agent, the small intestinal malabsorption is stated. K is described by the scintigram forming the sharpest image of the liver and having an area of interest 100 pxls to be marked within a liver, which is followed by constructing an activity/time curve. K is calculated as a slope of the curve to a horizontal axis with using the first 4 minutes of the linear rise of the curve by formula: K=(y2-y1)/(t2-t1)×60, wherein K is the absorption coefficient, t1 and t2 are time distances, seconds; y1 is a pulse count within the time distance t1, y2 is a pulse count within the time distance t2. To calculate A, an area including the whole patient's body and an area covering the visualised enteric loops are marked on the scintigram. The calculation follows the formula: A=(n(b)-n(e))/n(e)×100%, wherein n(b) is the total pulse count recorded within the whole body; n(e) is the total pulse count recorded within the small intestine.
EFFECT: method provides the high information value of the examination ensured by the complex analysis of the enteric function parameters in the early postoperative period.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: computed tomography (CT) apparatus comprises a scanning tunnel, a fixed X-ray source placed around the scanning tunnel and having a plurality of focal spots which emit radiation and a plurality of fixed detector modules placed around the scanning tunnel opposite the X-ray source. One part of the modules from the plurality of detector modules is located in a first direction and the second part of the modules from the plurality of detector modules is located in a second direction, and the arrangement of said parts of the detector modules is L-shaped. The first direction forms a straight line by connecting the centre points of the radiation beam receiving surfaces of one part of the detector modules. The second direction forms a second straight line by connecting centre points of the radiation beam receiving surfaces of the other part of the detector modules, which cross at a certain point when viewed in a plane which crosses the scanning tunnel. The radiation beam receiving surfaces of one part of the detector modules are inclined relative to the first direction and face the X-ray source, and the radiation beam receiving surfaces of the other part of the detector modules are inclined relative to the second direction and face the X-ray source.
EFFECT: fixed CT apparatus without a gantry according to the invention has small dimensions and high data identification accuracy.
18 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: neurovisualisation examination of brain is carried out, Cirs comorbidity index and Kaplan-Feinstein comorbidity index are determined, cochleovestibular syndrome, eye-moving impairments, type of diabetes mellitus are identified. Value of discriminate function (D) is calculated. If D value is higher than zero, diagnosed are consequences of ischemic brain stroke (IBS) with hyperhomocysteinemia (HH), if D is lower than zero, consequences of IBS without HH are diagnosed.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase reliability of diagnostics of IBS consequences, which is achieved due to complex analysis of said parameters.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical equipment, namely to means for obtaining diagnostic information. Device contains unit for obtaining data of part of person's anatomical structure, planning unit, which specifies sequence of scanning stages with reference to spatial position and orientation of approximate anatomical structure, user's interface for setting parameters of image formation at selected stage of scanning. User's interface reflects for each stage of selected sequence of scanning stages preliminarily specified parameters of scanning, related to approximate anatomical structure, and is configured with possibility of user's selection of real parameters of image formation with reference to three-dimensional volume of real anatomical structure. Method of obtaining diagnostic information consists in device application.
EFFECT: device application makes it possible to facilitate planning for users.
12 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: medicine, cardiology.
SUBSTANCE: one should carry out multiplayer spiral computer tomography followed by reconstruction and analysis of pictures obtained during diastolic phase of cardiac cycle at trigger's shift for 5%, and at heart rate being above 70 beats/min - preliminary introduction of beta-blocking agents, moreover, to perform analysis one should apply pictures obtained in interval of 45-65% against the duration of cardiac cycle at delaying the trigger for 50% against the duration of cardiac cycle at heart rate being below 60 beats/min, at heart rate being 60-65 beats/min - for 55%, at heart rate being equal to 65-70 beats/min - for 60-65% and at heart rate being above 70 beats/min - for 45%, and at detecting narrowing and/or occlusion in the lumen of coronary arteries one should diagnose stenosis. Moreover, at heart rate being equal to 65-70 beats/min, one should delay the trigger for the trunk of left-handed coronary and left-handed anterior descending arteries for 65% against the duration of cardiac cycle, and for left-handed rounding and dextral coronary arteries - for 60%.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of diagnostics.
1 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: medicine, oncology.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with prediction due to double scanning by technique of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose and detecting the value of its accumulation in a focus, moreover, after the first scanning one should apply urinary catheter for a patient, and the second scanning should be fulfilled not earlier than 4 h after introduction of 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose and at increased standardized accumulation value of 18F-fluorodesoxyglucose in observed foci after the second scanning being by 10% higher against the results obtained after the first scanning one should diagnose malignant neoplasm.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of diagnostics.
6 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying spiral computer tomography followed by multi-planar three-dimensional reconstruction on pre- intra- and postoperative periods.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in planning, virtual modeling of operation volume and controlling treatment course.
