Drainage and humidification system
SUBSTANCE: drainage and humidification system includes closed drains associated with a manifold communicated with the storage pond of drain water, on the bank of which a pumping station is located, connected through a fine water filter to a system of water distribution pipelines connected to irrigation pipelines equipped with drippers-water outlets. The fine water filter represents a group of disc sprinklers installed above a filtration site comprising a waterproof corrugated base, on the surface of which a layer of filter material is placed. Along the contour of the site, a catchment groove is made, connected to a filtrate tank equipped with a pump for supplying water to the drip irrigation system. The filter material can be represented by peat mats.
EFFECT: design of the drainage and humidifying system provides increasing the reliability of the drip irrigation network operation at the recycling of drainage waters on drained lands.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of drainage of agricultural land of nonchernozem belt with closed drainage and the techniques of use of these lands. The method comprises loosening the drained soils to a depth of at least 60 m. In order to ensure the required by the plants of soil humidity conditions, preventing the possible damage to the pipes of closed drainage and providing industrial applicability of deep loosening, the deep loosening is carried out to a depth of hl, determined in each case from the condition of compliance with the following requirements: (hr)min ≤ hl ≤ (hr)max;(1), hl ≤ (hr)min - D - ΣΔhi , (2), where ΣΔhi = Δh1 + Δh2 + Δh3 + Δh4; (3), 60 ≤ hl ≤ ht , (4) where (hr)min and (hr)max are the minimum and maximum depth of penetration into the trench backfill of the closed drainage of the root system of cultivated culture, respectively, cm; (hd)min is the minimum depth of placement of closed drainage pipes of the project at the site where deep loosening is planned to be carried out, cm; D is the outer diameter of the closed drainage pipes at the site (cm); ΣΔhi is the sum of corrections (cm), including: the correction which depends on the accuracy of the topographic altitude survey of soil surface of the drained site, Δh1; the corrections taking into account the technogenic erosion of the soil surface during carrying out crop-engineering and land planning Δh2 and during ploughing Δh3; correction taking into account the depth of the gauge made by the tractor on the soil surface during deep loosening, Δh4; ht is the maximum possible depth of loosening soil due of the technology level and characterising the industrial feasibility of the inventive method; at that in each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the powdering layer of the drainage pipe over the bottom of the trench mp > hd - hl, where hd is the depth of placement of the closed drainage pipe. Prior to loosening the soil on the drained part the value of the set depth of deep loosening is set on the mechanism of the ripper when setting up, preparing it for work.
EFFECT: positive result is to obtain by a landholder of closed drainage durable and reliable in operation, providing design humidity conditions of soil during its operation for at least a normative term of service.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises drains 1, an inlet collector 2, and an outlet collector 3, between which the storage tank 4 with a siphon 5 is placed. The descending branch 6 of the siphon 5 is brought to the drain well 7 on the level of the outlet collector 3. The float 8 with the plate 9, suspended on a holding traction 10 of the float drive with a valve 11 is arranged, respectively, at the level of the siphon neck 5. The float 8 is placed on the corresponding critical depth of groundwater for the soil and climatic and hydrological conditions of the area, in which the drainage system is located. In the wall 12 of the tank 4, a hole 13 is made for the intake pipe 14, through which the tank 4 is connected to the draining storage water intakes 15. The storage water intakes 15 are connected to the openings 16 of sections of the inlet collector 2 at the location of the drains 1. When mounting the filter storage water intakes 15 the filling of waterproof materials 17 is used, such as sand, gravel, slag or synthetic wastes of light industry.
