Method for consolidation of ground base of hydrotechnical structure
SUBSTANCE: primary application area of the invention is the consolidation acceleration of the ground base of the hydraulic structure of the gravity and pile-gravity types installed on the seabed in shallow shelf regions in difficult natural conditions, where, as a rule, the ground base is composed of cohesive soils. The method of consolidation of the ground base of the hydraulic structure installed on the seabed provides for the structure immersion by accepting ballast by the structure and setting the structure base onto the seabed. Wherein on the seabed, outside the structure setting area, the wellpoints are placed at some distance from the structure foundation along its perimeter, connected to a single hydraulic system in which underpressure is created and maintained by a vacuum pump. The structure is immersed by ballasting the platform housing, up to ensuring the calculated contact of the foundation bottom of the platform housing with the seabed while simultaneously pressing the base of the electrodes into the ground. After that, the wellpoints are connected to the negative pole of the direct current source, and the electrodes are connected to the positive pole of the direct current source, and the electric current is passed to ensure the formation of the low ground water saturation area in the interaction area of the foundation with the ground base, ensuring the consolidation of the platform ground base, after which the electric current is switched off.
EFFECT: reducing material consumption and labour intensity while creating a hydraulic structure, reducing the ballast volume for ensuring specified stability of the hydraulic structure due to reducing the pore pressure in the ground, formed during the installation of the structure on the seabed, and increasing the stability and carrying capacity of the ground base of the hydraulic structure.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for temperature stabilisation of permanently frozen grounds contains the temperature stabiliser based on the two-phase thermosiphon comprising the aboveground condenser part and underground transport and vaporising parts placed in the sleeve with coolant that is a hollow cylindrical housing with bottom and with a sealing element on the top end with a hole for installation of the temperature stabiliser. The sealing element is a demountable gland seal which consists of the bearing ring installed on the circular step implemented in the sleeve, the pressing ring and sealing rings of heat expanded graphite clamped between them.
EFFECT: ensuring expansion of temperature range of temperature stabilisers installation works, avoidance of penetration of residues of sealing materials into the sleeve cavity filled with coolant.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device for thermal stabilisation of frozen soil has condenser, horizontal evaporator and start-up automatic control system. This system comprises one or more solenoid sensors to measure the device internal parameters. Such parameters are temperature and/or pressure in the condenser, and/or condensate level sensor in condenser, ambient temperature sensor, analyser of sensor signals and solenoid valve. This valve is installed at section between input of the coolant flow from the evaporator tube and its input tot eh condenser, and has possibility of activation by external control electric signal of the analyser based on the loaded in memory criterion of comparison of current sensor readings with critical values of the device internal parameters. The said criteria and parameters are determined by the calculation or test on the condition to prevent formation of the block plug of condensate above installation place of the solenoid valve.
EFFECT: increased operation efficiency of the device due to assurance of its automatic start-up upon decreasing of the ambient air temperature in the specified zone.
SUBSTANCE: method of refilling a heat stabiliser with liquid synthetic ammonia includes purifying liquid ammonia from inert gas impurities by pumping said liquid ammonia into a refilling container, where it is heated to 18-30°C with pressure in the refilling container of 0.8-1.19 MPa, while gradually reducing the pressure of ammonia in the container filled with the liquid ammonia and maintaining boiling thereof for 10-15 s in the volume of the refilling container. Inert gases and evaporated ammonia are removed by blowing in an ammonia trapping system, wherein the number of times of blowing depends on the volume of the refilling container and pressure drop, which is not greater than 1°C on the finned part of the condenser. The purified liquid ammonia is fed into a batcher and then into the heat stabiliser.
EFFECT: carrying out a process of purifying synthetic ammonia from inert gas impurities to the required standard for refilling heat stabilisers, improved production and cost parameters of refilling and operating heat stabilisers.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil and gas industries and may be used during development and operation of deposits in the area of permafrost formations. Device for thermal stabilisation at wellhead area includes an aggregate of heat stabilisers placed around the well and connected through the common collector in the upper part with a condenser. At that the lower part of heat stabilisers is also united by the common collector, and finned surface factor and the area of unfinned condenser surface are selected in order to meet performance of the specified mathematical expression.
