Method of coal preparation to obtain humates
SUBSTANCE: method for coal preparation to obtain humates includes cleaning it from mechanical impurities and grinding. Coal is crushed to size less 2 mm, checked for the content of toxic metals, including lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and if at least one of them is detected with concentrations exceeding the maximum concentration limit (MCL), the coal is introduced into a 10-20% aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid with a temperature of 80-95°C and kept stirred for 4-8 hours. Then, it is washed in pure fresh water with a temperature of 80-95°C, rechecked for toxic metals and if the concentration of at least one of the toxic metals does not fall below the MCL, the acid treatment and washing processes are repeated in said modes in order to reduce the content of all toxic metals below the MCL.
EFFECT: invention allows to lower the content of toxic metals below the MCL, which are in the natural coal intended for the production of alkali metal humates from it, and thereby to ensure suitability of the product obtained for human consumption.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of foliar feeding of grain crops comprises treatment of vegetative plants with a solution of organo-mineral fertiliser which is a mixture of potassium humate with boric acid in a ratio of 1:1, and the feeding is held together with chemical weeding with herbicides.
EFFECT: invention enables to provide bio-stimulating action of the agent with the effect of mobilising the potential of plants to adverse weather conditions, to reduce the stress state of the plants from the herbicides used, to increase the plant immunity, to promote and develop the plant growth, to ensure the improvement of productive tillering and to provide the optimal formation of the reproductive organs of plants.
SUBSTANCE: method of production of organomineral fertiliser comprises treatment of coal by chemical action, and mixing it with nutritional ingredients, at that the sooty coal is taken with the fraction of 1.1-7.8 mm and is mixed at ambient temperature with the nutritional ingredients in the form of the montmorillonite and phosphate clay with the fraction of 1.1-7.8 mm each at a weight ratio of 2:0.5:1, the 12-15% solution of ammonium sulphate is added into the mixture, and then the mixture is treated with cavitation dispersing at a temperature of 10-55°C for 10-20 minutes, the resulting suspension is placed in a closed vessel for 14-30 days to complete chemical interaction.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the cost 2-3 times due to the use of natural ingredients, to increase the yield of grain crops.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of fertilisers based on wastes of processing plant raw materials. The method of bioconversion of wastes of the industrial production of saponins from the Saponaria Officinalis root is proposed. The method comprises preparing an initial mixture, loading the mixture into the bioreactor and performing the bioconversion process with the aeration of the mixture. The plant wastes of the production of saponins are subjected to bioconversion in the mixture containing peat and bird droppings, with the ratio of components peat:bird droppings: plant wastes - (13%-25%):50%:(25%-50%). The bioconversion process in the first 7 days is performed at a temperature of 37±2°C and 55±2°C - on the 8th day.
EFFECT: invention provides the acceleration of the bioconversion process of plant wastes, and increase in its efficiency.
4 cl, 7 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the production of a peat-humic preparation used for root and foliar application of different crops in the open and closed ground, as well as a biologically active supplement for animals and fish. The dry peat-humic compound comprises a mixed composition on the basis of peat of preliminarily shredded peat and a biologically active organic supplement. The method of production of the dry peat-humic preparation comprises crushing, mixing and drying the organic raw material consisting of peat and the biologically active organic supplement to obtain the dry peat-humic product in the form of a homogeneous equally-dispersed mixture. The biologically active organic supplement is used as a plant composition consisting of needles of Scotch pine, Rhodiola rosea root, grass and root of anomalous peony, grass of rape and of Echinacea purpurea in the flowering stage to obtain an intermediate dry peat-humic product which is additionally crushed for 13-15 minutes, divided into four equal initial fractions, into each of which added is with stirring one dry culture of bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Arthrospira fusiformis and Actinomyces. Mixing is carried out separately with each dry bacterial additive in a mixer with a water jacket, followed by chilling. Then, mixing of all received components is carried out to a homogenous mass in the mixer with a water jacket, followed by chilling the resulting mixture. Stirring is resumed to chilling to 9-11°C. The resulting ready dry peat-humic preparation containing at least 106 CFU/g dry culture of each bacterium is unloaded onto an open platform. After exposure for 24-26 hours it is packed in bags and exposed for 40-48 hours more.
