Gypsum products with high-efficient heat-absorbing additives
SUBSTANCE: gypsum article comprises a cured gypsum core layer, at least partially covered with at least one facing sheet, at least one of the liner sheets comprising paper and aluminium trihydrate, the paper being obtained from at least a pulp and aluminium trihydrate, and wherein the aluminium trihydrate is present in an amount of from about 5% to about 40 wt % relative to the pulp in a dry state.
EFFECT: increasing the stability of gypsum products to high temperatures.
9 cl, 12 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction of buildings and structures in quake-prone areas, under conditions of impact of vibrodynamic loads at factories, in cities, and is also applicable for structures of reservoirs of dry loose substances in industrial centres having sources of vibrations, and may be used in the area of means of transport in creation of body designs. The result is achieved by the method of increasing earthquake stability of a brick wall panel, which consists in the fact that a layer of mortar is placed onto the foundation between columns, and flat stiff stops are installed on it in the form of strips with vertically welded damping rods, besides, after every 8-10 rows of bricks laid on mortar stiff supports are welded, and damping rods are extended using welding, besides, in channels of the middle zone they pour mortar with vibration-damping crumb from ground worn car tyres, rods are made as damping, and each one represents a cylindrical damping element, to the ends of which flat stiff stops are rigidly attached, and the inner cavity is filled with a layer of vibration-damping material, for instance, sand, at the same time density of the vibration-damping layer is made as lower than the density of the outer cylindrical shell of the damping element, at the same time in the channels near ends of the panel they place layers of the vibration-damping material of U-shaped type, which perceive spatial vibration.
EFFECT: increased earthquake stability of a brick wall panel.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction of buildings and structures in quake-prone areas. In a quakeproof brick wall panel comprising brickwork from bricks with holes in the middle of the width and at one quarter of the length from brick ends, laid onto mortar with matching of holes into channels, and reinforcement rods pulled through channels with their stiff fixation at the ends, by means of flat stops along thickness, equal to thickness of the mortar joint, and in channels near the ends of the panel there are layers of vibration-damping material of U-shaped type that perceive spatial vibration, reinforcement rods are made as damping, and each of them represents a cylindrical damping element, to the ends of which flat stiff stops are stiffly attached, and the inner cavity is filled with a layer of vibration-damping material, for instance, sand, at the same time density of the vibration-damping layer is less than the density of the outer cylindrical shell of the damping element, besides, layers of vibration-damping material structurally made as U-shaped and perceiving spatial vibration, are made of ground worn car tyres on a binder in the form of rubber glue, liquid glass or polymer binder, and at every 8-10 rows of bricks laid on mortar stiff stops are welded, and damping rods are extended using welding, besides, mortar with vibration-damping crumb is poured into channels of the middle zone to form stiffer zones, and reinforcement rods are made damping, and each of them represents coaxially arranged cylindrical shells, between which there are tubular damping elements placed coaxially from vibration-damping material, to the ends of which flat stiff stops are rigidly attached, and the inner central cavity is filled with sand, at the same time density of layers of vibration-damping material is less than density of coaxially arranged cylindrical shells.
EFFECT: increased earthquake stability of a brick wall panel by increased damping.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite wall panels. The method to determine properties of paper lining of a wall board, including a stage, when they take the value of wall board core stiffness, a stage, when they determine the required value of resistance to pulling of nails, based on technical requirements to a wall board, and a stage, when they calculate the value of paper lining stiffness, based on the taken values of core stiffness and determined value of resistance to pulling of nails. The method includes a stage, when the calculated value of paper lining stiffness is displayed on a display device.
EFFECT: production of panels having required values of resistance to pulling of nails.