EFFECT: provision of unconstrained operation and repair of the well at effective stabilisation of thermal state in the wellhead area in permafrost formations.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes the installation along the platform perimeter of the protective cladding structure. Meanwhile before placing the platform into design position along the platform perimeter with a clearance at least one row of supports from metal piles with round section sunk into unstable bottom sediments or into bed rocks. Into piles the coolers are mounted, and artificial freezing of water and ground around piles, and the monolithic cylinders, formed around piles - ice and grounding in the base and icy in water, shall contact the adjacent cylinders, forming continuous ice and ground in the base and icy in water protective anti-chock and impervious wall.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of an engineering protection of platforms of a floating type in conditions of the Arctic shelf.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cooling device for depth temperature stabilisation of soils of foundations of buildings and structures comprises a tight tubular body with zones of evaporation, condensation and a transport zone between them, made as capable of filling with coolant. At the same time the body comprises a heat exchanger, which includes a pipe of the condensation zone body, a receiver made of a pipe of larger diameter than the diameter of the body, having a plug on top and tightly installed at the end of the pipe of the condensation zone body. The device also includes at least two hollow drainage tubes, the diameter of which is less than the diameter of the body pipe, made with external ribbing, arranged vertically around the pipe of the condenser zone of the body and connected by upper nozzles with a receiver, and by lower nozzles - with a cavity of the gap formed by inner walls of the coupling connecting the lower part of the pipe of the condenser zone of the body with the external support bushing welded to the upper section of the transport zone pipe. The device additionally comprises a receiving bushing made in the form of a section of a pipe of smaller diameter than the diameter of the body connected via an adapter with the lower end of the pipe of the condenser zone and placed partially in the upper part of the pipe of the transport zone of the body with a gap relative to its internal side surface. And the pipe of the body in the evaporation zone is made with alternating cross section and has at least one transition to a pipe of smaller diameter.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity of soils, simplified installation and dismantling of a structure.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for controlled temperature stabilisation, cooling and freezing of ground at foundation bases as well as for heat supply of structures on permafrost grounds (in cryolytic zone). Method of year-round cooling, freezing of ground at a foundation base and for heat supply of a structure on permafrost ground in cryolytic zone involves drilling of wells, cooling of ground. All year round, cooling and freezing of the ground of a foundation base are controlled and the year-round partial heat supply of the structure is carried out due to the heat of the foundation base ground and adjacent ground layers that are cooled and frozen. The primary circuit of a heat pump with low temperature heat carrier is formed, the boiling temperature of the heat pump working medium is by 10-30°C lower than the minimal temperature of the heat carrier in the primary circuit. The heat pump is installed inside a structure and heat is supplied with the conversion factor above 1-3. The freezing temperature of the heat carrier in the primary circuit of the heat pump is lower than the minimal temperature of the ambient air of the structure's site up to -60°C. The evaporation temperature of the working medium in the secondary circuit is higher than the lower limit of its working range of temperatures up to -75°C. A thermal well is set in the block of a structure base with bearing piles on the periphery or thermal wells being divided into less powerful ones are set at its periphery along with providing for additional bearing function of a pile. The heat carrier of the divided thermal wells is delivered by heat insulated heating conduits to a common heat exchanger of the heat pump primary circuit or to several heat pumps installed in different rooms of the structure.
EFFECT: guaranteed year-round provision for frozen state of structure foundation base along the whole well depth as well as provision for year-round backing up of part (approximately the half) of structure's thermal load by means of a heat pump due to the usage of heat from the permafrost ground being cooled and frozen.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: ammonia of permafrost thermo stabiliser filling assembly is eliminated by ammonia gas absorption in the system of circulating gas-liquor. Gas-liquor is continuously absorbed at 20-40°C at one step. Ammonia vapour overpressure of 30-100 kPa is created while gas-liquor in concentration of 20-25% is used and discharged into accumulator tanks placed in soil. Heat resulted from dissolution of ammonia gas in gas-liquor is removed via walls of said tank into soil. At a time, fluid level in accumulator tank is controlled. Gas-liquor is forced from accumulator tank to feed fresh water therein as well as precipitated dry salts are discharged therefrom periodically.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs, power savings.
SUBSTANCE: system for temperature stabilisation of structure foundations on permafrost soils includes a condenser made in the form of a system of pipes, an evaporator, connected with a hydraulic lock and with pipelines, supplying and draining coolant, placed evenly along the entire area of filling of the foundation soil equipped with a layer of heat insulation. Additionally it comprises a buffer-separator arranged under the condenser, which represents a vertically oriented section in the form of three pipes arranged one under another and connected to each other, being horizontally directed, the inner volume of which in total is equal to the volume of the evaporator laid in the foundation soil filling representing parallel coil-like pipes connected by draining pipelines with an upper horizontally separated pipe of the specified buffer-separator equipped with a swirler, the lower horizontally directed pipe of which via a hydraulic lock is connected with the help of pipelines supplying coolant with the evaporator. Coolant used is ammonia or carbon dioxide.
