Method for chamber mining when preparing horizons
SUBSTANCE: method of chamber mining when preparing horizons includes division of mine field into excavation areas, development of bed access drifts, extraction of mineral resources with stope chambers in advance or retreat order, delivery of ore with self-propelled equipment, transportation of ore using a conveyor, ventilation of stope chambers using local ventilation fan. Development of horizons is performed in turns, at first the upper horizon and then the lower one. Fresh air is fed through access drifts of the lower horizon, and the outgoing airstream is removed through access drifts of the upper horizon. The sill of the conveyor drift at the lower horizon is deepened relatively to the sill of the mining drifts. The upper horizon includes one transportation drift, and on the lower one includes the conveyor, from which entering the stope chambers is performed.
EFFECT: invention allows to increase effectiveness of stope mining operations and reduce labor costs when extracting mineral resourses by eliminating development of ventilation holes and inter-chamber connections as well as to increase ventilation efficiency of the working area by arranging ventilation and removal of outgoing air stream from access drifts separately from the operation areas.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heating systems of various objects and is mainly intended to heat the air supplied to mine The heating unit for air supplied to the mine contains combustion chamber вair heater, fan, smoke exhauster and pipelines The unit has hot air distribution device and chamber for cold and hot air mixing, they are located in air supply duct upstream the mine fan, at that the smoke exhauster is located at gases output and has fan to create vacuum in gas flow and pressure in air flow, at that the hot air distribution device is made as ring out of pipe, having slot directed across the cold air flow, and connected to hot air pipeline.
EFFECT: the unit reduces expenses for air heating and excludes furnace gases ingress in air supplied to the mine.
SUBSTANCE: method involves ambient air supply to the station through a ventilation chamber and removal of waste air via tunnels, cross passages and another ventilation chamber. At movement of trains along the line the ambient air is supplied to the station through the ventilation chamber installed on one end face of the station simultaneously via the channels with which the same ventilation chamber is connected to the station and to the tunnel, via which the train departs from the station, and waste air is removed from the station through the ventilation chamber installed on the other end face of the station simultaneously via the channels with which the same ventilation chamber is connected to the station and to the tunnel via which the train arrives at the station. At absence of train movement along the line, the ambient air is supplied to the station through any of the above said ventilation chambers by having switched off the other one, and waste air is removed through ventilation chambers of adjacent stations connected for removal. In case of the train fire at the station the channels with which both ventilation chambers of the station are connected to the tunnels are shut off, and the ventilation chamber through which ambient air is supplied to the station is switched over to an extraction mode, thus removing smoke-filled air from the station simultaneously via the channels with which both ventilation chambers are connected to the station, and ambient air is supplied to the station through pedestrian routes. In case of train fire in the tunnel between adjacent stations, at the station to which passengers being evacuated are moving the ventilation chamber that is the closest to an emergency train is switched over to an inflow mode, and ambient air is supplied through it and through the channel with which the same ventilation chamber is connected to the tunnel to the emergency train, and at the other of the above said adjacent stations the ventilation chamber that is the closest to the emergency train is switched over to the extraction mode, and smoke-filled air is removed from the tunnel with the emergency train through the channel with which the same ventilation chamber is connected to the tunnel to the emergency train; with that, valves are closed in cross passages of the section of the line with the emergency train, and dampers are closed, which are installed at portals with which the tunnel with the emergency train is connected to the adjacent stations.
EFFECT: uniform removal of excess heat from tunnels under stationary operating conditions of ventilation and provision of specified air velocities on passenger escape routes in case of train fire at the station and in the tunnel.
FIELD: physics, control.