EFFECT: invention enables to automate fully the process of maintaining the level of groundwater at the level corresponding to the critical, ensures the supply of a certain amount of water from the groundwater in the root layer of soil, which increases moisture reserves for crops and enables decrease partly the irrigation rates, which provides saving water resources, the necessary regime of moistening and aeration of soil is ensured by creating an optimal level of groundwater in the different phases of plant vegetation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: construction method of adits containing a water-receiving element in the form of a solid unit of n number (n>2) of vertical longitudinal toe filters involves trench excavation by means of an excavating and drainage machine, laying into it of a drain pipe covered with protective filter material, and refilling of the trench by means of a padding device moving synchronously with the drainage machine and provided with a bunker for filter material with a drain chute. Laying of the drain pipe covered with protective filter material and refilling of the trench is performed simultaneously. The drain pipe covered with protective filter material is padded throughout the trench width to the depth of 15 cm above its crown from a duct to which filter material is supplied from the bunker via the drain chute. The duct represents a rectangular parallelepiped having width equal to trench width, and height that is somewhat bigger than trench depth. Duct bottom is located near the trench bottom at the distance of padding layer thickness of the drain pipe relative to the trench bottom. The duct is rigidly attached with front wall 7 to housing 8 of the excavating and drainage machine. On rear 9 wall of the duct there installed on the outer side are (n-1) vertical partition walls 10 parallel to each other and to walls 1 of the trench with a possibility of changing the distance between them according to thickness of the filters. Height of each of partition walls 10 is equal to the duct height. The filter material bunker is divided into sections by means of partition walls with a possibility of changing the distance between them and their number so that the number of bunker sections is more by one than the number of vertical longitudinal toe filters of the adit. Each bunker section is provided with its own drain chute, from which each adjacent vertical longitudinal filter is filled with heterogeneous filter material.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of filter refilling of the trench of the adit; improving hydrological action of adits and ecological and economic efficiency of draining of low-water-permeable middle and heavy loamy and clay soils.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device is located at drainage-watering collector and drainage network. Device contains a drain well 2 with installed drain tip 1, shutdown device, drive and chamber 10 connected by means of the additional chamber 28 with collector 27 cavity. The device is provided with installed self-regulating gear 3 of the regulator in well, and comprises head regulator made in form of the membrane 13 provided at bottom with mesh-type protecting limiter 22 of membrane 13 movement. The membrane 13 is secured at top to the casing 4. The above membrane cavity 12 is connected with atmosphere and with valve 14 and rod 16 by means of two-arm lever 17 with output valve 20 closing the hole 21 in the chamber 10 bottom. The rod 18 of the output valve 20 has piston 19 for water supply in the cavity of the collector 27. The output valve 20 is located in the additional chamber 28, in its side wall the calibrated hole 29 is made, it is connected with well 2. The chamber 10 bottom has inlet hole 23 with valve 24 connected with float 25 installed with possibility of the latter abutment to the limiting shoulders 26.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the device, operation reliability and quality of the water regulation in the drain system.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a device of drainage trench with a drainage pipe laid on its bottom with a protective-filtering material, the filtering elements in the form of prisms of soil of humus horizon, arranged in a trench to the arable layer, and the final backfilling the trench with soil of humus horizon. Each drainage trench is made with the depth of at least 1.1 m and the width of at least 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface waters at an angle of not more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. The drainage pipe with protective-filtering material is sprinkled with soil of humus horizon, cut off from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above the pipe crown. The filtering elements are made in the form of a single block composed of the nth odd number (n≥3) of the vertical regular prisms parallel to the trench walls, in which the prism of soil of humus horizon alternates with the prism from the excavated soils. The width of the prism from the excavated soil is two times greater than the width of the prism of soil of humus horizon, and the width of the trench B and the width of each odd prism of soil of humus horizon b"n" are related to each other as b"n"=2B/(3n-1).