EFFECT: embodiment of the inventions provides obtaining the dry peat-humic preparation having higher efficiency due to the high level of the bacterial content in the preparation, enhancing biochemical and microbiological processes in soil and plants that improve plant nutrition, effectively suppresses pathogenic and potentially pathogenic microorganisms in soil and plants.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to agriculture. The dry peat-humic compound comprises a mixed composition on the peat basis of preliminary crushed peat and biologically active organic additive, and the biologically active organic additive is used as plant composition consisting of needles of Scots pine, the root of Rhodiola rosea, herb and root of anomalous peony, herb of rape and Echinacea purpurea in the flowering stage. All the components are taken in certain ratio. The method of preparing the dry peat-humic compound consists in the preparation of biologically active organic medium as a fertiliser by dispense crushing, mixing and drying the organic raw material, consisting of peat and biologically active organic additive to obtain the finished product in the form of a homogeneous equally-dispersed dry mass, at that the preparation of biologically active organic medium is carried out in stages, using in the organic raw material of peat and biologically active organic additive in the form of plant composition consisting of different plant ingredients.
EFFECT: group of inventions enables to provide a dry peat-humic compound with high level of biologically active substances and microelements, to improve the efficiency of soil-forming mechanism and development of plants, to improve soil structure, to extend the functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: growth stimulator of wheat, enriched with micronutrients with increased biological activity, comprises (g/l): 0.005-0.05 humic acids, 0.2-1.5 cobalt sulphate, 0.05-0.5 copper sulphate, 1.0-2.0 manganese sulphate, 0.5-1.5 ammonium molybdate, 0.5-1.5 zinc sulphate, and 0.1-1.0 boric acid. The humic acids are used as humostim - humic fertiliser made of peat. It is advisable to prepare first an aqueous solution of humostim and the aqueous solution of mixtures of micronutrient salts with boric acid and then to mix the said aqueous solutions in the ratio of 1:1.
EFFECT: growth stimulator of wheat can be used for pre-sowing treatment of wheat seeds, for foliar dressing of wheat and for soil dressing of wheat.
6 cl, 4 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: chicken manure and peat, taken in the ratio of 50:50, are shredded to particle-size composition of less than 10 mm. The shredded components are stirred and alkalified with 0.5% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide in an amount of 1.5 l per 1 kg of the mixture at 20-22°C for 24 hours. Wheat bran is added into the resulting primary biofertiliser in an amount of 3 wt % and stirred. The first stage of the mixture bioconversion is carried out at 36-39°C for 96 hours. Then the second stage of bioconversion is carried out at 55-60°C for 24 hours. At that every 24 hours the mixture is purged with air in the longitudinal and transverse directions for 30 minutes.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of application by improving the survival of microorganisms, increase in biological activity of the soil, and improvement of consumer properties of the biofertiliser obtained.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining of humic acids with the specified group interrelation of humic and fulvic acids from caustobioliths of carbon series by the method of alkaline extraction, and caustobioliths is milled in advance and sieved through the screen with the cells 214×214 microns, with simultaneous execution of electrochemical activation of water with its separation into catholyte and anolyte, extraction of humic and fulvic acids is performed in two stages, meanwhile the first stage of extraction is performed in the device with the mixer in alkaline medium created by adding of catholyte to caustobioliths of the specified granulometric structure, at pH > 10 and temperature not higher 20° C, and the second stage - at circulation of hydrogel, obtained at the first stage, through flowing hydrodynamic cavitator, generating an acoustic field with the strength up to 3.5 W/cm2 and frequency up to 40 kHz at the temperature not higher 74° C, then mixture of extracted humic acids and fulvic acids is separated by anolyte at pH < 2 in the separator and mix them in the proportion ensuring the specified interrelation of humic acids and fulvic acids in a finished product.
EFFECT: invention allows to ensure the specified interrelation of groups of humic acids and fulvic acids in the composition of obtained product.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of production of plant growth stimulator from lowland peat consists in alkaline hydrolysis of lowland peat with aqueous solution of ammonia in the presence of hydrogen peroxide under heating and with subsequent separation of the liquid phase. The lowland peat with the ash content of 40-60% and content of humic acids of 14-19% is mixed with water in a ratio of 1:(6-8), and then mixed with aqueous ammonia at a dose of 15-19% and hydrogen peroxide at a dose of 15-19% on absolutely dry substance of peat.
