Method of installing heat stabilizers in ventilated underground of operated buildings
SUBSTANCE: method of installing heat stabilizers in the ventilated underground of operated buildings includes drilling at least one vertical wellbore in a ventilated underground without disturbing the building floors. Installing in the wellbore the heat stabilizer having the evaporator pipe filled with a refrigerant and the condenser. The pipe is made with the possibility of bending, the radius of which does not exceed the height of the aerated underground. Wherein the depth of the heat stabilizer installation is such that the condenser is arranged above the ground level in the ventilated underground.
EFFECT: simplifying the heat stabilizers mountingn procedure under an operated building, improving the maintainability of the soil cooling system and simplifying its maintenance, increasing the bearing capacity of foundation soils due to their cooling throughout the area of the ventilated underground of the operated building while reducing the amount of used heat stabilizers and freeing the adjacent territory due to arranging the cooling elements in the ventilated underground.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for temperature stabilisation of permanently frozen grounds contains the temperature stabiliser based on the two-phase thermosiphon comprising the aboveground condenser part and underground transport and vaporising parts placed in the sleeve with coolant that is a hollow cylindrical housing with bottom and with a sealing element on the top end with a hole for installation of the temperature stabiliser. The sealing element is a demountable gland seal which consists of the bearing ring installed on the circular step implemented in the sleeve, the pressing ring and sealing rings of heat expanded graphite clamped between them.
EFFECT: ensuring expansion of temperature range of temperature stabilisers installation works, avoidance of penetration of residues of sealing materials into the sleeve cavity filled with coolant.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device for thermal stabilisation of frozen soil has condenser, horizontal evaporator and start-up automatic control system. This system comprises one or more solenoid sensors to measure the device internal parameters. Such parameters are temperature and/or pressure in the condenser, and/or condensate level sensor in condenser, ambient temperature sensor, analyser of sensor signals and solenoid valve. This valve is installed at section between input of the coolant flow from the evaporator tube and its input tot eh condenser, and has possibility of activation by external control electric signal of the analyser based on the loaded in memory criterion of comparison of current sensor readings with critical values of the device internal parameters. The said criteria and parameters are determined by the calculation or test on the condition to prevent formation of the block plug of condensate above installation place of the solenoid valve.
EFFECT: increased operation efficiency of the device due to assurance of its automatic start-up upon decreasing of the ambient air temperature in the specified zone.
SUBSTANCE: method of refilling a heat stabiliser with liquid synthetic ammonia includes purifying liquid ammonia from inert gas impurities by pumping said liquid ammonia into a refilling container, where it is heated to 18-30°C with pressure in the refilling container of 0.8-1.19 MPa, while gradually reducing the pressure of ammonia in the container filled with the liquid ammonia and maintaining boiling thereof for 10-15 s in the volume of the refilling container. Inert gases and evaporated ammonia are removed by blowing in an ammonia trapping system, wherein the number of times of blowing depends on the volume of the refilling container and pressure drop, which is not greater than 1°C on the finned part of the condenser. The purified liquid ammonia is fed into a batcher and then into the heat stabiliser.
EFFECT: carrying out a process of purifying synthetic ammonia from inert gas impurities to the required standard for refilling heat stabilisers, improved production and cost parameters of refilling and operating heat stabilisers.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil and gas industries and may be used during development and operation of deposits in the area of permafrost formations. Device for thermal stabilisation at wellhead area includes an aggregate of heat stabilisers placed around the well and connected through the common collector in the upper part with a condenser. At that the lower part of heat stabilisers is also united by the common collector, and finned surface factor and the area of unfinned condenser surface are selected in order to meet performance of the specified mathematical expression.
