Method for predicting seismic event and observing system for seismic researches

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method for predicting a seismic event comprising selecting at least one controlled parameter among a number of parameters characterising the processes in the earth's crust to monitor a situation in at least one zone of an expected seismic event belonging to the seismically active region under study; forming in the seismically active region under study, to which at least one zone of the expected seismic event belongs, an observation network of n measurement points of at least one controlled parameter, in which, in the formation of a spatio-temporal distribution pattern of consistency measures of S changes of controlled parameters, the consistency measure is determined by synchronization criterion, equal to ratio of standard deviation of differences between consecutive measurements for each cellular mesh point to average measurement value in all cellular mesh points.

EFFECT: increased reliability of seismic researches.

1 cl

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes calculating a Fourier spectrum from waveforms of external earthquakes detected by two seismic stations, wherein one of the stations, which is close to the earthquake hypocentre, is called the input station and the other, which is located at the point of estimating tension in the earth environment, is called the output station; calculating the quasi-amplitude-frequency characteristic of the earth environment at the location of the output station, as well as two criteria therefrom: integral and fractional-integral; deducing an imminent earthquake from observing a sharp decrease in the values of the integral criterion and a sharp increase in the values of the fractional-integral criterion; predicting the local magnitude of the imminent earthquake from the maximum value of the fractional-integral criterion, wherein the local magnitude is predicted using a calibration curve of local magnitudes of earthquakes plotted in advance for a specific pair of stations from values of the fractional-integral criterion.

EFFECT: short-term prediction of the local magnitude of an earthquake.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: acoustic signal is emitted toward sea bottom. Signal of sound reradiation from water column is received. Gas flares are isolated from receive signal. Gas flare inclination is used to evaluate the stream velocity profile and direction. Density of gas flare sources on sea bottom and methane flow direction in water for every flare are calculated. Obtained data allows the determination of methane concentration in water column in the area of methane discharge.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of evaluation.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting sedimentary rock samples and extracting insoluble organic matter therefrom; measuring the intensity of infrared spectral bands at 2930, 2850, 1710 and 630 cm-1 of the infrared spectrum of the insoluble organic matter. The obtained values are used to calculate standardised parameters, from which the catagenesis substage and the corresponding maturity of the sapropel organic matter are determined.

EFFECT: high reliability and level of detail of determining maturity of organic matter.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: emitter and receiver of acoustic waves are placed on opposite surfaces of a porous medium sample, first radiation is carried out over at least one part of the porous medium sample by acoustic waves, and speed of longitudinal acoustic waves propagation is measured, on the basis of porosity and nature of sample saturation they select empirical interconnection between speed of the longitudinal acoustic wave and porosity for this type of the porous medium, they perform a filtration experiment to pump pollutant solution via the porous medium sample, they perform the second radiation of the same part of the sample by acoustic waves and measure speed of propagation of longitudinal acoustic waves, and using selected empirical interconnection, they determine variation of porosity in this part of the porous medium sample, based on speeds of the longitudinal acoustic wave measured before and after pumping of the pollutant.

EFFECT: provision of possibility to determine variation of porous medium properties arising as a result of pollutant impact.

18 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: geoinformational analysis of the studied territory is carried out. 2-3 samples of bottom sediments on small-inflow areas with a relatively sharp reduction of water exchange intensity are collected. The chemical composition of the collected samples is carried out and an average concentration of the substance is calculated. Regions with increased vales of the concentration are studied in more detail, carrying out more frequent sampling of the bottom sediments of rivers and other components of the environment. In the period with water runoff, close to mean long-term values, detailed specialised geological-chemical mapping of a prospective area is carried out.

EFFECT: detection of geochemical anomalies basing on the analysis of the chemical composition of the bottom sediments of rivers.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining operations.

SUBSTANCE: core-sample is taken from the borehole wall, and at least one part is split from the core-sample. The split parts of the core-sample are irradiated with the longitudinal acoustic waves and the speed of wave propagation in each of the split parts is measured. The empirical relationship is chosen between the speed of the longitudinal acoustic wave and the porosity for a given lithology type of the rock, and porosity is determined of each irradiated split part of the core-sample, using the measured speeds of acoustic longitudinal wave and the selected relationship between the speed of the longitudinal wave and porosity for a given lithology type of the rock. The value of change in porosity is determined by comparing the obtained values of the irradiated split parts of the core-sample and value of reference porosity, typical for this lithology type of the rock.