EFFECT: invention enables to produce the plant growth stimulator from lowland peat with high ash content and low content of humic acids.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental conservation technologies, cutting-edge agricultural technologies and chemistry of organosilicon compounds and can be used to restore the structure of disturbed soils by stabilising water-stable aggregate. In particular, the present invention employs water-soluble humic silanol derivatives that are modified in a special way to endow them with the capacity to be irreversibly sorbed on surfaces of mineral particles and other hydroxyl-containing carriers. Humic derivatives are added to the degraded soil in form of aqueous solutions.
EFFECT: method for use in agricultural technologies includes using humic derivatives as structure-forming agents (soil ameliorants) by via attachment thereof to the surface of soil aggregates in order to endow the latter with water-stable properties.
8 cl, 11 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: solid and liquid organic wastes are mixed on the site, the clamps are formed with the implementation of technological passages between them, the substrate is populated with earthworm of species Eisenia foetida, after obtaining the desired product and biomass of worms the cycle of waste disposal is repeated. Solid organic wastes are used in an amount of 25-30% by volume of liquid and semiliquid organic wastes. During mixing, biohumus and river sand is additionally added into the substrate in an amount of 10 kg and 1 kg, respectively, per one ton of the substrate. The clamps are formed with the width of 10-12 m and the height of 3-4 m, the length equal to the length of the biohumus site. After populating the substrate with worms, every 15-18 days the substrate is additionally mixed. In sub-zero air temperature the clamp surface is irrigated with water to create ice crust. Readiness degree of the substrate for populating with worms is determined by the temperature, humidity and acidity of the substrate.
EFFECT: accelerated processes of fermentation and self-heating in clamps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. A soil conditioner in granular form includes mineral components using an ash-slag mixture and lime, wherein the conditioner is made of irregularly shaped granules with grain size in the range of 1.0 to 6.0 mm of a water-resistant porous conglomerate with density of 300 to 400 kg/m3 and porosity structure, having a capillary and a non-capillary form, with ratio thereof of 0.85:1; the conglomerate consists of a dry mixture which is treated by mixing with water to a consistency with water to dry mixture ratio of 0.75:1, wherein the dry mixture contains biofuel ash as the ash-slag mixture, as well as cement, unslaked lime and a blowing agent. All components are taken in a defined ratio.
EFFECT: invention reduces density of soil consistency, increases soil porosity, increases aeration, increases moisture-retention capacity, which ultimately increases crop yield.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of manufacturing vermicompost comprises forming a ridge of a substrate and invasion of vermiculture to it, addition of a layer of a fresh substrate to a part of the upper and side surface of the ridge. At its processing with vermiculture, the upper layer of the substrate is moved to the side part of the ridge for the concentration of the amount of vermiculture, the opposite side part of the ridge is separated, ground and fed to the hopper of a device for transportation to a processing area, followed by grinding. The device comprises a hopper with a feeding horizontal conveyor over which at the side of unloading a feed drum and a drum-accelerator are sequentially mounted, a grinding chamber, a forming device which consists of two combined plates, a rotating mechanism of forming plates. Between the forming plates a convertible scraper is mounted. Blades of the drum-accelerator are turned inwards relative to the medium radially mounted blades. On the front part of the combined forming plate a cutting knife with additional cutting elements is mounted. On the inner walls of the hopper hinged flaps are mounted, on the upper part of the hopper a cyclone with a flexible pipeline and an intake pipeline is mounted.
EFFECT: invention provides the comprehensive mechanisation of the process of vermicultivation and improvement of the quality of the vermicompost.
2 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, reclamation and biotechnology and can be used to produce organic fertiliser based on floating bog removed from water reservoirs when their cleaning. The method for production of organic fertiliser from floating bog removed during cleaning of water reservoirs comprises its composting in pits in vivo of growing period with the addition of phosphate fertiliser, urea and strain of cellulose-decomposing microscopic fungi Trichoderma sp. No. 14.