SUBSTANCE: making a high-performance method of operating control of main fan unit (MFU), operated in underground mining enterprises, using the results of statistical estimates of significance of influence of air parameters in a fan and diffuser MFU channels on the process of shaft ventilation. The method of operating control of the main fan unit for shaft ventilation includes the retrival of data from pressure and air flow rate sensors to the microcontroller unit (MCU), their processing and delivery of pilot signals to MFU driver unit. The novice is in that the sensors are located locate in fan and diffuser MFU channels and using the data retrieved by MCU from sensors, they are processed by measuring MFU productivity (QB) and static pressure (hct), achieved by MFU, checkout of significance of the data retrieved from the named sensors, and determination of absence or presence of shaft natural traction (he), and also the degree of its influence on the process of shaft ventilation using the method of statistical assessment of the level of significance of influence of the named parameters on MFU operating mode. Then by results of these estimates a pilot signal is formed to MFU driver unit or the data are kept storing without change of MFU operational mode.
EFFECT: method of statistical assessment allows to increase essentially the efficiency of MFU operating control and to exclude excessive energy costs.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used for venting of open pits and cleaning of air forced from working zone. Cleaner 1 comprises housing 14, dusty air feed assy 1 and cyclone chamber 9 with taper bottom. Said feed ass is arranged at rotary platform 15 and comprises air ducts 2 arranged in circle. Said ducts are equipped with blowers 3 and connected with circular channels 7. The latter are communicated with cyclone chamber 9 and provided with nozzles 1 to force air in circle into top section of cyclone 9. Vent pipe 10 is arranged coaxially above cyclone chamber 9. Running gear 16 is mounted under housing 14. Note here that this plant is equipped with rods 13 and guides 12 articulated with tops of rods 13 and suction part of air duct 12 that can turn vertically and horizontally relative to rods 13. Running gear 16 is composed of self-propelled chassis. Cyclone chamber 9 is equipped with dust collector 11. One or several ejectors 19 including confusers 17 and fans 18 are arranged inside vent pipe 10 at preset distance from its base.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of cleaning.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises sinking of gate road on two seams, holed by slopes, airing dead ends using ventilation systems of local ventilation and broken ore supply from sinking of gate road on the upper seam through the pre-passing wells to the conveyor line mounted on the lower seam. The gate and the belt roads along the lower seam pass in direct order to the border of the working area and their airing is carried out by general shaft depression on turning point scheme using the most remote inter-gate holing. Then sinking of spiral slope to the upper seam is carried out, and then in reverse order the gate road is passed on the upper seam with its airing through the wells, with the fans mounted on them. After holing of the gate road with air gates of the upper seam, airing is carried out on turning point scheme with the movement of air in the direct order on the workings on the lower seam, and with a backward motion of air in the workings of the upper seam.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the efficiency of development by reducing the scope of development workings and time for preparation of the working area.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by means of preventing air leakage through the timely mounting and dismounting the ventilation jumper behind the working chambers, depending on the values of the thermal depressions. The method comprises implementation of the preliminary calculation of the minimum and maximum thermal depressions he min and he max, respectively, arising between the gate road and ventilation connections, and also between the gate road and embedded conveyor air gates as functions of the minimum he min=f(ΔHmin) and the maximum he min=f(ΔHmin) of values of the differences of the elevation points between the place of mining of working chambers and the place of air outlet from the gate road in the slope ΔHmin and ΔHmax. And the values ΔH are calculated based on the length of the extraction district, the number of pairs of exhaust chambers, the length of the exhaust area behind the ventilation connections, the width of the exhaust chambers, the width of the stope and the angle of dip. At that in the process of increasing the number of exhaust chambers and when achievement of the value of thermal depression equal to he min the jumper is dismantled, and when achievement of the value of thermal depression equal to he max, the jumper is mounted again.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of ventilation.