8 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture acoustic panels includes preparation of a water suspension from mineral wool, a binder, a filler and target additives. The produced suspension in the form of a raw mat is applied onto a continuously moving tape with a net. It is pressed with the help of vacuum. Drying and finishing treatment is performed. At the same time mineral wool for the suspension is additionally manufactured. After pressing moisture of the raw mat makes 55-60%. Before drying the raw mat is cut, drying is carried out in a multi-level moulding drying furnace with three heating zones, accordingly: 270-280°C, 330°C and 240°C. At the same time variation of temperature in the cross profile of the furnace makes +/-5°C, and moisture of panels at the outlet from the moulding furnace is not more than 0.5%.
EFFECT: ecological compatibility of the method, high efficiency, high acoustic and operational characteristics of finished items.
16 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: earthquake-resistant brick wall panel includes brick masonry of bricks with holes in the middle of width and on one fourth of length from brick end faces laid on mortar with alignment of holes into channels, and reinforcement bars passed through the channels with their stiff fixation on the end faces, by means of flat stop pieces as to thickness, which are equal to thickness of a mortar seam, and in the channels near the end faces of the panel there arranged are layers of vibration cushioning material of a U-type, which receive spatial vibration; with that, layers of vibration cushioning material are made from crushed worn-out tyre casings on a binder in the form of a rubber adhesive, liquid glass, or a polymer binding agent, and in every 8÷10 rows of bricks laid on mortar there welded are stiff stop pieces, and damping rods are elongated by application of welding; with that, mortar is poured into the channels of an intermediate zone with vibration cushioning chips from crushed tyre casings for formation of stiffer zones. Reinforcement bars are vibration cushioning, and each of them represents coaxially located cylindrical shells, between which there coaxially located are tubular damping elements from vibration cushioning material, to the ends of which there rigidly attached are flat stiff stop pieces, and the inner central cavity is filled with sand; with that, density of layers of vibration cushioning material is less than density of coaxially located cylindrical shells.
EFFECT: increasing earthquake resistance of a brick wall panel.
SUBSTANCE: system of connection for assembly panels comprising at least two external concrete layers, equipped with metal reinforcement, and an intermediate layer arranged between two external concrete layer, made of a heat insulating material; where the system includes connecting elements similar to the plates, the length (L) of which make it possible to arrange them in direction at the right angle relative to the plane of the panel itself, via a heat insulating layer, and to partially insert inside the external concrete layers. Each such connecting element on two opposite ends is engaged with appropriate engaging facilities to external concrete layers. At the same time at least one of engaging facilities provided on the opposite ends of each connecting element is made of two separate C-shaped bent profiles arranged next to each other and in parallel to each other. Besides, the specified C-shaped bent profiles are made as capable of their engagement to the appropriate rods provided on metal reinforcement at least of one of external concrete concrete layers of the panel.
EFFECT: possibility to withstand thermal expansions of surfaces, absence of thermal load impact at structure of panels.
13 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to light cementing compositions for making panels and methods for production thereof. The composition for making a cement slab contains a suspension which contains the following, wt %: cementing reactive powder containing portland cement 35-60, expanded and chemically coated waterproof and hydrophobic pearlite filler 2-10, water 20-40, secondary filler 0-25; entrapped air 10-50 vol. % and an optional additive selected from at least one substance from a group consisting of plasticising agents, chemical setting catalysts and chemical setting inhibitors, the suspension having temperature of at least about 40°F (4.4°C), while mixing components to form a composition. In the method of producing said composition, a mixture is formed from said components in conditions which provide initial temperature of the suspension of at least about 40°F (4.4°C). The inventions are developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: high strength, adhesiveness, high hydrophobicity, moisture resistance, stability of dimensions, resistance to bacteria, moulds, fungi, frost resistance, incombustibility of the obtained panels.
10 cl, 20 tbl
SUBSTANCE: prefabricated wall panel used in construction of buildings and design for connection with a construction joint or at least one other prefabricated wall panel or at least one wall with the help of form elements, in which at least one edge part of the prefabricated wall panel comprises a longitudinal groove, at the same time all leaks of cement mortar that occur when monolithic concrete is poured into a cavity limited with edges of prefabricated wall panels or a wall and form elements remain in this longitudinal groove. Also an L-shaped prefabricated wall panel and versions of the method to produce a vertical construction joint are described.
