Method for arranging anti-erosion water-saving pipeless closed drainage on catena in moraine soils
SUBSTANCE: method for arranging an erosion-free water-saving pipeless closed drainage on the catena in moraine soils with binary deposits includes plowing the soil in paddocks across the slope to form back ridges and open furrows - furrows with bridges that trap the surface water runoff. Wherein upwards on a straight slope having an inclination of at least 15 ‰ and not more than 50 ‰, the width of each previous paddock Bi is less than the width of each subsequent one Bi+1. Before plowing the soil on the catena, the tree and shrub vegetation is removed, with cutting and removing scrub trunks, while leaving natural field- or garden protective forest belts with the subsequent marking of the placement of the open furrows between them. Thereinafter, along the planned lines of the open furrows perpendicular to the straight slope, ditches are laid with a depth not less than the calculated p-percentage probability of exceeding the soil freezing depth at the place of their laying, followed by laying in each ditch along its perimeter a tape of a fiberglass material of at least b = 2L+s, where L is the ditch slope length, and s - the ditch width along the bottom, in which fascines built of trees and shrubs and laid in the ditch on the fiberglass tape by 1/3…1/2 of its height are wrapped. Then the ditches are gathered with a full turn of the furrow slice, covering the fascines wrapped in the tape of a fiberglass material with sod, and the final plowing-in of each ditch with water-permeable soil of the binary deposits with its compacting by a caterpillar or the wheels of the used tractor is carried out. The laying of the ditches is carried out, for example, by means of a plow ditcher with broom cleaners. For laying in the ditch and wrapping the fascines, a tape of a fiberglass material of grade BB-AM according to TU 21-23-131-80 is used.
EFFECT: ensuring the preservation and the expanded reproduction of soil fertility and the high efficiency of agricultural crops cultivated on a catena.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of drainage of agricultural land of nonchernozem belt with closed drainage and the techniques of use of these lands. The method comprises loosening the drained soils to a depth of at least 60 m. In order to ensure the required by the plants of soil humidity conditions, preventing the possible damage to the pipes of closed drainage and providing industrial applicability of deep loosening, the deep loosening is carried out to a depth of hl, determined in each case from the condition of compliance with the following requirements: (hr)min ≤ hl ≤ (hr)max;(1), hl ≤ (hr)min - D - ΣΔhi , (2), where ΣΔhi = Δh1 + Δh2 + Δh3 + Δh4; (3), 60 ≤ hl ≤ ht , (4) where (hr)min and (hr)max are the minimum and maximum depth of penetration into the trench backfill of the closed drainage of the root system of cultivated culture, respectively, cm; (hd)min is the minimum depth of placement of closed drainage pipes of the project at the site where deep loosening is planned to be carried out, cm; D is the outer diameter of the closed drainage pipes at the site (cm); ΣΔhi is the sum of corrections (cm), including: the correction which depends on the accuracy of the topographic altitude survey of soil surface of the drained site, Δh1; the corrections taking into account the technogenic erosion of the soil surface during carrying out crop-engineering and land planning Δh2 and during ploughing Δh3; correction taking into account the depth of the gauge made by the tractor on the soil surface during deep loosening, Δh4; ht is the maximum possible depth of loosening soil due of the technology level and characterising the industrial feasibility of the inventive method; at that in each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the powdering layer of the drainage pipe over the bottom of the trench mp > hd - hl, where hd is the depth of placement of the closed drainage pipe. Prior to loosening the soil on the drained part the value of the set depth of deep loosening is set on the mechanism of the ripper when setting up, preparing it for work.
EFFECT: positive result is to obtain by a landholder of closed drainage durable and reliable in operation, providing design humidity conditions of soil during its operation for at least a normative term of service.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises drains 1, an inlet collector 2, and an outlet collector 3, between which the storage tank 4 with a siphon 5 is placed. The descending branch 6 of the siphon 5 is brought to the drain well 7 on the level of the outlet collector 3. The float 8 with the plate 9, suspended on a holding traction 10 of the float drive with a valve 11 is arranged, respectively, at the level of the siphon neck 5. The float 8 is placed on the corresponding critical depth of groundwater for the soil and climatic and hydrological conditions of the area, in which the drainage system is located. In the wall 12 of the tank 4, a hole 13 is made for the intake pipe 14, through which the tank 4 is connected to the draining storage water intakes 15. The storage water intakes 15 are connected to the openings 16 of sections of the inlet collector 2 at the location of the drains 1. When mounting the filter storage water intakes 15 the filling of waterproof materials 17 is used, such as sand, gravel, slag or synthetic wastes of light industry.