EFFECT: provision of opportunity to determine changes in rock properties of borehole area of bed created as a result of exposure to the pollutant.

32 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method (versions) of determining representative elements of areas and volumes in a porous medium. A representative element of area (REA) is the smallest area that can be modelled to yield consistent results, within acceptable limits of variance of the modelled property. Porosity and permeability are examples of such properties. In 3D, the corresponding term is representative element of volume (REV). A REV is the smallest volume of a porous medium that is representative of the measured parameter.

EFFECT: high accuracy of obtained data.

30 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method is proposed to direct drilling of a drill well in a target underground bed, including stages of preparation of drilling equipment, having a layout of a bottom of a drilling string, which includes a controlled subsystem of directional drilling and a directional measurement logging instrument during drilling with the possibility of circular viewing and anticipatory viewing; determination of availability of the specified type of bed feature in a target bed; and navigation of a drilling trajectory in a target bed by drilling equipment, which includes reception of measurement signals from the directional measurement instrument, production of bed parameter indices on the basis of received measurement signals in respect to a bed feature in the target bed and control of a subsystem of directional drilling for drilling in the direction determined depending on produced indices of bed parameters.

EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities and increased information value of tests.

23 cl, 56 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physical-chemical analysis methods and can be used in diamond analysis. Disclosed is a method of restoring temperature-time conditions for genesis of diamonds of the type IaAB or mixed type Ib-IaA, based on calculation, from local concentrations of impurity nitrogen in forms C, A and B in a crystal, measured for example by infrared microspectroscopy, of local values of an integral parameter Knt of aggregation kinetics of the n-th order of corresponding nitrogen centres. The method further includes recording the change in values of the integral aggregation parameter of corresponding nitrogen centres Δ(Knt) on crystal growth layers, for example in any region of the thin diamond plate crossing the growth layers. The temperature T and time Δt of genesis are determined using the equation Arexp(-Ea/kBT)×Δt=Δ(Knt), where: kB is Boltzmann constant, Ar and Ea denote Arrhenius constant and activation energy of the process of aggregation of C- or A-centres, corresponding to the aggregation kinetics order n.

EFFECT: high reliability of recovering the history of genesis of a diamond crystal.

5 cl, 8 tbl, 26 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geochemical prospecting and can be used to determine the erosional truncation level of ore occurrences and endogenic geochemical anomalies. The method comprises collecting samples from the surface and from wells of an endogenic envelope or potential ore formation; analysing the samples for indicator elements using a quantitative precision method; based on the analysis results, calculating pair correlation coefficients and constructing ranked series of zoning elements. The erosional truncation level is determined by comparing the pair correlation coefficients and the ranked series with a reference summary table.

EFFECT: faster and more efficient determination of erosional truncation level.

6 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: in seismic survey in icy water, streamers are towed behind a vessel under the water surface to avoid collision with ice. GPS readings may not be consistently obtained because the ice prevents a tail buoy with a GPS receiver from trailing from the streamer on the surface Instead, a device is towed on the streamer under the water surface. The absolute position of the streamer is tracked by intermittently bringing the towed device towards the surface so that GPS readings can be obtained. The absolute position of the streamer can then be used in conjunction with compass readings and can correlate various seismic sensor signals obtained along the streamer during the survey. The compass readings can be corrected for declination using declinometer readings, which can be compensated for iron effects from the vessel or other device carrying the declinometer.

EFFECT: high accuracy of survey data.

31 cl, 33 dwg

FIELD: physics; geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used in seismic exploration to detect oil and gas deposits. The invention discloses a method and an apparatus for marine seismic survey using one or more movable marine seismic vibrators. The sweeping function for the vibrator is based on the criterion of allowable degradation and is a nonlinear function which performs frequency sweeping from top downwards. The obtained data can be used directly without cleaning or can be easily cleaned.

EFFECT: high accuracy of survey data.

