Thruster at gaseous hydrogen and oxygen with centrifugal nozzles

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thrusters operating at gaseous hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) as the actuators of control systems for rocket and space equipment. The mixing head has two centrifugal nozzles for supplying fuel and oxidant to the combustion chamber and fuel channels for cooling the wall of the combustion chamber and the nozzle. In order to supply fuel to the combustion chamber, a centrifugal nozzle with a large angle of the flow velocity vector and a coaxial centrifugal oxidant nozzle with a smaller velocity vector angle than the fuel are installed.

EFFECT: increased combustion completeness of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen in the engine.

1 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.

SUBSTANCE: cruise missile engine combustion chamber is composed of sandwiched article and comprises shell to sustain inner pressure load and thermal ceramic composite protection ply to contact the gases formed at fuel combustion. Said thermal ceramic composite protection ply features linear expansion factor and elasticity modulus that allow thermal and mechanical compatibility with said shell. Besides, said thickness is selected to rule out the shell additional external cooling. Said shell is made of ceramic composite reinforced with carbon fibres that feature linear expansion factor of not over 5.2x10-6 1/°C, modulus of elasticity making at least 13·103 MPa, and breaking strength not lower than 90 MPa. Said thermal ceramic composite protection ply in contact with gases with working temperature not over 2000°C features linear expansion factor of not over 5.5·10-6 1/°C.

EFFECT: decreased weight and overall dimensions, simplified design, higher reliability.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber of a liquid-propellant engine, which operates on such fuel components as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen and liquefied natural gas, which includes a housing of the chamber with a supply line of fuel for cooling, a mixing head with a supply line of fuel, a gas line with a supply line of an oxidising generator gas, a gas-distributing grid, an ignition device fixed on the external surface of the gas line, according to the invention, in the centre of the gas line, the gas-distributing grid and a central bushing of the housing there is a sleeve that is rigidly attached with one of its ends to the housing of the gas line, and with the other one along the external surface it is installed as to a cone into the central bushing of the housing of the mixing head and on the end of the internal surface of the sleeve there are centring ribs along which an ignition device is installed with its free end.

EFFECT: improving reliability and repeated start of a combustion chamber.

2 dwg

FIELD: motors and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in supply of one of self-igniting fuels, for example, fuel through centrifugal injector coaxial with the combustion chamber with formation of cylindrical fog, passing into conical one behind the injector nozzle section and second component, for example, oxidant through spray nozzle injectors, uniformly located circumferentially, coaxial with the centrifugal injector nozzle, according to the applied invention the second component is completely supplied through spray nozzle injectors to the conical deflector, coaxial with them, primary films are formed on it, which then are supplied from the deflector sharp edge to the internal wall of the combustion chamber, and secondary films are formed on it, which for the first time are contacted with the film of the first component on a wall of a combustion chamber for organizing of liquid phase mixing of components by interpenetration of fuel and oxidant for their complete thickness on the combustion chamber wall and its simultaneous cooling by complete supplied component, meanwhile the length of free span of spray cone of the centrifugal injector is ensured before contacting the combustion chamber, exceeding no more than twice the rated length of film disintegration start, and the thicknesses of films of oxidant and fuel are formed from the relationships: Doin+δoch2(rm.ch+δf)=1218, where Doin+δochdc.onc.o=614, - inner diameter of location of oxidant secondary films on the combustion chamber wall; Doin - thickness of the oxidant secondary film on the combustion chamber wall; rm.k. - radius of vortex on the nozzle centrifugal injector wall; δf - fuel fog thickness in the centrifugal injector nozzle; dc.o. - oxidant jet diameter; nc.o. - number of oxidant sprays.

EFFECT: improvement of cost efficiency and reliability of the low thrust liquid fuel rocket motor at the expense of increase of specific impulse with simultaneous maintaining of acceptable thermal state with the significant reserve by temperature of the motor elements.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 9 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: chamber comprises a mixing head with tracts of fuel components supply and nozzle elements, a flange for fixation to an object, bodies of the chamber with the combustion chamber and the nozzle, attached to the mixing head via an adapter. According to the invention the flange for fixation of the chamber to the object is installed on the adapter near the combustion chamber and is located in the zone of the seating surface of the adapter and the mixing head, the adapter is connected to the mixing head along the outer seating surface, and end and inner cylindrical sections have a gap between appropriate surfaces of the mixing head.

EFFECT: reduced thermal flows towards an object.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite materials, particularly carbon-carbon composite material, and can be used in making liquid-propellant engines. The carbon-carbon composite material with a protective silicon carbide coating has a sealing layer. The protective coating is coated with a sealing layer of nickel, niobium or molybdenum metal.

EFFECT: high durability and reliability of the obtained material.