EFFECT: invention enables to automate fully the process of maintaining the level of groundwater at the level corresponding to the critical, ensures the supply of a certain amount of water from the groundwater in the root layer of soil, which increases moisture reserves for crops and enables decrease partly the irrigation rates, which provides saving water resources, the necessary regime of moistening and aeration of soil is ensured by creating an optimal level of groundwater in the different phases of plant vegetation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: construction method of adits containing a water-receiving element in the form of a solid unit of n number (n>2) of vertical longitudinal toe filters involves trench excavation by means of an excavating and drainage machine, laying into it of a drain pipe covered with protective filter material, and refilling of the trench by means of a padding device moving synchronously with the drainage machine and provided with a bunker for filter material with a drain chute. Laying of the drain pipe covered with protective filter material and refilling of the trench is performed simultaneously. The drain pipe covered with protective filter material is padded throughout the trench width to the depth of 15 cm above its crown from a duct to which filter material is supplied from the bunker via the drain chute. The duct represents a rectangular parallelepiped having width equal to trench width, and height that is somewhat bigger than trench depth. Duct bottom is located near the trench bottom at the distance of padding layer thickness of the drain pipe relative to the trench bottom. The duct is rigidly attached with front wall 7 to housing 8 of the excavating and drainage machine. On rear 9 wall of the duct there installed on the outer side are (n-1) vertical partition walls 10 parallel to each other and to walls 1 of the trench with a possibility of changing the distance between them according to thickness of the filters. Height of each of partition walls 10 is equal to the duct height. The filter material bunker is divided into sections by means of partition walls with a possibility of changing the distance between them and their number so that the number of bunker sections is more by one than the number of vertical longitudinal toe filters of the adit. Each bunker section is provided with its own drain chute, from which each adjacent vertical longitudinal filter is filled with heterogeneous filter material.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of filter refilling of the trench of the adit; improving hydrological action of adits and ecological and economic efficiency of draining of low-water-permeable middle and heavy loamy and clay soils.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device is located at drainage-watering collector and drainage network. Device contains a drain well 2 with installed drain tip 1, shutdown device, drive and chamber 10 connected by means of the additional chamber 28 with collector 27 cavity. The device is provided with installed self-regulating gear 3 of the regulator in well, and comprises head regulator made in form of the membrane 13 provided at bottom with mesh-type protecting limiter 22 of membrane 13 movement. The membrane 13 is secured at top to the casing 4. The above membrane cavity 12 is connected with atmosphere and with valve 14 and rod 16 by means of two-arm lever 17 with output valve 20 closing the hole 21 in the chamber 10 bottom. The rod 18 of the output valve 20 has piston 19 for water supply in the cavity of the collector 27. The output valve 20 is located in the additional chamber 28, in its side wall the calibrated hole 29 is made, it is connected with well 2. The chamber 10 bottom has inlet hole 23 with valve 24 connected with float 25 installed with possibility of the latter abutment to the limiting shoulders 26.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the device, operation reliability and quality of the water regulation in the drain system.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a device of drainage trench with a drainage pipe laid on its bottom with a protective-filtering material, the filtering elements in the form of prisms of soil of humus horizon, arranged in a trench to the arable layer, and the final backfilling the trench with soil of humus horizon. Each drainage trench is made with the depth of at least 1.1 m and the width of at least 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface waters at an angle of not more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. The drainage pipe with protective-filtering material is sprinkled with soil of humus horizon, cut off from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above the pipe crown. The filtering elements are made in the form of a single block composed of the nth odd number (n≥3) of the vertical regular prisms parallel to the trench walls, in which the prism of soil of humus horizon alternates with the prism from the excavated soils. The width of the prism from the excavated soil is two times greater than the width of the prism of soil of humus horizon, and the width of the trench B and the width of each odd prism of soil of humus horizon b"n" are related to each other as b"n"=2B/(3n-1).