EFFECT: increased freezing and bearing capacity of a foundation, provision of control and monitoring over process of soil freezing and process of system reliability redundancy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for seasonal cooling and freezing of soils of building and structure bases in regions of permafrost soils distribution. A thermopile comprises a tight ground capacitor body, filled with vapours of a low-boiling liquid in a saturated condition - a coolant, and having an additional contact of its inner space with atmosphere via a through air duct accessory, an underground part - an evaporator in the form of curvilinear pipelines partially filled with a low-boiling liquid coolant, circulating along ascending and descending branches, arranged in a "cold well" filled with liquid freezing below 0°C, and a transport section of pipelines connecting inner spaces of above-ground and underground parts of the thermopile. The air duct accessory is arranged in the form of a vertical pipe - an air hole, with length and diameter comparable with length and diameter of the body and sufficient for location of the nozzle of the upper end of the pipeline branch in the upper space of the body with an ascending coolant flow, and the "cold well" is arranged in a support pile of the bridge and is filled with an aqueous solution of salt, for instance, NaCl, with concentration providing for the specified temperature of solution freezing and required temperature of soil maintenance in solid frozen condition, on the upper level of the "cold well" filling solution there is a layer of heat insulation with the possibility of free displacement in the inner space of the "cold well" or its compaction in case of solution level deviations.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of a thermopile due to increased intensity of heat exchange in a "soil-atmosphere" system, extension of time of soil keeping in a solid frozen condition around the underground part of the thermopile and reduced labour intensiveness.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: pyrotechnic method of consolidation of subsoil with low supporting power consists in determining parametres of soil layer subject to consolidation, in drilling non-tabulated vertical blast holes in points of intersection of net of squares or equilateral triangles, in selecting, and in preparing and igniting elongated charges; method proceeds from drilling blast holes from 0.02 to 1.5 m diametre and 50 m depth and utilisation of water jet or slime or clay suspension; also blast holes are distanced at 3 to 25 m; notably, distance between them is inversely proportional to thickness of soil layer subject to consolidation. Charges total length of which should not exceed thickness of layer subject to consolidation consist of several small elementary charges distanced at 1 to 10 m by depth of blast hole. A lower end of each charge is fixed with a rod diametre of which is bigger, than diametre of a blast hole. Elementary charges are ignited successively from the uppermost to lowermost with delay from 0.05 to 10 milliseconds in one series starting from one side of section of subject to consolidation soil; also their successive ignition is executed separately or by small groups with specified time delays. Prior to drilling blast holes a layer of loose soil of 0.5 to 20 m thickness is spread on the section subject to consolidation. Loose soil fills blast holes upon blasts. Elementary charges are secured vertically in blast holes by means of expansion rods out of wood, plastic or metal.
EFFECT: enhancement of method and its efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction and is intended for compaction of noncoherent and low-coherent soils at high depth for construction. Method includes dynamic impact at soil in place indicated on plan first by deep explosion of explosive charge placed in well, or by electric discharge produced by installation, spark gap of which is placed in well, and then by rammer strokes on soil in place indicated on plan with provision of crater on soil surface, which is periodically filled by draining material of compaction. Charge explosion or electric discharge is executed with intensity that provides for soil compaction in area specified in depth to arrange decompacted zone in the center of this area, and rammer strokes are applied to soil with intensity that provides for at least liquidation of this decompacted zone developed at depth. Compaction material is draining, mostly low-humidity, soil.
EFFECT: simplification of works, and also in increase of quality and depth and volume of soil compaction in the same rammed area.
5 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for the performance of works in hydraulic engineering construction and can be used for erection of bridge pile foundations, platforms, transhipping complexes and berthing facilities in water areas. A technological complex for the erection of a hydraulic engineering work (HEW) comprises a working platform 1, a set of tools for its erection. The HEW includes the pile piers 2 with a grillage 3 mounted on them, made of slabs. The service platform 1 is designed in the form of a longitudinal horizontal building slipway, equipped with equipment and assembly elements for the installation of HEW. The set of tools for the erection of the HEW includes a lifting device, a device for mounting the pile supports of the HEW foundation with the section buildup of the HEW grillage openings and a module of final assembly works. The lifting device is designed as a crane for heavy loads 5. The device for mounting the pile supports includes an aligning frame 6, aligned by the crane 5 to the horizon on a design axis by length and width of the span, with an external conductor 7 mounted on it. One end of the aligning frame 6 is installed on a transverse metal girder 8 of the HEW span already mounted, and the second external end is installed on two pairs of support columns 9 and 10 provided with hydraulic actuators. The first pair of the support columns 9 is installed on the ground of bottom vertically, and the columns of the second pair 10 are installed at an angle of 15-20° to the vertical columns 9. The conductor 7 is provided with apertures 11 designed in the form of sleeves to arrange the pile piers 2 in the design position by means of the crane 5 with subsequent their immersion with precast shell to the desired depth into the ground of the bottom and by fixing with retainers disposed in the apertures of the conductor 7. At the upper ends of the pile piers 2 there is a transverse metal girder 8, mounted by the crane 5 and fixed by a weld joint. Metal orthotropic plates 4 are installed and fixed by weld joints on the transverse girders 8 of the HEW sections already mounted and remounted. At the ends of the transverse metal girder 8 of the HEW span already mounted, a pair of temporary support jacks for supporting the additional support pairs of columns 13 and fixed by a weld joint, is provided. The additional support pairs of columns 13 are designed integrally with the conductor frame 6 and arranged in pairs on its bottom side along the longitudinal beams 12 with a step in accordance with formula: l = L / (n + 1), where l - distance between the pairs of additional support columns, L - length of the conductor frame, n - number of pairs of additional support columns.
EFFECT: expansion of arsenal of hardware and trouble-free operation when changing the length of spans, reduction of construction terms and reduction of the work complexity.
3 cl, 1 dwg