EFFECT: improvement of hydrological action of the closed regulatory network, increase in efficiency of the use of topsoil and the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of average-loamy soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: system includes supply drain lines 1, manifold 2, and storage well 3, in which siphon block 7 is mounted. The system is provided with self-regulating mechanism 4 of ground water level installed in well 3 and consisting of float chamber 6 rigidly fixed in the upper position above the ridge of siphon block 7 and connected by means of a rigid float drive through valve 8 with a blind section of pipe 13 on a descending branch of siphon block 7. The descending branch of siphon block 7 is connected to discharge pipe 14. Float chamber 6 is connected via hydraulic channel 12 to well 3. The lower part of well 3 is sealed, and above discharge pipe 14 it has outlet opening 15 with branch pipe 17, which is shut off with a level control by means of an additional float drive for control of gate 16. Float gate 16 has L-shaped lever 19 with flange 20, on which float 18 and horizontal plate 23 is fixed. Branch pipe 17 is connected to storage well 3 below the ridge of siphon block 7 by value Δh providing maximum design water filling of well 3 with further discharge to discharge pipe 14. Value Δh is calculated by the following formula: Δh=h1-h2. The self-regulating mechanism is connected to hydraulic channel 12 and well 3 as per a principle of communicating vessels. When the level of the ridge of siphon block 7 is achieved, a charging device is actuated and water discharge through siphon block 7 is performed in a pressure mode to the level of the inlet opening of its ascending branch. The level control in well 3 is actuated when maximum water level achieves the fixed restraining bracket 21, and opening of opening 15 with gate 16 is performed.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow automating of a ground water level control process and maintaining correct soil humidity balance; automatic flushing of the well with pressure water flow.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a sprinkler unit and can be used for watering gardens of agricultural irrigation. In the sprinkler unit there is an elongated guide element (120) located on the deflector (112) upstream from the deflection surface (114). The guide element (120) is in contact with the flow (202) of liquid to direct the splashed out liquid from the deflecting surface (114) back to the flow (202) of the liquid.
EFFECT: reduction of liquid loss, improvement of productivity of the sprinkler unit and enabling the prevention of falling down of the flow of the liquid splashed out from the sprinkler head (100), significant reduction of accumulation of the splashed out liquid around the sprinkler unit; moreover, various components of the sprinkler unit can be protected from contact with the splashed out liquid.
18 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: dropper-sprinkler is mounted on a flexible irrigation pipeline using the clamps covering the irrigation pipeline, connected of two half-rings by the bolts. At the lower part of the clamp a threaded pipe is secured to mount the dropper housing, in which the water-conducting channels are made. In the inner cavity the guide piston is mounted, held by a compression spring and connected with a conical valve. The valve seat is connected to the inner cavity of the probe in the side walls of which the water-conducting channels are made. In the upper part of the clamp the threaded nozzle is attached for the sprinkler. In the nozzle the bearing washer is mounted with a calibration orifice for the ball valve located in the housing, mounted by thread in the threaded nozzle. The ball valve is fixed by a compression spring between the thrust and bearing washers. The housing in the upper part is made cylindrical and has the ribbed inner walls. On the cylindrical part of the housing the corrugated water-conducting pipeline is mounted, connected to the nozzle having the output windows and fixed to the deflector in the form of a paraboloid of revolution.
EFFECT: enabling the ability of uniform wetting of the root layer of soil, the favourable microclimate for cormophyte part of plants, increase in yields.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises fixing the time of feeding the liquid fertiliser to agricultural fields of irrigation and volume of feeding the compressed air and oxygen released from it by directing the compressed air from the air supply pipe to the section with a partition and with a flexible inner protective coating and portion feeding the air by command of the relay time. Each section is fixed in the pipeline with a closed chamber, which alternates with the free part of the pipeline. Introduction of the protective coating having micropores enables through the partition in the form of a perforated tape to feed the pressurised air into the pipeline cavity. When filling the cavity of irrigation pipeline with sewage or livestock wastes, the compressed air is entered with the release of oxygen from it by directional action into the pipeline cavity along its length. Simultaneously the destruction of accumulation of silt, fine sediments and the release of harmful gases formed as a result of action of microorganisms from the accumulated silt is carried out. Irrigation is carried out to the fields of irrigation through an open hydrant-riser that enables to clean the closed irrigation pipeline with the flows. For preventive flushing of the irrigation pipeline after termination of fertilizing irrigation with the flows, pure water from the collector is used for flushing with simultaneous feeding the compressed air and released oxygen directly into the cavity of the pipeline, connected to the open disposal collector-drainage network through the valve of the downshaft.