EFFECT: making a vertical construction joint that prevents water leakages, no necessity to remove leaks of cement, which fills the joint.
18 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: paper surface is treated with glue, including water, a latex binder and a mineral filler with the specified ratio of components. The latex binder is selected from the group, including ethylene polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl acetate latex, styrene butadiene rubber, acrylic and vinyl acrylic rubber. A sheet material is also proposed to line a gypsum wall board, as well as the method to produce treated paper and glue for surface treatment.
EFFECT: higher strength of a wall board by using a smaller ratio of water-gypsum, its improved characteristics with provision of lower energy consumption.
46 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a novel method of making articles in form of slabs, porous slabs, blocks made from a conglomerate consisting of pieces of stone. The method is based on the existing technology of compaction by means of vacuum compression and involves preparation of a mixture consisting of a granulate and binder which is an aqueous dispersion of an acrylic prepolymer. The granulate is selected from stone-like materials. The mixture also contains a finely dispersed inorganic aggregate. The mixture is deposited in form of a layer onto a substrate or inside a mould and is compacted via vacuum vibro-compression. Further, the binder which is present in the moulded article is hardened. At the step for compaction using vacuum vibro-compression, the article hardens in conditions which enable to prevent removal of water from the mixture due to evaporation. When making porous slabs, at the compacting step, the article hardens in conditions which enable to remove water from the mixture. When making blocks, the mixture is deposited only inside the mould. When using the method, blocks can also be made, which can then be sawed.
EFFECT: articles have high mechanical strength, resistance to UV radiation and are environmentally safe.
18 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gypsum boards with reduced weight and reduced density. A fire-resistant gypsum board includes an intermediate gypsum layer located between two facing sheets, with that, the intermediate gypsum layer includes a crystalline matrix of hardened gypsum and particles with high expansion coefficient, which are capable of being expanded to approximately 300% or more relative to their initial volume after heating during approximately one hour at the temperature of approximately 1560°F (approximately 850°C), has density (D) of approximately 40 pounds per cubic feet (approximately 640 kg/m3) or less and hardness of the intermediate layer, which comprises at least approximately 11 pounds (approximately 5 kg), with that, heat insulation parameter of the board (TI) comprises approximately 20 minutes or more.
EFFECT: improvement of heat-insulating properties, resistance to thermal shrinkage and improvement of fire resistance.
30 cl, 22 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to setting agent for gypsum hydration, in particular to setting agent, which reduces period of initial induction, slowing down gypsum setting. Gypsum product contains matrix of calcium sulphate dehydrate crystals with crushed brushite crystals, distributed in said matrix, with crushed brushite suspension being present in quantity from approximately 0.013% to approximately 1.7% by dry brushite weight counted per weight of calcium sulphate dehydrate.
EFFECT: fast initiation of crystallisation.
9 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of building materials and can be applied at industrial enterprises, which produce masonry and decorative building mixtures, which include gypsum binding agents. The method of a obtaining highly strong gypsum binding agent includes soaking of a gypsum raw material with a solution of maleic acid and thermal processing of the raw material under pressure, as the gypsum raw material applied is a product of processing alumina-containing wastes, which contains calcium sulphate dehydrate, with soaking and processing of the gypsum raw material being carried out simultaneously by boiling the gypsum raw material in a water solution of maleic acid with a concentration of 0.02-0.10 wt %, with a ratio of the gypsum raw material and the water solution of maleic acid equal to 1:3, the obtained pulp is cooled, and filtered, the obtained after filtration sediment is supplied to drying and following milling.