EFFECT: improvement of hydrological action of the closed regulatory network, increase in efficiency of the use of topsoil and the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of average-loamy soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: system includes supply drain lines 1, manifold 2, and storage well 3, in which siphon block 7 is mounted. The system is provided with self-regulating mechanism 4 of ground water level installed in well 3 and consisting of float chamber 6 rigidly fixed in the upper position above the ridge of siphon block 7 and connected by means of a rigid float drive through valve 8 with a blind section of pipe 13 on a descending branch of siphon block 7. The descending branch of siphon block 7 is connected to discharge pipe 14. Float chamber 6 is connected via hydraulic channel 12 to well 3. The lower part of well 3 is sealed, and above discharge pipe 14 it has outlet opening 15 with branch pipe 17, which is shut off with a level control by means of an additional float drive for control of gate 16. Float gate 16 has L-shaped lever 19 with flange 20, on which float 18 and horizontal plate 23 is fixed. Branch pipe 17 is connected to storage well 3 below the ridge of siphon block 7 by value Δh providing maximum design water filling of well 3 with further discharge to discharge pipe 14. Value Δh is calculated by the following formula: Δh=h1-h2. The self-regulating mechanism is connected to hydraulic channel 12 and well 3 as per a principle of communicating vessels. When the level of the ridge of siphon block 7 is achieved, a charging device is actuated and water discharge through siphon block 7 is performed in a pressure mode to the level of the inlet opening of its ascending branch. The level control in well 3 is actuated when maximum water level achieves the fixed restraining bracket 21, and opening of opening 15 with gate 16 is performed.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow automating of a ground water level control process and maintaining correct soil humidity balance; automatic flushing of the well with pressure water flow.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wide-cut multi-functional tillage unit comprises a frame (1) with a trailer (2). The frame (1) rests on two air castors (3) and comprises in the rear part a medium movable spragger (4), the rotation of which is carried out by the hydraulic cylinders (5). At the ends of the medium movable spragger (4) the joints in the form of crosspieces (6) are mounted with the lateral movable spraggers (7) fastened on them, with the working transport wheels (8). On the medium movable spragger (4) and on the lateral movable spraggers (7) the sections (41) of removable tillage working bodies are mounted. The sections (41) are mounted with overlapping on the front of neighbouring sections (41) by means of pairs of parallelogram mechanisms, the pairs of longitudinal bars (25) and the pairs of coupling collars and thus the sections (41) mounted on the edges of the lateral movable spraggers (7) are mounted behind them in the course of motion and overlap the wheels (8) in front. The sections (41) are mounted at an angle between the course of motion and with the perpendiculars to their axes. The sections (41) may be made in the form of screw rollers or disc hoes, or disc shallow ploughs. The ends of the lateral movable spraggers (7) are connected to the front part of the frame (1) by the extensions (10). The extensions (10) comprise front short (11) parts and rear long parts. The rear parts are connected with one ends to the slidably mounted on the frame (1) U-shaped drive lugs (22), and the other ends - movably on the ends of the lateral movable spraggers (7). The lower pairs of the planks of the pairs of the parallelogram mechanisms are equipped at the rear part with a system of openings with pin-retainers, and in the front upper part - the restrictive slots with restriction axes, in the front lower part there are brackets with the holes with the fingers mounted in them by pins. The springs are fixed with the second ends to the adjusting screws mounted in the brackets of the fixed longitudinal beams. On the second ends of pairs of planks of the pairs of the parallelogram mechanisms the pairs of movable longitudinal beams are mounted, one of which has one opening for mounting the removable sections (41), and on the second longitudinal beam there is a system of openings that enables to change the angle α from 10° to 35° with the interval of 3-5°.
EFFECT: provision of compacting the soil in the area of the seed location, tillage depth adjustment, and enhanced functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method includes main treatment of soil transverse to slope, and seeding. In spring upon soil physical readiness grains are spreaded over its surface, rolled using smooth rolls, and overall spraying of soil surface is performed in amount 200-250 l/ha with the following composition, %wt: chalk - 5-6, ammonium nitrate - 3-4, organic glue - 2-3, water - rest.
EFFECT: reduced water erosion of soil by decreasing of number of treatments resulting in soil decompression, and increased moisture provision and crops.
SUBSTANCE: paraplough-aerator comprises a frame, a suction pipe with a safety spring, and a paraplough. The paraplough is rigidly attached to the suction pipe. The pipe at the lower part of the horizontal plane the spring with the stops is attached. The spring with the stops has the ability of stretching, compression and bending in the course of work and in deformation to saturate the soil with air by sucking air from the suction pipe.
EFFECT: device enables to increase water-permeability of soil, to saturate the soil with air, which thereby increases the crop yield.
SUBSTANCE: tool comprises a vertical rack, the mouldboards. The lower part of the rack is made pointed at the bottom and in front. The mouldboards are rigidly connected to the mounting assembly. The lower part of the rack is designed as an A-hoe with the mouldboards for furrow-formation. The rear part of the rack is attached to the paraplough with the brackets, formed as a disc blade. The disc blade consists of two truncated cones mounted opposing. The installation height of the brackets of the paraplough is adjustable. The vertical rack, adjustable in height, is mounted on the frame having two support wheels. The wheels are mounted on the cranked shaft axes hingedly on the frame. The cranked shaft axes are connected to the frame by hydraulic cylinders controlled by the hydraulic distribution valves, which are connected to the hydraulic system of the tractor. On the support wheels the ledges-switches are mounted of the hydraulic distribution valves, and on the cranked shaft axis - the levers-switches of oil supply to the hydraulic distribution valves. For aggregation the tool the hitch is provided.