EFFECT: opportunity to fill a cavity of the pipeline under pressure with less amount of pure water and release it from the accumulation of silt, sediment and harmful gas, and eliminate corrosion of pipeline walls after using liquid fertilisers for fertiliser irrigation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for automatic watering plants comprises a container for irrigation liquid (1) with a device of the irrigation liquid supply (2) to several rows of plants, having an outlet hose (3) with the supplying nozzle (4), the drive (5) controlled by the software device (7) to move the nozzle (4) from one inlet spout (6) to another. The inlet spouts (6) located at each row of plants are connected to the distribution pipelines (8) with watering nozzles (9). The software device (7) controls automatically the process of watering plants according to the given programs.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of automatic watering of several rows of plants with the desired flow rate of irrigation liquid.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, particularly to irrigation, and can be used in watering and fertilising crops. The method of water treatment comprises the use of a filter material located in one housing, and the filter material is used as a mixture of tereklite clay, barite and dolomite powder in the ratio of 5:1:0.5, and it is placed on a metal grid with holes of 0.2-0.3 cm, the length of 8-10 m and height of 0.8-1 m.
EFFECT: method enables, using the natural sources, to reduce costs and increase the efficiency of the method.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a distributing channel 5, an intake pipe cap 2 and a drain pipe. The device comprises a diffuser from composite pipe sections of a conic section, designed in the form of a lock 1. The lock 1 is fixed by means of a hinge on the edge of the channel 5, having a slewing gear in the form of a control wheel 6 with a stopper. The inlet end of the diffuser 1 has the pipe cap 2, the cut angle of which is equal to 6…9° to the bottom of the channel 5. The outlet end of the diffuser 1 is joined with the pipe section 3 of a constant cross section with a flexible hose 4. The curvature radius along the axis of the diffuser is Ro=1.25din, where din - diameter of the intake pipe cap. Operational reliability under conditions of a variable water level in the channel is increased and an effective protection of the lock against wastes and sediments is provided.
EFFECT: improved operational reliability of the device by providing water extraction from different levels.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gas turbine engine is used as a rainer providing for clouds, it comprises a turbocompressor, an augmenter set vertically in respect to the earth surface and fitted by a water header with jets directed as per the gas flow with the header being installed inside the augmenter after the combustion zone, a water pump, an outlet device in the form of a de Laval nozzle. The length of the cylindrical part of the augmenter can exceed 20 m. The pressure of water in the water header can exceed 10 MPa. The essence of invention consists in the fact that mechanical work performed by the gas turbine engine and the energy of combustion products (kinetic, heat one) are used to deliver water to the upper atmosphere.
EFFECT: formation of rain clouds which fall out onto the irrigated surface as precipitation.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the layout of irrigation piping, transplanting the agricultural crops in points of placement of water outlets and vegetative irrigations. Irrigation piping layout is carried out with a unit for transplanting and laying the irrigation piping, equipped with a drum with irrigation piping placed on it, the length of which should correspond to the distance between the headlands of the irrigated field. For vegetative irrigation the drip irrigation system is used, comprising the water source, the unit of water purification from impurities and electric actuator connected hydraulically through locking and regulating device with distribution manifold having drain pipes for connection of irrigation pipelines. The distribution pipe is placed at the front edge of the headland of the irrigated field. The electric actuator of water is equipped with DC generator with adjustable parameters and switch potential, the activating part of the electric actuator of water comprises a cylindrical housing made of stainless steel or titanium with threaded tips, and performing the function of the outer electrode. In the inner cavity of the cylindrical housing separated by a semipermeable diaphragm microporous plastic, the internal electrode is mounted with the possibility of mounting and dismantling, formed of undulated plates of stainless steel, mounted in the inner cavity of the housing crosswise. The distance between the plates is taken from the condition to ensure the necessary flow passage section, providing the desired flow rate through the electric actuator. Supply of electric potential to the inner electrode is performed through the terminal insulated from the housing by the dielectric sleeve, and the supply of potential to the housing is performed through the terminal fixed to the housing outer surface. The vegetative irrigations are carried out in the following sequence: first irrigation with catholyte with the potential -300÷-400 mV at pH of 7.5-8 and the rate of irrigation of 2-3 litres per the plant. After a day the irrigation with the anolyte is carried out - electric actuated water with potential +500÷+600 mV with bringing soil moisture to the minimum field capacity (MFC). Then, irrigation is carried out periodically to maintain soil moisture within 80-85% of the MFC with the catholyte with the potential -200÷-300 mV. Irrigation with anolyte with a potential of +600÷+700 mV is carried out at the appearance of pathogens or pests with bringing soil moisture within 80-85% of the MFC. After harvesting laying the irrigation piping on drums is carried out from the front hitch device of the tractor, provided with brackets for hinging the drums.