EFFECT: reduced duration of a gypsum binder obtaining process and increase of strength in its target application.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to compositions of raw material mixture, which can be used for smoothing surface of various gypsum products. Raw material mixture for smoothing surface of gypsum products includes, wt %: alabaster 100; starch 0.01-0.1; water 30-45; milk 20-25.
EFFECT: increasing storage term of raw material mixture.
SUBSTANCE: mixture contains semiaqueous gypsum, wood sawdust, and sulphuric acid with content of acid 45-50% and water with the following ratio, wt %: semiaqueous gypsum 54-56, sawdust 3.4-3.5, sulphuric acid 1.35-1.4, water - the remaining part.
EFFECT: reduction of production costs, regulation of gas-gypsum volume weight.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: porous gypsum material includes gypsum binder, titanium dioxide, water and a surfactant, with the following ratio of components, wt %: gypsum binder 60-82, titanium dioxide 0.1-25. surfactant 0.05-0.6 of hardening water, water - the balance.
EFFECT: improved sound absorption, low density and weight of articles, low concentration of harmful substances in indoor air owing to use of a photocatalyst.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for production of boards includes, wt parts: water 60-65; used subway tickets ground into particles with area of 0.2-1 cm2 1-5; gypsum binder 100.
EFFECT: increased strength of boards made from raw mix.
SUBSTANCE: dry fire-resistant construction mix containing an expanded aggregate and surfactant additive and differing by the fact that the expanded aggregate is presented by expanded vermiculite of fraction not less than 1.25 mm and expanded perlite of fraction not less than 1.25; an active mineral additive is low-melting clay; a fibre filler is fibreglass max 5 mm long; a surfactant is Silipon 1880 air-entraining admixture; a set retarder is tartaric acid; an adhesion additive is Vinnapas 5010N redispersible powder; a viscosity enhancer is Amitrolit 8882; a water-retaining agent is Mecellose FMC 7150 cellulose ester in the following proportions, wt %: gypsum binder 68-73, expanded vermiculite 13-15, expanded perlite 4-6, fibreglass 1.5-2,5, low-melting (Cambrian) clay 6-8, air-entraining admixture 0.02-0.04, set retarder 0.05-0.1, redispersible powder 1.0-1.5, viscosity enhancer 0.1-0.2, cellulose ester 0.1-0.2.
EFFECT: increasing fire-resistant efficacy, crack strength, compression and bending strength, improving the rheological properties of the mix, extending the range of dry construction mixes with gypsum binder.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for production of gypsum products includes ground by-product calcium sulphate dihydrate in the form of spent moulds of porcelain production, as lime and water - a saturated solution of slaked lime, and by-product calcium sulphate dihydrate is a binary mixture of powders with specific surfaces of 200-300 m2/kg and 800-900 m2/kg, additionally it contains a complex modifier additive as microcalcite with specific surface of 2100-2200 m2/kg, polycarboxylate and slag Portland cement at the following ratio of components, wt %: by-product calcium sulphate dihydrate with specific surface of 200-300 m2/kg - 17.5-18.9, by-product calcium sulphate dihydrate with specific surface of 800-900 m2/kg - 52.3-56.7, microcalcite with specific surface of 2100-2200 m2/kg - 3.8-10.5, polycarboxylate - 3.5-3.8, slag Portland cement - 6.2-6.8, slaked lime - 0.027-0.035, water - balance.
EFFECT: increased strength and water resistance of a composite material, reduced energy costs during its production.
SUBSTANCE: raw mix for production of construction materials and items contains, wt parts: alabaster 100; polyvinyl chloride chips 1-10; water 50-60.
EFFECT: provision of strong adhesion of a filler with hardened gypsum paste.
FIELD: gypsum-containing composition.
SUBSTANCE: claimed composition contains 0.1-30 % of various specific fat chemical additives with molecular weight of 20000 in respect to total dry mixture.
EFFECT: gypsum-containing composition of improved quality.
18 cl, 14 ex, 1 tbl