EFFECT: such constructive implementation enables to increase the yield of crops by increasing the speed and volume of moisture or livestock waste and reduction of soil erosion.
SUBSTANCE: undercover soil ripper comprises milling chisel plough knife with a rack (2) and a hollow mole blade. Inside the mole blade on the shaft (6) the thrust bearings (7) are mounted. The shaft (6) is connected through the connecting insert (12) to the soil disrupter (15) in the form of a conical spring. The connecting insert (12) has left-handed threaded recesses. The housing of the hollow mole blade with the thread on both ends is cut horizontally lengthwise in half. The halves (3, 4) of the mole blade are welded to the milling chisel plough and covered by the expansion head (8) and a nut (9) with the sealing ring (10). The side slits of the mole blade housing are sealed with flat gaskets in the form of an I-beam. The spring of the disrupter in the front part is made in the form of a cylinder in the middle part in the form of a cone with the angle of expansion α=15…25°, in the rear part in the form of the rotation paraboloid y=xn, where n=0.5…0.7. The cross-section of the spring in the working part is made in the form of a wedge with an angle of inclination to the axis of the spring wire β=10…20°. The working face of the spring is coated with a layer of wear-resistant material.
EFFECT: ensuring quick assembly and disassembly of the mole blade and intensive quality soil crumbling.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring the soil surface profile and determining the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitations in the field comprises a frame (1) with height-adjustable supports (3) and a mechanic's level (12) mounted on it, a platform (10) movable in a vertical plane. The platform (10) is mounted on the supports (3) of the frame (1) with use of sleeves (2) and connected to the frame (1) of the screw mechanism. The screw mechanism consists of a screw (5) with a handle (6) with a turn counter (7) and the rotation angle of the handle (6), the central retainer nut (8) mounted on the frame (1), the lower nut (9) mounted rigidly on the movable platform (10). In the holes of the platform (10) at equal distances from each other in a two-dimensional grid nodes there are movable probes-rods (11). The probes-rods (11) are made of dielectric material and their upper ends are fixed to abutments-rings (17) made of electrically conductive material.
EFFECT: improvement of accuracy of measuring the soil surface profile and determining the direction of flow of atmospheric precipitations in the field.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: wear-resistant adding material is welded up along the working surface of a part with streamline shape, the said material is presented as identical strip sections 2-4 mm thick which are parallel to each other, arranged in staggered order at the right angle to the direction of the part's working surface movement. The length of the strip sections is 5-7 times more than their width, and the distance between them amounts to not more than the width of the welded up strip, and the distance between the adjacent strips is equal to the strip width. The longitudinal symmetry axis of the central welded up strip is placed in the same plane as the symmetry axis of the working surface is, in the movement direction of the latter.
EFFECT: invention allows for the decrease of wear rate of base metal in the zone of most intense friction of the part's working surface with streamline shape by means of increasing the degree of deformation and hoeing of the near-surface active soil layer in the movement direction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular to restoring of the productivity of perennial grasses in the chestnut soil zone. The method comprises chisel ploughing of soil under perennial grasses to the depth of 40 cm. The spacing between the working elements is set in the gap providing first the continuous loosening the soil until appearance of untreated soil surface, equal to the width of capture of one working element.
EFFECT: method enables to enhance replenishment of perennial grasses by discontinuous chisel ploughing of soil.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry, in particular agro-forest amelioration, and can be used for afforestation in arid, for example, chalk slopes having soil cover. The method comprises mapping the reafforesting area, digging trenches in rows across the slope with the depth greater than the soil layer, stacking the excavated soil into the trenches, and the rest of the soil near the trenches down the slope, planting of woody plants. Soil of the slopes and bottom of the dug trenches is compacted. In between the rows a part of the soil layer is cut and the trenches are filled with it to form a roll. The soil remaining in between rows is compacted. The woody plants are planted in spring in the formed roll. The soil in the trenches and the soil between the rows is compacted to a density providing maximum water-holding capacity. The soil in between the rows is compacted during the growing seasons before closing crowns in between the rows.
EFFECT: method provides improved survival ability and growth of woody plants by improving their moisture content, nutrient and light regimes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises sowing of perennial grasses and embedding of the grown mass into the soil. At that sowing with simultaneous fertiliser application is carried out in every third aisle preserving the growing mass during 3 years. Sowing in neighbouring aisles is carried out respectively on the second and third years. Plowing with embedding of the grown mass in the aisle is carried out on the third year after sowing.
EFFECT: method enables to provide effective protection of soil from erosion by reduction of effluent and reduction of washout.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.