EFFECT: method enables to increase productivity and reduce labour intensity of cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: combined irrigation system comprises the hydraulically connected water source, pumping station, filter, pressure gauges, stop valves, water-air retention tank, module of electroactivation of the irrigation water, main pipeline, network of distribution and irrigation pipes. On the irrigation pipes there are modules-micro-irrigators of the combined irrigation system, comprising covering irrigation pipe of the ring having threaded ends in the upper and lower pipes. The lower threaded pipe is fixed to the injector for drip irrigation of root soil layer, consisting of thrust water-carrying washer, a diaphragm, a spring-loaded conical valve, a bearing washer with the calibration orifice, a hollow cone with the water discharge openings formed on the left-hand orientation helix. In the upper threaded pipe a cylindrical water supply barrel is mounted, a thrust water-carrying washer, a diaphragm with a conical valve fixed by the tension spring between the thrust washer with the calibration orifice and the thrust washer with the water-carrying opening. The conical spring-loaded valve in its upper part has petal guides. All elements are located in a cylindrical water supply barrel having in the inner surface the helical guide of left hand orientation. In the upper part of the water supply barrel the flow guide is made in the form of a surface of rotation of the fourth order coupled with the water discharge openings directed tangentially to the inner surface of the water supply barrel counter clockwise. Over the upper part of the water supply barrel the spherical deflector shell is mounted, which lower edge is located below the axis of the water discharge openings.
EFFECT: acceleration of plant growth and development, increase in productivity and quality of the products obtained.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used in irrigation systems requiring sector irrigation. The sprinkler-activator of the sector irrigation comprises a housing with a central trunk and two side trunks having nozzles, rotating mechanism of trunks made in the form of the rocker with jet vanes. The side trunks are mounted on the central trunk at different height levels and have in the inner cavity the screw guides with left oriented guiding of the screw. Above the side trunks the nozzles are located for driving the housing in rotation, and in front of the nozzles on the outer surface of the trunks the vanes are fixed at an angle to the axis of the nozzle, and under the side trunks the nozzles for irrigation on the small sector are provided. On the central trunk in the area of the side trunks and nozzles the water outlet openings are made, the housing on the trunk is fixed by the thrust washer.
EFFECT: simplifying the design of the device, obtaining the fine sprinkling with water having increased biological activity.
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cylindrical casing with inlet and outlet openings. Cylindrical casing has threaded covers and body. Valve and elastic cuff are movably positioned inside cavity of cylindrical casing. Apparatus is further equipped with additional cuff. Main and additional cuffs are provided with orifices. Valve is made in the form of concavo-concave lens arranged in spherical belt. Valve is manufactured from material having density smaller than density of water, in particular, valve may be made from cork of 0.2-0.3 t/m3 density. Valve is arranged in casing between cuffs and is adapted for alternating contacting through cuffs with projections oppositely arranged inside casing cavity. Projections are made in the form of spherical segments, with radius of spheres of segments being smaller than radius of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens. Difference between radii of projection sphere and that of spheres of concavo-concave valve lens is equal to thickness of elastic cuffs. Channels on apexes of cover and casing projections are extending in radial direction toward inlet and outlet openings.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and enhanced reliability in operation.
4 cl, 4 dwg