EFFECT: provision of unconstrained operation and repair of the well at effective stabilisation of thermal state in the wellhead area in permafrost formations.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes the installation along the platform perimeter of the protective cladding structure. Meanwhile before placing the platform into design position along the platform perimeter with a clearance at least one row of supports from metal piles with round section sunk into unstable bottom sediments or into bed rocks. Into piles the coolers are mounted, and artificial freezing of water and ground around piles, and the monolithic cylinders, formed around piles - ice and grounding in the base and icy in water, shall contact the adjacent cylinders, forming continuous ice and ground in the base and icy in water protective anti-chock and impervious wall.
EFFECT: improvement of efficiency of an engineering protection of platforms of a floating type in conditions of the Arctic shelf.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cooling device for depth temperature stabilisation of soils of foundations of buildings and structures comprises a tight tubular body with zones of evaporation, condensation and a transport zone between them, made as capable of filling with coolant. At the same time the body comprises a heat exchanger, which includes a pipe of the condensation zone body, a receiver made of a pipe of larger diameter than the diameter of the body, having a plug on top and tightly installed at the end of the pipe of the condensation zone body. The device also includes at least two hollow drainage tubes, the diameter of which is less than the diameter of the body pipe, made with external ribbing, arranged vertically around the pipe of the condenser zone of the body and connected by upper nozzles with a receiver, and by lower nozzles - with a cavity of the gap formed by inner walls of the coupling connecting the lower part of the pipe of the condenser zone of the body with the external support bushing welded to the upper section of the transport zone pipe. The device additionally comprises a receiving bushing made in the form of a section of a pipe of smaller diameter than the diameter of the body connected via an adapter with the lower end of the pipe of the condenser zone and placed partially in the upper part of the pipe of the transport zone of the body with a gap relative to its internal side surface. And the pipe of the body in the evaporation zone is made with alternating cross section and has at least one transition to a pipe of smaller diameter.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity of soils, simplified installation and dismantling of a structure.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for controlled temperature stabilisation, cooling and freezing of ground at foundation bases as well as for heat supply of structures on permafrost grounds (in cryolytic zone). Method of year-round cooling, freezing of ground at a foundation base and for heat supply of a structure on permafrost ground in cryolytic zone involves drilling of wells, cooling of ground. All year round, cooling and freezing of the ground of a foundation base are controlled and the year-round partial heat supply of the structure is carried out due to the heat of the foundation base ground and adjacent ground layers that are cooled and frozen. The primary circuit of a heat pump with low temperature heat carrier is formed, the boiling temperature of the heat pump working medium is by 10-30°C lower than the minimal temperature of the heat carrier in the primary circuit. The heat pump is installed inside a structure and heat is supplied with the conversion factor above 1-3. The freezing temperature of the heat carrier in the primary circuit of the heat pump is lower than the minimal temperature of the ambient air of the structure's site up to -60°C. The evaporation temperature of the working medium in the secondary circuit is higher than the lower limit of its working range of temperatures up to -75°C. A thermal well is set in the block of a structure base with bearing piles on the periphery or thermal wells being divided into less powerful ones are set at its periphery along with providing for additional bearing function of a pile. The heat carrier of the divided thermal wells is delivered by heat insulated heating conduits to a common heat exchanger of the heat pump primary circuit or to several heat pumps installed in different rooms of the structure.
EFFECT: guaranteed year-round provision for frozen state of structure foundation base along the whole well depth as well as provision for year-round backing up of part (approximately the half) of structure's thermal load by means of a heat pump due to the usage of heat from the permafrost ground being cooled and frozen.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: ammonia of permafrost thermo stabiliser filling assembly is eliminated by ammonia gas absorption in the system of circulating gas-liquor. Gas-liquor is continuously absorbed at 20-40°C at one step. Ammonia vapour overpressure of 30-100 kPa is created while gas-liquor in concentration of 20-25% is used and discharged into accumulator tanks placed in soil. Heat resulted from dissolution of ammonia gas in gas-liquor is removed via walls of said tank into soil. At a time, fluid level in accumulator tank is controlled. Gas-liquor is forced from accumulator tank to feed fresh water therein as well as precipitated dry salts are discharged therefrom periodically.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs, power savings.