1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: in a cooling system of a liquid-propellant engine chamber, which includes a cylindrical combustion chamber and a nozzle containing in its turn convergent and divergent parts and a critical section between them, which are made in the form of an external cover, an internal cover with the main fins of constant thickness, which form a cooling circuit, and at least one barrier belt with tangential openings and a manifold, inside which an annular part is installed, according to the invention, the annular part is trapezoid-shaped and has a trapezoid-shaped cavity, and inlet and outlet openings are made on end faces of the annular part at an angle to the combustion chamber axis. The barrier belt can be made at the connection point of the combustion chamber and the nozzle in the middle of the nozzle convergent part. There can be made two barrier belts.

EFFECT: improved cooling of a critical section of the nozzle and increased specific thrust of an engine.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering and may be used in clustered rocket bodies as a correction engine. Proposed engine comprises tank filled with working fluid and having the bore in cover, chamber and jet nozzle. Working fluid phase splitter is arranged inside the engine chamber, at tank outlet. Control valve with spring and electromagnet is arranged downstream of said splitter. This engine incorporates the device to heat working fluid in area adjoining the tank outlet. Fluid-gas engine generates jet thrust by outflow of water steam formed at gas vaporisation from liquid phase.

EFFECT: thrust adjustment, lower power consumption, non-polluting working fluid.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine chamber combustion chamber with regenerative cooling, throat and nozzle, mixing head including housing, unit to feed oxidiser, mainly, oxygen, primary fuel feed tank, extra fuel feed tank and fire bottom unit. Coaxial aligned-jet nozzles making central and peripheral zones are arranged in said units in concentric circles. Said coaxial aligned-jet nozzles include hollow tip communicating oxidiser zone with fire zone, sleeve covering said tip with clearance to communicate the primary fuel unit with fire zone. Note here that tips of at least central zone nozzles have radial grooves at their outlets composed of alternating ledges and recesses. Note also that the sleeve between tip ledges has channels with outlets open to fire zone and inlets communicated with extra fuel unit chamber. Note that outer profile of said channels is equidistant with tip profile.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of combustion.

5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring the reaction force of gasification products when burning a sample of solid fuel, armoured on the side surface, wherein the reaction force and time for complete combustion of the sample of solid fuel placed in a constant volume explosion apparatus are measured, at pressure in the range of (0.5-1.5)MPa, generated by an inert gas, e.g. nitrogen or argon, wherein the volume of the explosion apparatus and the mass of the sample are in a given ratio, and the value of the unit pulse of is determined using a calculation formula.

EFFECT: enabling determination of a unit pulse using small fuel samples in laboratory conditions without using large stand equipment and explosion-proof boxes.

2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: liquid-propellant engine comprises at least one gas generator, at least one turbo pump unit, feed and adjustment members, circular regenerative-cooling chamber with shaped center body accommodating aforesaid units, mixing head including case, oxidiser feed unit, mainly oxygen feed, primary fuel feed unit, extra fuel feed unit and fire plug unit. Coaxial aligned-jet nozzles making central and peripheral zones are arranged in said units in concentric circles. Said coaxial aligned-jet nozzles include hollow tip communicating oxidiser zone with fire zone, sleeve covering said tip with clearance to communicate the primary fuel unit with fire zone. Note here that tips of at least central zone nozzles have radial grooves at their outlets composed of alternating ledges and recesses. Note also that the sleeve between tip ledges has channels with outlets open to fire zone and inlets communicated with extra fuel unit chamber. Note that outer profile of said channels is equidistant with tip profile.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of three-component fuel mixing.

5 dwg

FIELD: motors and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in supply of one of self-igniting fuels, for example, fuel through centrifugal injector coaxial with the combustion chamber with formation of cylindrical fog, passing into conical one behind the injector nozzle section and second component, for example, oxidant through spray nozzle injectors, uniformly located circumferentially, coaxial with the centrifugal injector nozzle, according to the applied invention the second component is completely supplied through spray nozzle injectors to the conical deflector, coaxial with them, primary films are formed on it, which then are supplied from the deflector sharp edge to the internal wall of the combustion chamber, and secondary films are formed on it, which for the first time are contacted with the film of the first component on a wall of a combustion chamber for organizing of liquid phase mixing of components by interpenetration of fuel and oxidant for their complete thickness on the combustion chamber wall and its simultaneous cooling by complete supplied component, meanwhile the length of free span of spray cone of the centrifugal injector is ensured before contacting the combustion chamber, exceeding no more than twice the rated length of film disintegration start, and the thicknesses of films of oxidant and fuel are formed from the relationships: Doin+δoch2(rm.ch+δf)=1218, where Doin+δochdc.onc.o=614, - inner diameter of location of oxidant secondary films on the combustion chamber wall; Doin - thickness of the oxidant secondary film on the combustion chamber wall; rm.k. - radius of vortex on the nozzle centrifugal injector wall; δf - fuel fog thickness in the centrifugal injector nozzle; dc.o. - oxidant jet diameter; nc.o. - number of oxidant sprays.