EFFECT: embodiment of invention provides recycling floating bog and enables to obtain fertiliser which improves agrochemical, water and physical properties of soil and to increase agricultural crop yield.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural biotechnology and can be used for obtaining soil fertility increasing fertilisers from tobacco waste products by composting. A method of producing a bioorganic fertiliser includes preliminary preparation of a trench in the selected part of a field. Initial components of a compost mixture are dosed in specified amounts, wt %: tobacco dust - 40-60, soil (chernozem) - 20-40, lowland peat - 10-30, and mixed. The obtained homogenous mixture is placed into trenches and moistened to 50-60%. Composting is performed for 60-65 days in a natural way at atmospheric pressure and an average daily air temperature not lower than 15°C. Sampling of the homogeneous compost mixture is performed tree times with determination in samples of nicotine content, pH value and cellulose-lytic activity: before placement in the trench, 30-35 days after it and at the end of the mixture composting process.
EFFECT: invention provides safe utilisation of the main waste product of the tobacco industry, increases fertility and improves the soil state due to application of the environmentally friendly organic fertiliser, balanced in the main nutritional elements.
2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing and recycling of bark-dump which is a product of waste at pulp and paper mills. In the formed bark-dump sewage sludge of treatment facilities are injected, containing wt %: humidity 92-96; weight fraction of organic compounds 62-66; weight fraction of total nitrogen 5.6-7.3; weight fraction of total phosphorus (P2O5) 4.8-6.5; heavy metals 0.02-2.0; residual oil - 0.015-0.25; pH - 6.8, in the ratio of bark:reagent (sewage purification), 8:2, respectively, followed by aeration of bark-dump with the atmospheric air, at that a diluent for the reagent the drainage waters of bark-dump are used, and for obtaining organic fertiliser the process of flushing the bark-dump body with the reagent and air is repeated several times.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of elimination of bark-dump body and turning its mass into the organic fertiliser.
2 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural production. The method comprises biotechnology and thermochemical processing of litter. During the processing of litter and manure the electric and heat energy are produced, gaseous and liquid fuel, which are used for processing of litter and manure, and for preparation of fodder, feed additives used for obtaining livestock and poultry products, organic and inorganic fertilisers for growing fodder plant crops in fodder production. The part of plant wastes resulting from the cultivation of fodder crops is subjected to biotechnology and thermochemical processing. The thermochemical processing is performed by low- and medium-temperature gasification to obtain gas and wash waters. The wash waters are mixed with the liquid fraction formed at biotechnology processing of litter and manure, and subjected to further biotechnology processing, together with the part of concentrated wastewater generated in the preparation of poultry and livestock products to obtain additional gaseous fuel, organic and inorganic fertilisers, feed additives and technical water.
EFFECT: technology enables to improve the energy efficiency of the process of production of poultry and livestock products while simultaneous reducing the adverse impact on the environment.
SUBSTANCE: universal soil mixture comprises lignin hydrolised, manure and peat, and the composition comprises pig litter or liquid manure of any freshness and additionally the mixture comprises urea hydrogen peroxide. All the components are taken at a certain ratio.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of the mixture with simplification of its composition.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing biomass involves worm composting of a substrate with red Californian earthworm Eisenia Foetida in amount of 250 thousand worms per cubic metre, the substrate used being cattle manure which is pre-neutralised to pH 7-8, the worm composting process being carried out at temperature of 15-25°C and substrate moisture content of 80-85%.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of the apparatus, reduces power consumption, enables to obtain biohumus with high content of trace nutrients, and also enables to create conditions for propagation of red Californian worms and further use thereof for feed purposes.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Ground soil contains peat and technogenic components, as technogenic components used are tailing deposits with coarseness class -8+3 of wastes of kimberlite ore enrichment and dehydrated active silt of biological treatment plant of industrial sewage. All components are taken in definite ratio.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to restore natural landscape of disturbed territories, contributes to land rehabilitation and development of vegetation, improves ecological situation.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: agriculture, in particular pulp-and-paper and woodworking industry.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes wood bark grinding, mixing with mineral and/or organic additives; forming a clamp with air channels from the mixture, followed by clamp aeration and mixture decomposition to humus. Air channels in clamp are formed by clamp laying onto core base in parallel of one another and subsequent periodic drawing out thereof by 70 % of core length while filling the next butch of compost mixture in core direction.
EFFECT: decreased cost in steps of clamp forming and composting.
3 dwg, 1 ex