SUBSTANCE: system for temperature stabilisation of structure foundations on permafrost soils includes a condenser made in the form of a system of pipes, an evaporator, connected with a hydraulic lock and with pipelines, supplying and draining coolant, placed evenly along the entire area of filling of the foundation soil equipped with a layer of heat insulation. Additionally it comprises a buffer-separator arranged under the condenser, which represents a vertically oriented section in the form of three pipes arranged one under another and connected to each other, being horizontally directed, the inner volume of which in total is equal to the volume of the evaporator laid in the foundation soil filling representing parallel coil-like pipes connected by draining pipelines with an upper horizontally separated pipe of the specified buffer-separator equipped with a swirler, the lower horizontally directed pipe of which via a hydraulic lock is connected with the help of pipelines supplying coolant with the evaporator. Coolant used is ammonia or carbon dioxide.
EFFECT: increased freezing and bearing capacity of a foundation, provision of control and monitoring over process of soil freezing and process of system reliability redundancy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for seasonal cooling and freezing of soils of building and structure bases in regions of permafrost soils distribution. A thermopile comprises a tight ground capacitor body, filled with vapours of a low-boiling liquid in a saturated condition - a coolant, and having an additional contact of its inner space with atmosphere via a through air duct accessory, an underground part - an evaporator in the form of curvilinear pipelines partially filled with a low-boiling liquid coolant, circulating along ascending and descending branches, arranged in a "cold well" filled with liquid freezing below 0°C, and a transport section of pipelines connecting inner spaces of above-ground and underground parts of the thermopile. The air duct accessory is arranged in the form of a vertical pipe - an air hole, with length and diameter comparable with length and diameter of the body and sufficient for location of the nozzle of the upper end of the pipeline branch in the upper space of the body with an ascending coolant flow, and the "cold well" is arranged in a support pile of the bridge and is filled with an aqueous solution of salt, for instance, NaCl, with concentration providing for the specified temperature of solution freezing and required temperature of soil maintenance in solid frozen condition, on the upper level of the "cold well" filling solution there is a layer of heat insulation with the possibility of free displacement in the inner space of the "cold well" or its compaction in case of solution level deviations.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of a thermopile due to increased intensity of heat exchange in a "soil-atmosphere" system, extension of time of soil keeping in a solid frozen condition around the underground part of the thermopile and reduced labour intensiveness.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat engineering constructions.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as supports of different construction on permafrost. Proposed heated pile has reinforced concrete or metal shaft with inner or outer heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator and condensers provided with metal strip ribbing arranged over ground surface with inclination to vertical part of shaft. Novelty is that heated pile is made T-shaped, and heated pipe in form of ribbed evaporator is made symmetrically double relative to axis of shaft with connection of some ends or its evaporators, other ends being connected with condensers. Evaporator ribbing is made in form of upward convex ring surfaces with central passes secured on inner surfaces of walls of heated pipe evaporators and uniformly distributed in height, and metal strip ribbing of condensers is element of horizontal part of T-shaped heated pile.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of heated pile, facilitated replacement of pile in case of failure.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building heat-engineering structures, particularly for forming supports of different structures in permafrost areas.