SUBSTANCE: complex protection of an open double-track aperture is created by creation of two curtains of gate type (1 - cold and 2 - warm degrees of protection) and a single curtain that forms a spreading jet of warm air (3 degree of protection), and also heating of a part of penetrated cold air by mixing with warm air due to overflow of air via holes in a wall that separates the double-track tunnel into "warm tunnel" and "cold tunnel". The system is designed to implement the method, represents slot elements of channels-air ducts for formation of flat air jets. A radial fan in the body, built into a curtain structure and collecting air for formation of the forced jet of the first degree of protection directly in front of it from the tunnel. A ventilation chamber and a prechamber placed above the tunnel, connected along separate channels-air ducts with slot elements of the second and third degrees of protection. Ventilation channels for formation of forced flows of warm air, special through holes in a partition between the "warm" and "cold" tunnels.
EFFECT: joint operation of all degrees of protection provides for protection against longitudinal, transverse and cyclone unauthorised penetration of external cold air into a tunnel, including protection against freezing of structures.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pit and mine ventilation and may be used to increase validity of determination of ventilation parameters in developing entries of coal mines and pits, in particular, aerodynamic and mechanical parameters of a flexible deformable air duct. In the mine they install an air duct with air leaks that do not exceed 5%. Blowdown with a fan is carried out, and they measure air flow and pressure. Diameters and length of the air duct are measured, Produced data is added depending on specific aerodynamic resistance and elasticity modulus of an air duct material.
EFFECT: increased validity for determination of impact of deformability of flexible ventilation air ducts at its aerodynamics, its forecasting in process of arrangement of a developing entry.
SUBSTANCE: unit includes an operating fan and a standby fan, each of which has an electric motor, a manifold and an adapter, a combined inlet box with a turning plug shutting off the inlet to operating and standby fans, and a turning flap shutting off outlets of operating or standby fans to an air supply pass. Above the fan unit with fans installed on draw-out trolleys there arranged in a noise-absorbing heat-insulated container is an air treatment unit, in the three unified air intakes of which there installed are noise absorption systems with turning shaft doors, which has an air conditioning system made in the form of a freon air cooler and an electric air heater, which allow air cooling or heating depending on ambient temperature. The air supply pass of the fan unit is equipped with a fire float at the well inlet.
EFFECT: enlarging functional capabilities of a unit; improving its reliability and possibility of quick installation and relocation to a new operation place.
SUBSTANCE: fan includes two basic modules of the first and the second stages adjacent to each other by a connection box-type insert so that each module includes a housing, an electric motor, an impeller installed immediately on the electric motor shaft. Impellers of the first and the second stages are made as per a counter-rotation scheme as all-welded impellers with non-rotational double plate blades of S-shape with a variable along the impeller radius by a geometry calculated by means of a single vortex method as jointly operating without any directing vanes based on minimum acoustic power (noise) of the fan, maximum efficiency, pressure and capacity.
EFFECT: creation of a fan for local ventilation of wells, which has improved aerodynamic characteristics and provides a possibility of a reversing operating mode at change of rotation direction of impellers and reduction of mass-and-dimensional characteristic of the fan.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of the single down wells with placement there of explosive charges, consecutive detonation of single down wells and formation of a compensation crack along the contact ore - rock with formation of a concave exposure surface in solid ore, rows of concave wells in the ore cavity are arranged in congruent manner to a concave exposure of the compensation crack at the distance equal to the least resistance line, the last row is arranged along the line of the contact ore - rock, rings of wells are drilled with insufficient drilling 1 m to the contact ore - filling, finally the rows of rings of wells are drilled at the boundary with the compensation crack, in the wells the explosive charges are placed with insufficient charge, rows of rings of wells are blasted with delayed action to the surface of exposure of the compensation crack, and finally a row of rings of wells at the contact ore - rock is blasted.
EFFECT: invention allows to improve safety and efficiency of conducting explosive works.