EFFECT: improvement of cost efficiency and reliability of the low thrust liquid fuel rocket motor at the expense of increase of specific impulse with simultaneous maintaining of acceptable thermal state with the significant reserve by temperature of the motor elements.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 9 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine running on two-component propellant comprises uncooled combustion chamber, mixing head with inner bottom, axial rotary atomiser, peripheral row of jet nozzles and circular conical deflector arranged there between. In compliance with this invention, rotary atomiser edge is recessed from deflector generator outlet edge towards peripheral row of jet atomisers. Note here that deflector conical surface root smoothly changes into cylindrical surface coaxial with deflector and smoothly changes into inverse cone. Sharp edge of generator of the latter is confined by cylindrical surface in diameter smaller than that of jet atomiser peripheral row location.

EFFECT: higher stability of operation and efficiency, decreased overall dimensions and weight.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed atomiser head has case and fire bottom with nozzles fitted thereat. Said nozzles have central tangential and shaped channels to communicate the cavities of components with combustion chamber. End face of outlet cross-section of atomiser central channel diverging part is located ahead of atomiser tangential channel orifices. Note here that ledge h between central and tangential channels does not exceed 20% of d where d is the atomiser tangential channel diameter.

EFFECT: higher combustion chamber efficiency and specific thrust pulse.

2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocketry and can be used in units of industrial power generators. Liquid-propellant rocket engine mixing head comprises body, oxidiser feed unit, propellant feed unit and nozzles. Said nozzles are arranged inside mixing head in concentric circles and consist of several coaxial sleeves. Said sleeves make ring chambers for gaseous propellant and liquid oxidiser feed. Circular ledge is made at every inner sleeve wit grooves perpendicular to nozzle axis for feed of propellant into appropriate ring chamber and parallel grooves for feed of oxidiser into appropriate chamber. Ring chambers of fuel feed components on combustion chamber side are closed by spacer rings. Fuel feed holes are made in said spacer rings. Note here that all sleeves on side opposite the combustion zone are arranged right against each other.

EFFECT: higher combustion efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: atomiser of, primarily, liquid-propellant rocket engine comprises casing with fuel feed adapter. Note here that the latter is arranged inside said case at pylons while its channel is connected with fuel chamber via bores made in said pylons. In includes the sleeve arranged with ring clearance at said case to make circular gaseous oxidiser channel connected with oxidiser chamber via channels in the casing between its wall and fuel feed pylons. Adapter channel is closed at its inlet while its inner chamber communicates with ring gap between adapter and said sleeve via radial bores made at outlet. Note here that sleeve outlet has stepped expansion with its chamber connected with fuel chamber via tangential channels made in sleeve wall. In compliance with one version, sleeve outlet expansion accommodated hollow cylinder making an extension of sleeve inner channel to make ring gap with ring expansion outlet cylindrical surface. Chamber of said dap communicates via tangential bores with fuel chamber. Axial bore is made at adapter end. Stepped expansion is made at adapter outlet. Note here that bores equally spaced in circle and at angle to adapter axis are made at adapter end. Stepped expansion is made at adapter outlet. Note here that bores equally spaced in circle and at angle to adapter axis are made at adapter end located in the plane of sleeve tangential bores.

EFFECT: higher completeness combustion and better mix formation.

5 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used at designing of atomisers and mixing heads of liquid-propellant engines. A coaxial spray atomiser includes a housing with a hollow tip, in the outlet part of which there are radially located slots made in the form of alternating projections and cavities, and attaching an oxidiser cavity to a combustion zone, a bushing enclosing the tip with a gap and attaching the cavity of the first combustible to the combustion zone. Radially located slots are made so that perimetre of a central part of the jet, which is restricted with generatrixes of beams, is not more than 3s, and beam length is 2.3…2.5s, where s - beam thickness; with that, the number of beams is equal to three; in the bushing between the tip projections there are the channels, the outlet part of which opens to the combustion zone, and the inlet one is connected to the cavity of the second combustible.

EFFECT: increasing completeness of mixture formation.

2 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices for mixing and spraying of fuel components and can be used at designing of atomisers and mixing heads of liquid-propellant engines. A coaxial jet atomiser includes a housing with a hollow tip, in the four-beam outlet part of which there are radially located slots made in the form of alternating projections and cavities, and attaching an oxidiser cavity to a combustion zone, a bushing enclosing the tip with a gap and attaching the cavity of the first combustible to the combustion zone; in the bushing, between projections of the tip, there are channels, the outlet part of which opens to the combustion zone, and the inlet one of which is attached to the cavity of the second combustible; with that, an external profile of channels is evenly spaced relative to the outlet part of the tip.