SUBSTANCE: method involves condensing gaseous working agent in condensing chamber by cooling thereof with ambient air over ground surface; moving condensed liquid under gravity through transporting channel to evaporating chamber; evaporating thereof inside evaporating chamber and returning gaseous working agent into condensing chamber. Gaseous working agent is condensed in space having volume exceeding volume of space for working liquid evaporation. T-shaped pile for ground cooling comprises vertical reinforced concrete body with horizontal support located above ground surface, condenser part of heat pipe made of tubes and having transporting channel located inside pile body and connected to finned evaporator part along heat pipe axis. The heat pipe is also located above ground surface. Condenser part is formed of symmetrically bended tube with parts inclined towards center thereof. Condenser tube diameter exceeds that of transporting channel communicating with central area of condenser part. Transporting channel part connected with evaporator part is made as inner wall thereof and forms annular cavity defined by transporting channel and outer wall of evaporator part in cross-sectional plane thereof. Volume of the transporting channel is less than condenser part volume. Transporting channel is closed with end cap located behind the cavity and has side orifices to communicate the cavity with evaporator part. The side orifices are formed in front of the end cap.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of ground cooling around the pile.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly to create water-tight frozen shields having height up to 100 m or more.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises freezing column arranged in borehole, outer heat exchanger which transfers heat from liquid coolant to source of cold and pump to provide coolant circulation. Freezing column is made as two coaxial tubes, namely outer, freezing, and inner, supplying, ones. Freezing tube is formed of metal. At least part of supplying tube adjoining borehole head is formed of material with low heat conductivity or supplying tube comprises material with low heat conductivity in cross-section thereof. Outer and inner tubes define annular channel for liquid coolant circulation. Upper part of borehole and part of outer tube adjoining borehole head have the greatest diameters. Gap is created between outer tube wall and borehole wall. The gap is filled with filling material taken in the form of particles having high heat conductivity in amount corresponding to predetermined particle concentration along channel length. Particle concentration in upper part adjoining borehole head is maximal.
EFFECT: increased operational efficiency due to increased capacity of liquid coolant unit to carry away heat from ground related to tall freezing column as a whole and to separate parts thereof along with uniform distribution of heat removed from freezing column parts.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: refrigeration engineering, particularly to freeze ground used for ice-ground barrier creation.
SUBSTANCE: cold accumulation device comprises casing pipe filled with coolant and including ground-submersed evaporator and condenser. Device also has condensing unit arranged over condenser and connected with line by pressure and discharge pipelines. The line is located in space defined between evaporator and shell and formed as pipe having elliptical cross-section densely wound on condenser. The space between the line and the shell is filled with heat insulation means. Cold accumulation device additionally has inlet pipeline with pressure compressor inlet and outlet pipeline. Inlet pipeline extends for the full length of casing pipe from the pressure inlet to evaporator through condensation zone. Outlet pipeline passes from pressure pipeline to casing pipe condenser.
EFFECT: increased economical efficiency, reduced casing pipe defrosting time and extended operational capabilities.
FIELD: improving or preserving soil or rock by thermal, electrical or electro-chemical means, particularly by freezing.
SUBSTANCE: cold accumulation device comprises casing pipe filled with coolant. The casing pipe includes evaporator submersed in ground and condenser comprising condensing zones A and B. Compression-and-condensing unit is arranged over condenser and connected with pipeline through pressure and discharge lines. The pipeline is made as tube of elliptic cross-section wound on tube having D1 diameter. Casing pipe has variable cross-section so that lower evaporator part L having diameter D is located in down casing pipe part and is brought in direct contact with ground. Remainder evaporator part L1 has diameter D1, wherein D>D1. Space defined by D-D1 difference is filled with air.
EFFECT: improved economical efficiency and performance, increased manufacturability and extended functional capabilities.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for cooling of ground and can be used in construction industry. Heat pipe includes tubular housing, condenser of which is located above the ground surface, and evaporator - in cooled ground, which are provided with external finnings, filler pipe for vacuum treatment and filling of heat pipe with heat carrier with its further sealing. Heat pipe is provided with removable refill capacity tightly installed on the end of heat pipe condenser by means of coupling nut and by using annular seal. Filler pipe is connected to cavity of the above capacity, through end wall of which in direction of longitudinal axis of heat pipe there tightly installed is female wrench for the sealing screw installed in the edge of condenser along longitudinal line of heat pipe. From lower edge of sealing screw there made is central channel with side outlet for passage of heat carrier from cavity of removable refill capacity to cavity of heat pipe. Side outlet is located above annular seal of sealing screw when it is not completely screwed and below the above annular seal when the screw is completely tightened. Heat pipe is provided with sealing element in the form of a plug for installation instead of removable refill capacity after filling is completed.
EFFECT: increasing heat pipe efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pile support intended for use in erection of structures erected in regions with permanently frozen soil comprises metal or reinforced concrete tubular shaft 1 with closed ends, which is partially deepened into soil 2. Upper end 3 is a supporting platform. Support also comprises cooling device of seasonal effect. In deepened part of shaft 1 there is a reservoir 5 arranged with substance 7 that accumulates cold. Support feature is in making reservoir 5 from elastic material and its placement with adjacency to internal surface of shaft 1 wall, and also use of water as substance that accumulates cold. Cooling device is arranged in the form of one or several vertically oriented gravitational heat pipes 4 arranged outside tubular shaft 1 with zones of evaporation 11 and condensation 9, and transport zone 10 arranged in between. Besides evaporation zone 11 in each thermal pipe is located below, and zone of condensation is arranged higher than soil surface.
EFFECT: invention provides for improved reliability of structures, using cooled pile supports, in combination with improved efficiency of cooling and freezing.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pile support intended for use in construction of structures erected in regions with permanently frozen soil comprises metal or reinforced concrete shaft 1 partially deepened into soil 2 and equipped with supporting platform 3 on the side of upper end. Support also comprises cooling device of seasonal action and reservoir 5 with substance 7 that accumulates cold. Support feature is in making reservoir from elastic material and placement of it outside shaft 1 in vertical well 13 closed with cover 14 with its adjacency to its walls, and also use of water as cold-accumulating substance. Cooling device is arranged in the form of one or several vertically oriented gravitational heat pipes 4 arranged outside tubular shaft 1 with zones of evaporation 11 and condensation 9, and transport zone 10 arranged in between. Besides evaporation zone 11 in each thermal pipe is located below, and zone of condensation is arranged higher than soil surface.
EFFECT: invention provides for improved reliability of structures, using supports of abovementioned design, in combination with improved efficiency of cooling and freezing, and also possibility to use supports with monolithic shaft.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for stabilisation of plastic-frozen soils with year-round mode of operation for accumulation of cold in base of structures includes underground and aboveground parts of tubular tight vessel filled with refrigerating fluid, underground part of which is evaporator, and aboveground one is condenser equipped with shelf, having thermoelectric modules in the form of Peltier elements battery arranged on its surface. Device is equipped with thermal pipe, one end of which has shelf joined to hot surface of thermoelectric modules. The other end, being zone of condensation, has ribbed surface, besides axis of condensation zone has the angle φ of inclination to horizon.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of device operation and expansion of area of application.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system for temperature stabilisation of structures foundation on permafrost soils equipped with hydraulic lock, levelling vessel, serially connected to condenser and evaporator arranged in foundation soil fill, joined to pipelines that supply and drain heat medium. It additionally comprises vertical heat-exchangers-evaporators arranged along depth of foundation soil fill, which are made as tube in tube, and their lower ends are plugged, and upper ends are connected directly to evaporator, which is arranged in the form of system of pipes laid in horizontal plane evenly along whole area of foundation soil fill, equipped with a layer of heat insulation joined by means of pipelines by its supply end to condenser and by its drain end - by means of pipelines with a levelling vessel. Height of above mentioned vertical heat-exchangers-evaporators is equal to at least distance "b" between border of depth of "X-X" evaporator arranged in the form of piping system laid in horizontal plane evenly along whole area of foundation soil fill, and upper border of "Z-Z" permafrost soils depth. Lower part of inner pipes of specified heat-exchangers-evaporators arranged concentrically to outer pipes is arranged with perforation, and upper part is arranged as funnel-shaped.
EFFECT: improved reliability, efficiency, operational and technical properties of systems for temperature stabilisation, reduced material intensity.
6 cl, 5 dwg