3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for prevention and control of sudden zonal emissions of coal and gas from coal beds. A method for prevention and control of sudden zonal coal and gas emissions, according to which a mining area is divided into mining zones (5) by distribution of defects and corrugations in a deposit so that boundaries of mining zones are located as far as possible in axial parts of defects or corrugations. Direction of maximum stress is determined in soil along horizontal direction in mining zone (5) by a conventional test method of stress in soil. With that, when an adjacent angle between the measured direction of maximum stress in soil along the horizontal direction and a coal bed passage line is less than 45°, inlet ventilation opening (4) and ventilation opening (3) for a backward jet is located for the mining zone along the coal bed passage line. Then, strike entry driving is performed, and inlet ventilation opening (1) and ventilation opening (2) for the backward jet is located for a working face along the coal bed passage line so that there can be performed mining operations in working face (6) located along the coal bed passage line. When the adjacent angle between the measured direction of maximum stress in soil along the horizontal direction and the coal bed passage line is more than 45°, inlet ventilation opening (4) and ventilation opening (3) for a backward jet is located for the mining zone along the coal bed passage line. Then, strike entry driving is performed, and inlet ventilation opening (1) and ventilation opening (2) for the backward jet is located for a working face along the coal bed passage line. And then, strike entry driving is performed so that there can be performed mining operations in working face (6) located along coal bed inclination.
EFFECT: simplifying the method, obtaining a favourable effect of prevention of sudden emissions and reducing concentration of stress in a working face.
SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises breaking of rock by combine, loading of the into self-propelled car, its transfer from working zone scraper conveyor, transfer to ore-pass well and discharge to main conveyor. Scraper conveyors are arranged in parallel nearby each other. Note here that conveyor unloading fights are arranged above ore-pass wells while conveyors are timed. Quantity of parallel conveyors allows the width of discharge surface for locating of crushed ore without fall on working soil.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of combine working.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: this method consists in development of the set of coal seams in ascending order in system "Long direction of strata" with excavation. Rock pressure is control by collapsing the roof rocks in exposed space with subsequent isolation. Note here that first the set bottom seam is mined with advance degassing and continuation of gas suction therefrom at mining of overlying undermined seams. Then, overlying seams are mined in ascending order. Note here that mine fluids are collected from the entire set of coal seams at bottom seam bottom point at its mining with the feed of aqueous solution of antipyrogenes into stripped area. After working of bottom seam advance seam degassing is terminated. Barometric pressure is maintained in worked space by discharging fluid gases from sources below the set. Note here that advance degassing in overlying seams is not used at stripping. Besides, feed of aqueous solution of antipyrogenes into stripped area is performed from bottom seam into stripped area of every of the next stripped coal seams.
EFFECT: higher safety, lower costs.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises mechanised pre-working and stabilisation in coal massif, protection of opened space against adjacent column by coal post. Compensation cavities are made in virgin massif, nearby bed soil, and separated by coal post. Cavities and coal posts there between on massif side and opened space are arranged in staggered manner. Width, height and depth of cavities are defined on the basis of coal seam mining and geological conditions and heading machine performances. Coal post width between compensation cavities is calculated with due allowance for empirical factor equal to 1.3 at working in virgin massif and equal to 1.6 at working in adjacent column abutment pressure zone, seal depth (post height) and seam cubical compression strength.
EFFECT: higher stability of working, lower losses of coal in posts, no need in additional barring.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: double-ended method of the deposit opening during underground operations includes shaft sinking of at least two holes, each hole having its own job site. Opening of the deposit is made by underground horizontal and/or inclined workings from each hole. As the shaft sinking progresses the underground horizontal workings are made from the hole at a distance of at least 5 diameters of the hole. Vertical wells are drilled from the surface and horizontal cuts and when the lower horizontal working is reached the well is drilled up to the project diameter of the air raise. Horizontal workings are placed vertically, one by one, at a distance to be determined by technical capabilities of the drilling rig. The upper part of the air raise is made from the surface through quaternary deposits by a usual method. At the first stage each end of the deposit is ventilated separately, at the second stage fresh air is supplied through a pair of combined developments - a borehole and the air riser at one end while outgoing jet is outputted through the combined developments of the other end.