EFFECT: increasing completeness of mixture formation.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in feeding fuel components in combustion chamber via coaxial aligned-jet nozzle communicating oxidiser chamber with combustion zone and including sleeve covering with clearance the nozzle to communicate fuel zone with combustion zone arranged in mixing head in concentric circles to make central and peripheral zones. Note here that at first stage mode oxygen is fed into combustion chamber via hollow nozzle with developed outlet surface of aligned-jet nozzle while hydrogen is fed via shaped gap between said nozzle and said sleeve and kerosene is fed via channels made in said sleeve. Note also that outlet section of said channels opens into combustion chamber while their outlet communicates with kerosene unit chamber. Besides said chamber in said sleeve is connected with circular groove made at sleeve end and connected with combustion zone. Note here that at second and further stages oxygen is fed into combustion chamber via hollow nozzle with developed outlet surface of aligned-jet nozzle while hydrogen is fed via shaped gap between sais nozzle and said sleeve. Proposed nozzle comprises casing with hollow atomiser. Outlet of the latter has radial grooves composed by alternating recesses and ledges communicating oxidiser chamber with combustion zone, sleeve to house said atomiser with clearance and to connect hydrogen chamber with combustion zone. Note that said radial grooves are arranged so that perimetre of jet central part confined by generating lines of beams does not exceed 3s while beam length makes 2.3…2.5s, where s is beam thickness. Note also that the channels made between atomiser ledges with outlets open sleeve chamber and inlets communicated with kerosene chamber. Note also that the sleeve between nozzle ledges has channels with outlets open to fire zone.

EFFECT: better fuel mix mixing.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: method to supply fuel components into a chamber of a three-component liquid propellant rocket engine, preferably, oxygen-kerosene-hydrogen, consists in supply of the specified components into the chamber via coaxial jet nozzles, comprising a hollow tip, which connects an oxidant cavity with a combustion zone, a bushing covering with a gap the tip and connecting the cavity of fuel with the combustion zone, arranged in a mixing head along concentric circumferences and forming central and peripheral areas. At the mode of the first stage oxygen into the cavity of the combustion chamber is supplied via the hollow tip with developed triradial outlet surface of the coaxial jet nozzle, hydrogen - via a profiled gap between the tip and the bushing of the specified nozzle, kerosene - via channels, which are made in the bushing. Besides, the outlet profile of the specified channels is made as equidistant to the tip profile. The outlet part of specified channels opens into the cavity of the combustion chamber, and the inlet one is connected with the cavity of the kerosene unit; at the mode of the second and subsequent stages oxygen into the cavity of the combustion chamber is supplied via the hollow tip with the developed outlet surface of the coaxial jet nozzle, and hydrogen - via the profiled gap between the tip and the bushing of the specified nozzle.

EFFECT: improved completeness of mixture formation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: mixing head of a liquid rocket engine (LRE) chamber comprises a body, a unit of oxidant supply, a unit of main fuel supply, a unit of additional fuel supply and a unit of fire bottom. In the specified units there are coaxial jet nozzles installed along concentric circumferences, forming central and peripheral zones. Coaxial jet nozzles include a hollow tip, connecting the oxidant cavity with the combustion zone, a bushing covering a tip with a gap and connecting the cavity of the first fuel with the combustion zone, at the same time in the tips of nozzles of the central zone in the outlet part there are radially arranged slots made in the form of alternating ledges and indents. Besides, radially arranged slots are made so that the perimeter of the central part of the jet limited by generatrices of beams makes not more than 3s, beam length - 2.3…2.5s, where s - beam thickness, at the same time the number of beams is three. In the bushing, between ledges of the tip, there are channels, the outlet part of which opens to the combustion zone, the inlet one - connects to the cavity of the second fuel.

EFFECT: improved completeness of mixture formation.

4 dwg

FIELD: rocketry; power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed mixing element consists of outer, inner and middle bushings forming circular spaces for delivery of gaseous propellant and liquid oxidizer. Circular slots are made in outer bushing from side of delivery of propellant parallel to axis of mixing element. Said slots are separated by lands in which holes are made perpendicular to axis to deliver oxidizer into circular channel opening into combustion chamber, and in outer bushing pointed to combustion zone ring circular space for propellant is made. Middle and inner bushings form second additional circular channel to deliver propellant into chamber, and outer and middle bushings, from side opposite to zone of combustion, are installed close to each other.

EFFECT: provision of maximum possible combustion of propellants of different types reduced number of mixing elements on burner plate.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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