FIELD: medicine, stereotaxic neurosurgery.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with treating cerebral glial neoplasms located in deep departments and functionally valuable cerebral areas. One should perform MRT and PET to determine the area for maximal tumor proliferation and carry out stereotaxic cryodestruction in this area and 2-3 mm beyond its limits. The method provides deterioration in tumor growth or its stoppage that enables to efficiently apply combined treatment and gives the chance for conducting therapy of tumors which traditionally are considered to be inoperable.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of therapy.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: medicine, radio diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: one should intravenously inject osteotropic technetium99-labelled radiopharmpreparation followed by planar static scintigraphy, emission computer tomography and computerized informational processing due to building a three-dimensional model. Then comes comparative quantitative evaluation for accumulation of radiopharmpreparation in transplant's projection and in the part of intact bony tissue being transplant-symmetrical one to detect a corresponding coefficient of accumulation the value of which being ≥4.0 indicates restored efficient perfusion and intensive metabolic process in fragment's bony tissue.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and efficiency of diagnostics.
FIELD: medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming X-ray radiation flow, letting pass it through filter transparent mainly for high power radiation spectrum portion of X-ray tube. The filter is mounted in front of volume under study. The X-ray radiation flow is directed to transducers for recording X-ray radiation quanta. Data are read from the transducers and image is built by applying computer software. An additional X-ray radiation flow is let pass through the filter transparent mainly for low power radiation spectrum portion of X-ray tube and mounted in front of volume under study. Another embodiment of the invention is characterized with scanning X-ray radiation flow being produced. High power radiation spectrum portion is directed to a transducers row for recording X-ray radiation quanta. X-ray radiation flow is additionally let pass through the filter transparent mainly for low power radiation spectrum portion of X-ray tube and mounted in front of volume under study. The X-ray radiation flow is directed to an additional transducers row for recording X-ray radiation quanta set in parallel to the available row.
EFFECT: high quality of diagnosis.
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out multi-spiral computer-aided tomographic examination of mammary gland with slice width being equal to 1mm and tomography step of 1 mm without patient position being changed before and after introducing contrasting substance. The received data are are used for building multi-plane and three-dimensional reconstructions. Neoplasm malignance degree is evaluated from degree of contrasting substance accumulation in arterial, venous and delayed phase. Detected nodular formation density being found to grow 2-2.5 times as high in venous contrasting phase and/or grouped micro-calcinates being detected, mammary gland carcinoma case is to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis.
FIELD: medicine, cardiology.
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with positron emission tomography (PET) to perform it with 18F-fluorooxyglucose (18F-FDG), moreover, at detecting myocardial viability in patients with disorders in carbohydrate exchange one should pre-introduce perorally trimetasidine thrice daily at the dosage of 20 mg for 8-12 d, 1 d before the onset of PET-trial it is necessary to exclude caffeine-containing products out of patient's diet and medicinal preparations and at 18F-FDG in myocardium being 50% and more against its maximal accumulation it is possible to diagnose viable myocardium, if below 50% - nonviable myocardium.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of diagnostics.
8 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: biology; medicine.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used for diagnosing state of internal organs. Device has narrow discontinuous radiation beam former with sweep, radiation detector, synchronization unit, drive, master oscillator, counter, analog-to-digital converter, processor and monitor. Radiation detector is made in form of M identical layers disposed one after another in the direction of radiation propagation. Any layer is made in form of N isolated parallel linear arrays; each of each consists of K pin-diodes connected in parallel, back-biased and disposed in one line along line of sweep of the beam. All M linear arrays being disposed layer by layer and having similar order numbers are connected to each other and to information inputs of analog-to-digital converter. Count input of counter is connected with output of master oscillator. Control input of the counter is connected with output of sweep radiation beam former. Output of pulse counter is connected with the second information input of processor. Clock output of counter is connected with control inputs of analog-to-digital converter. Radiation detector is used which detector has high efficiency of X-ray radiation energy conversion to electric signal. Design of the detector proposed allows using counter which provide simple determination of spatial location of read-out image element (pixel) and its correspondence to definite area (zone) of object to be diagnosed.
EFFECT: reduced dosage load; increased speed of operation when reading information out.
SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring main pulmonary artery diameter. Chest diameter is additionally measured at the level the examination is carried out. Vasculothoracic index VTI1 is calculated as ratio of transverse chest diameter at the level of the main pulmonary artery to main pulmonary artery diameter. VTI2 is also calculated as ratio of transverse chest diameter at the level of pulmonary artery bifurcation to main pulmonary artery diameter at given level. Mean VTI is calculated as (VTI1+ VTI2)/2. Mean VTI value being equal to 6.9-9.4, moderate pulmonary hypertension severity is considered to be the case. The value being less than 6.8, apparent pulmonary hypertension is considered to be the case.
EFFECT: high accuracy of diagnosis.