EFFECT: method allows reducing scope of works during shaft sinking, increasing the sinking rate, reducing the period of construction and commissioning of a mine or minery, increasing reliability of ventilation due to ventilation risers.
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of lower slashing of formation by means of a plough unit with movement into it of a hauling conveyor, cutting in bottom-hole massif of a rear vertical slot and a slot that is upper along the boundary with the roof, which are longitudinal throughout the face length, lowering of the massif onto the conveyor, splitting of a mineral into slabs, output of the mineral from the face in slabs, their lowing into trolleys and locomotive haulage to a bulk material crushing chamber. In the massif settled down on the conveyor there cutout are inclined transverse slots splitting the massif into inclined layers that are then transferred to horizontal position for splitting of the mineral into slabs. Cutout of vertical transverse slots is performed using a motor-driven multi-jib machine.
EFFECT: high efficiency of a mining face, maximum extraction of mineral deposits from the formation being developed, extraction of methane from the produced mineral, safety of second working as per gas factor and sanitary-hygienic conditions of underground production as to dust.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of thick edge ore bodies with unstable and precious ores, for instance, kimberlite pipes, by the underground method. The method includes formation of man-made massif with tunnelling and filling of stopes at the cut and undercut layer, descending extraction of reserves under the man-made massif and filling of the mined space. Under the man-made massif they form a transition layer-sublevel by alternate tunnelling of the stopes of the first phase, with height equal to the height of the layer, and stopes of the second phase, the height of which is equal to the height of the layer-sublevel, at the same time the stopes of the first phase is given the shape of the tilted trapezoid in the vertical cross section, and stopes of the second phase - the irregular hexagon, besides, the width of the upper bases of figures of these stopes and width of stopes of the above (undercut) layer are accepted with equal value. Reserves of the deposit below the transition layer-sublevel are mined by chambers in staggered order with a shift to a sublevel. Chambers in the cross section are given the shape of the hexahedron extended along the vertical line. The upper part of the chambers is formed in the form of a trapezoid with size of half of chamber height, the contours of the upper base of which match the contours of the base of the filled stopes of the first phase in the transition layer - sublevel, and contours of the lateral upper sides - with contours of the lower sides of the filled adjacent stopes of the second phase. The lower part of the chamber with the size of half of its height is given the shape of the tilted trapezoid in the vertical cross section.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase intensity of mining of ore deposits, to increase size of an extraction unit and to reduce costs for filling works.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, and namely to production of useful minerals by an underground block leaching method. The underground block leaching method of useful minerals involves driving at the block bottom of openings of drain horizon for collection of productive solutions, crushing and shrinkage of ore so that a drain horizon of a safety pillar is left above openings, drilling of upward pumping wells from openings of drain horizon through the safety pillar, supply through them of a leaching solution to shrunken ore, collection of productive solutions in openings of drain horizon. Upward pumping wells from openings of drain horizon through the safety pillar are drilled to lower boundary of shrunken ore, and the leaching solution mixed with air is supplied to shrunken ore via upward pumping wells in a hydrodynamic cavitation mode.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing extraction degree of useful minerals from ores, shortening leaching duration and reducing flow of leaching reagents.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: transportation of mineral deposit crushed with a combine is performed by means of a self-propelled wagon to a self-moving snaking conveyer, the loading part of which is located in a chamber, and the unloading part is located above an ore-passing well, via which the mineral deposit is transported and unloaded to the ore-passing well; with that, movement of the conveyor to the next well is performed when transportation length of mineral deposit with the self-propelled wagon in the chamber achieves maximum length determined as per mathematical expression. Limit length of the chamber, at which continuous operation of the combine is provided by means of a hopper-loading elevator, the self-propelled wagon and the self-moving snaking conveyor, is calculated as per the mathematical expression.
EFFECT: improving working capacity of a combine complex.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg