Bullet-proof unidirectional tapes/products with rigid structure and low value of the depth of cup and methods of their manufacture
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: bullet-proof fiber composite comprises a variety of adjacent layers on the basis of fibers, where each layer on the basis of fibers comprises synthetic fibers with a high tensile modulus, characterized by the surfaces which are at least partially covered with a polymeric material, where the said fibers do not basically comprise any fibers protective cover so that the said polymeric material is mainly in direct interaction with the surfaces of the fibers. The said fiber composite is characterized by the value of dynamic tensile modulus which exceeds the value of the dynamic tensile modulus of the comparable fiber composite, characterized by the fiber surfaces, which are mainly covered with a fiber protective cover. The said fiber protective cover is disposed between the fiber surfaces and the polymeric material. Methods for manufacturing of bullet-proof composite are also described.
EFFECT: invention provides a composite with improved resistance properties against bullets and shrapnel, in particular improved values of dynamic tensile modulus that correlates with the composite low depth of cup.
15 cl, 4 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determination of mechanical characteristics of homogeneous coatings, and namely to determination of elasticity modulus of coatings by indentation into material surface of a cylindrical penetrator and can be used for measurement of elasticity modulus of coatings on substrates from different materials. Essence of the invention is as follows: a cylindrical penetrator is indented into a coating with known thickness. Modulus of rigidity of a coating-substrate system is determined in compliance with readings of an instrument recording communication between indenting force and immersion of the penetrator; then, a value of the ratio of rigidity modulus of the system to the substrate elasticity modulus is calculated, and elasticity modulus of the coatings is determined by a formula by means of known methods for detection of the function value as per the specified implicit dependence.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of a coating elasticity modulus.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises an indenter installed on an elastic element, at least two optical sensors, each of which comprises a source of optical radiation and its receiver. The elastic element is made as U-shaped, stands of the U-shaped elastic element are fixed on the holder, the indenter is installed on the crosspiece of the U-shaped elastic element. The U-shaped elastic element is made as capable of partial closure of the flow of optical radiation of optical sensors and variation of area of flow closure when bent or comprises an accessory installed on it and made as capable of at least partial closure of the flow of optical radiation of optical sensors and variation of the area of flow closure when bent. At least one of optical sensors is made as capable of monitoring bending of the crosspiece in the plane of the U-shaped element in process of measurement, and the other from optical sensors - with the possibility to control bending of stands in the plane of U-shaped element in process of measurement.
EFFECT: higher quality, validity and stability of measurements, higher manufacturability of a device during its manufacturing.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of determining the mechanical properties of materials by pressing the indenter into the specimen surface with a predetermined load, namely to methods of determining the Young's static modulus of elasticity. Essence: the experimental indentation and computer modeling of indentation are used simultaneously by the finite element method. The experimental scanning of the surface of the particle, indentation in a nanoparticle with a predetermined strength, and determining on the elastic component of the experimental depth of penetration of the indenter is carried out. Generation of the electronic geometrical model of the nanoparticle is carried out, the contact problem of indentation into the particle is formed and solved with the finite element method in a series of experiments at constant force of indentation. By varying the value of the modulus of elasticity the zero difference between the experimental and calculated depth of penetration of the indenter is achieved, the modulus of elasticity of the particle is determined, corresponding to the zero difference of calculated and experimental depths.
EFFECT: development of the method of determining the modulus of elasticity of the material of micro- and nanoparticles of arbitrary shape.
SUBSTANCE: microsection is prepared. A mechanical imprint is made on the surface of the microsection and the size of the imprint is measured using a microscope. Imprints are made by solid particles in a liquid and having gained high acceleration which is excited by an ultrasonic head in the pre-cavitation region.
EFFECT: possibility of determining microhardness of materials in arbitrary units, having a microcrystalline structure or thin coatings.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analysis of materials and may be used for defining physical properties of trees, timber, carpentry, etc. Proposed device comprises encased electrically driven drill bit and drill bit feed drive. Drill bit rotary drive is fitted in bearings on carriage to rotate about rotor shaft axis. Carriage feeding drill bit and reversing it along its axis slides on threaded shaft. Drill bit rotary drive case is coupled with carriage by spring. Drill bit rotary drive turn angle relative to rotor shaft axis is defined by pickup to determine antidrilling properties.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability, decreased weight.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: material inspection.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for measuring surface texture properties and mechanical properties of materials with submicron and nanoscale spatial expansion. The device comprises a piezo-electrical rod with two external electrodes and one separating electrode, an indenter positioned on one of the rod ends, a holder positioned on another rod end, an exciting circuit, and a detector circuit. The device is also fitted with an optic sensor comprising a light source and a light receiver. The piezo-electric rod is positioned between the light source and the light receiver in such a way so it partially obscures the light with the possibility of changing the amount of light falling on the receiver in its curve.
EFFECT: surface scan possibility, the rod static bending and the force applied to the indentor during the indentation process can be measured, expanding the device functionality.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: indenter is forcefully intruded into specimen and they both are driven to relative transfer perpendicular to loading. Dimensions of working parts of the indenter are preliminary measured. The indenter is intruded into two specimens, mainly in each at half of its height. The specimens are interconnected; they slide and are set off one relative to another at length of analysed zone. Specimens transfer and values of set off load are recorded; diagram "load-transfer" is registered. Hardness is determined as ratio of set off loading, mainly, considering allowance for friction, to area of surface of working parts of the indenter.
EFFECT: development of more efficient, informative, reliable and accurate procedure for determination of hardness with constant fixation of character of its distribution at specified length of analysed zone.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring soil hardness consists of a platform (1) with locks (2), stocks (3) and measuring instruments (4). The platform has a horizontal (5) and a vertical (6) plane, where the plates (7) with stocks (3) are mounted. The plates (7) through the holes (8) in the planes are connected by a "П"-shaped insert (9) with the measuring instrument (4), placed in a "П"-shaped insert (9) and in contact with the plane of the platform. At that the stocks (3) are made of equal length and placed on the plates in rows.
EFFECT: invention allows to determine the soil hardness in the vertical and horizontal directions, as well as to evaluate its ability to generate a high yield of field crops without cultivation.
SUBSTANCE: submersible metre of rock strength comprises a hydraulic cylinder with three concentric cavities: input, circular and discharge ones, a loading piston with a stem equipped with an indentor, and an additional rodless piston. At the same time between the circular cavity under the additional rodless piston and the discharge cavity of the loading piston with the stem there is a hydraulic connection arranged by means of a channel.
EFFECT: simplified design and expansion of functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: arbitrary-shape one-piece specimen is selected to be loaded by spherical indenters to its collapse. Collapse load is measured. One-piece specimen breakage surface area is measured to determine specimen mechanical properties. Sites sized to at least 10 x 10 mm are prepared parallel to each other at expected contact with indenters. Axial loading is performed by two spherical indenters in applying uniform constant-rate load equal to 0.1 to 0.5 kN/s. Adhesion of one-piece specimen is defined by claimed formula.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and simplified procedure.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of "Physics of the material contact interaction" of hard flat body with a porous material environment, and is intended to determine its parameters of deformability and strength. Essence: the material environment is loaded with rigid flat perforated stamp with stepwise increasing load until the moment of loss of bearing capacity of the environment and sustainability of the stamp on it. The parameters of pressure pi and deformation Si of the environment at loading are controlled in time and a graph of test is plotted, by which the parameters of strength and deformability of the environment are determined. Each stage of deformation of the environment is kept constant in time to its conditional stabilization. Before setting the next steps of the deformation of the environment the elastic load cell is fixed with a locking screw of the load device. The device consists of a housing with a working chamber, fixedly mounted on the bottom of the chamber of the lower rigid flat perforated stamp, the working ring with a sample of the material environment, installed in the upper part of the working ring on the sample of the environment of the upper rigid flat movable perforated stamp and the loading device. The loading device consists of a rigid frame with an upper and lower beams and two guide racks, a pusher and a resilient load cell.
EFFECT: increased productivity of test of the environment on compressibility and strength.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes a loading die, a load application unit, a thrust system and a measurement system. The die is made in the form of a stiff structure of a square shape. Under the die there arranged is an elastic plate with dimensions of the die in a plan view, with thickness of 0.05-0.1 of the size of the die sides and elasticity modulus of 30-50 MPa. A rectangular coordinate grid is applied to lateral sides of the elastic plate. The measurement system includes a recorder of the applied load and a die settlement recorder. On the lateral sides of the die there rigidly fixed on its symmetry axes by means of brackets are video recorders of deformation of the elastic plate with a possibility of complete vision of lateral sides of the elastic plate.
EFFECT: simplifying and cheapening of determination of distribution of reactive voltage of a soil foundation at any arbitrary points along the die bottom and improving reliability of results at one test.
FIELD: testing technology.
SUBSTANCE: two test objects are tested simultaneously. Each object is subjected with load of the same magnitude. Different objects have different lengths and cross-sectional area, and the cross-sectional area of the object is directly proportional to its length. One object is a sample which cross-sectional area is So, the length is Lo, and the other object comprises two adjacent samples loaded simultaneously with equal forces, each of these two samples has the sectional area So, the length 2×Lo. Both objects are interconnected with the same-name ends using flexible but rigid for tensioning elements thrown over the rollers rotating without friction around the fixed axes. On one roller a pointer indicator is mounted. Other same-name ends of the objects are attached using flexible, but rigid for tensioning elements to the movable rigid light traverse. The objects are fixed so that under load they and the line of action of the load applied to this traverse is arranged along parallel lines. Midway between the attachment points of the samples to the traverse there is a zone of load application. Reaching the limit of linearity of the mechanical properties of the material is determined based on the angle of rotation of the pointer indicator.
EFFECT: facilitation of the procedure of maintaining proportionality of loads acting on two different samples for each point of time, measured from the beginning of the process.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: loading impact at a sample of a product is applied with a load, which in its shape, weight and dynamics of impact corresponds to typical load at the product in process of its operation at typical time intervals of impact, and the index, values of which are assessed at the end of the impact, is relative deformation of product compression, which is determined on the basis of the ratio. The device comprises a test table, a load, a measurement scale, an indicator of load position variation, the first lever, at one end of which there is a load fixed, a reducer-multiplier fixed on the test table and kinematically connected with the indicator of load position variation, an axis connected by one end with the reducer, and by the other end - to the second end of the first lever, a frame fixed on the test table, the first and second cylinders, connected by a hydraulic line via a throttling valve, and the second lever, with one end hingedly connected to the test table, and in the middle part hingedly connected to the second cylinder, at the same time the first cylinder is hingedly connected by one end to the frame crosspiece, and by the second one - with the first lever in its middle part.
EFFECT: expansion of a field of application and increased accuracy.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in measurement of road pavement parameters immediately on a transport vehicle considering its parameters. Besides, the following three values are measured at one and the same time: normal load from wheels on road pavement, total force on a steer linkage lever, which occurs at wheel movement at an angle to direction of movement of a transport vehicle and a convergence angle of controlled wheels, by means of which an adhesion coefficient is calculated.
EFFECT: reduction of labour intensity of a measurement process; possibility of considering characteristics of road pavement and statement of tyres of a certain automobile.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for mechanical testing of pipes includes flattening of a pipe sample between two flat rigid parallel planes with permanent speed, determination of extent of plasticity and deformation of the sample by compression until the first crack appears in it. At the same time the sample is deformed with registration of acoustic emission signals by the sensor of acoustic emission fixed on the sample. The moment of crack formation is determined by sharp increase of the acoustic emission signal, according to which the extent of plasticity is determined, as well as the sample plasticity stock as relative exceeding of sample plasticity of the previously established limits.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurements.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: according to the method sample is hardened and its temperature is increased to temperature of recrystallisation, steady load is applied to the sample resulting in elastic deformation, and when temperature is increased change of elasticity modulus is recorded, zone of elasticity modulus gradient increase is found based on dependence of elasticity modulus change in temperature function, line preceding the beginning of zone of elasticity modulus gradient change is extended, line is extended after the end of zone of elasticity modulus gradient change to cross over with the line preceding zone of elasticity modulus gradient change, and absciss of this point is identified with temperature of recrystallisation beginning.
EFFECT: providing possibility of detecting temperature of recrystallisation beginning.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: laser vibration transducer has a housing in which there is optical fibre with a laser radiation lens connected to a converter, wherein the converter is in form of a spring-loaded head which interacts by one end with the optical fibre, which is mounted in the housing with the possibility of rocking, and by the other end with the analysed object. The spring-loaded head is rigidly fitted with a flexible plate, the end of which is rigidly connected to the housing, and the spring-loaded head has a groove under protrusions of a rotor mounted in the housing, wherein the optical fibre is optically connected to a reflecting mirror which also interacts with a sensitive element which is electrically connected to a computer, wherein the housing itself is connected to a dynamometer through a compression spring and to a displacement device, which interact with each other through a guide, wherein there are ball bearings in the housing, which move on the analysed object while providing spacing.
EFFECT: high measurement accuracy as well as resolution of laser vibration flaw detection of large-size shells made from large-size glued polymer materials.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed unit designed for evaluation of detergent properties of oils with additives includes a four-stroke single-cylinder engine, cylinder 1, piston 2, compression rings 8 and oil rings 9, valve opening (closing) mechanism 17, control unit 21 of the unit operation, temperature sensors 18, 19, 20, 34 and heaters 12, 15, 16 and 24. Evaluation of deposits on side surface of the piston, which were obtained as a result of oil test, is performed by comparing that piston to a standard colour scale.
EFFECT: improving accuracy and reliability of evaluation results of detergent properties, used motor oils owing to creating test conditions close to actual operating conditions of a cylinder-piston group of internal combustion engines.
3 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: probe tip is located near the investigated material, an increasing load is applied to the probe and value of applied load and depth of probe penetration is measured by means of a converter at that point. Tested bulk material is placed in a cell in the form of a cylindrical seat and the material is provided with action of a probe in the form of a stock with a flat end face. Load value is programmed and transferred through a controller to a measuring and power head including a microloading device, and submersion depth is measured with a precision optic sensor of local deformations and initial test data is transferred to the computer. The instrument includes a housing, a loading device connected to the device supplying it to the tested material, a loading value sensor for continuous measurement of loading force variation, which is applied to the probe holder, a displacement sensor for continuous measurement of varying depth of the probe submersion into the material, and the computer. Loading device is made in the form of a power cell and a precision optic sensor for measurement of local deformations of the specimen. In addition, the instrument includes a controller for control, accumulation and processing of data flows, which is provided with programmable force value control. Probe is made in the form of a cylindrical stock with a flat end face and installed above the cell with the specimen. Cell includes contacts for measurement of electric resistance.
EFFECT: increasing the resolution in relation to physical and mechanical properties of bulk nanopowder materials and increasing controlled parameters and properties.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: rescue facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to human personal protective equipment and is intended for rescue and salvage operations and repair works in extreme conditions, in particular the impact of the gaseous and liquid phases of aggressive chemically hazardous substances (ACHS) in the chemical industry enterprises, as well as under conditions of demounting obstructions where long-term work is required using vibration active tool such as perforator, air-hammer, and also at low temperatures. In the rescuer protective suit, consisting of trousers with protective stockings, a shirt with a hood, two-toed gloves and a balaclava, the trousers are sewn together with stockings ending with rubber saddle with the bots, which are sewn to ribbons for attaching to the feet, at that in the upper part of the trousers there are shoulder straps and half-rings, in the tissue lining the elastic frame racks are secured by the clips on the belt, and the protective shell is attached to the elastic frame racks, at that the protective shell is made three-layered against hazardous agents and substances with foam, where the liquid phase of the foam is a solution of clathrate didecyldimethylammonium halide with urea as the active compound in an amount of from 0.1 to 5% by weight, the obturator is made in the form of an annular inflatable chamber made of elastic material. And for hermetic sealing the ending of the conical surface of the filter with the obturator the respirator is provided with a frame of elastic material in the shape of a truncated cone with functional openings on the side surface, on one side of which, with a ring of elastic material a filter is attached, the rescuer footwear for operation at low temperatures is made of felt, comprising a bootleg, a foot part and a main sole placed on the lower side of the foot part, and the protective sole, which is located on the lower side of the main sole is made of EVA material or the compound of EVA with rubber, or the compound of EVA with PVC, or the compound of EVA with polyethylene, and additionally comprises a shoe insert which is formed with heating ethylene vinyl acetate or other elastic material, and in the heel part of the insert a piezo-element of piezo-rubber is glued, for example of polydimethylsiloxane with the thickness of 2.5÷5 mm, the size of 10x10 mm, while it is placed in a protective cover, and the heating filament is connected to at least one piezo-element located in the heel and/or toe area, the sole of the felt footwear is made two-layered: with an intermediate layer of polyurethane and a layer of elastic mesh elements having shock-absorbing properties and an outsole layer of thermoplastic polyurethane with wear-resistant properties, it creates favourable conditions to the operator when working with vibration active equipment, and the density of the mesh structure of elastic mesh elements is in the optimum range of values 1.2 g/cm3…2.0 g/cm3,and the material of the wire of elastic mesh elements is grade steel EI-708, at that its diameter is in the optimal range of values of 0.09 mm…0.15 mm.
EFFECT: increase in efficiency of rescuers work at low temperatures.