21 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: physics, geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used for sea seismic works. Claimed are seismic streamer and related method of evaluation of the shape of seismic streamer controlled in transverse direction. This seismic streamer is divided into several adjacent sections of seismic streamer by control devices in transverse direction. Heading transducers arranged fore and aft of every section generate the data on heading. Every section is simulated as a rectangular fore and curved fore section. Section shape is evaluated in compliance with this model from the data on heading towards the section.

EFFECT: higher precision of trial data owing to precision of seismic streamer shape evaluation.

19 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a small-size bottom seismic module, connected by a hydroacoustic link to a control station and consisting of a sealed housing, a hydrophysical module, a device for detecting geophysical signals, which includes a bottom seismometer, information storage means, a spatial orientation sensor, a radio buoy, a ballast, a ballast release, a release timer, a flash beacon, a radio beacon, an external communication socket and a power supply. The sealed housing has the shape of a hemisphere which is linked to the base of the sealed housing which is in the form of a plate, on the upper diameter of which there are mechanical elements of the ballast release, which are in the form of straps which are linked to the ballast, tightly adjoining the base of the sealed housing on its lower diameter. The means of communicating with the control station are in the form of a single-relay hydroacoustic link. The spatial orientation sensor consists of an electronic 3D compass, three accelerometers and three angular velocity measuring devices, rigidly linked to the bottom seismometer, and the bottom seismometer is in the form of a wideband molecular-electronic sensor.

EFFECT: high reliability of detected seismic signals.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: acoustic signal is emitted toward sea bottom. Signal of sound reradiation from water column is received. Gas flares are isolated from receive signal. Gas flare inclination is used to evaluate the stream velocity profile and direction. Density of gas flare sources on sea bottom and methane flow direction in water for every flare are calculated. Obtained data allows the determination of methane concentration in water column in the area of methane discharge.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of evaluation.

1 dwg

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: offered invention relates to measuring equipment and can be used for development and manufacture of oceanological multichannel information and measuring complexes and development of new measuring oceanological channels. The hydrological-optical-chemical complex contains a unit of hydrophysical measuring channels, a central controller, the first and second modems of the electric communication line, a conducting rope with electric and fibre-optical communication lines, a rotating electric transition, an electric winch, an operator workstation, a unit of optical measuring channels, and a unit of normalising controllers is added to it, and each hydrophysical measuring channel through the corresponding normalising controller is connected to the central controller, besides, the first and second multiport optical modems and the rotating optical transition are added, and each optical measuring channel is connected to the corresponding input of the first multiport optical modem connected through the fibre-optic communication line of the conducting rope to the rotating optical transition connected to the second multiport optical modem connected to the operator workstation. The information from the measuring channels of the hydrophysical module is processed by the normalising controllers, and in compact way by the central controller through the multiport modem is transferred to the onboard device of the probe, and also in creation of conditions for development, manufacture, laboratory and natural studies of new optical measuring channels for identification and registration of quantity of a mineral suspended matter and the weighed organic substance in sea water, integration of currently existing measuring oceanologic channels, creation of the combined channel of the electric and fibre-optical communication line between submersible and onboard devices.

EFFECT: integration in a single hydrological-optical-chemical complex of all available measuring channels of oceanological parameters.

1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydroacoustic equipment and to the creation of deployment-retrieval devices (DRD) of flexible extended trailing antennas (FETA) on submarines and on surface ships. The invention proposes a DRD structure in which the deployment of the antenna to the stream in case some part of the antenna is wound on a winch, and its other part is arranged in a tubular storage unit, is provided by the creation of excess pressure in the tubular storage unit by means of a centrifugal pump, a sealing device on the end face of the tubular storage unit, which is close to the winch, is made in the form of a cylindrical module of the same inner diameter as the tubular storage unit, which is rigidly and tightly attached to it, and the suction pipeline of the centrifugal pump is made of two branch pipes, one of which is directed outboard and the other one is tightly attached to the inner volume of the tubular storage unit with an additional conical flange coaxial to the tubular storage unit and installed near its fore end face between the conical flange connected to the pressure pipeline and the sealing device of the fore end face of the tubular storage unit, the conical flange of the pressure pipeline is oriented with its constriction to the aft part of the tubular storage unit, and the conical flange of the suction pipeline is oriented with its constriction to the fore part.

EFFECT: increasing the safety of deployment and retrieval of flexible extended trailing antennas, some part of which is wound on a winch of deployment and retrieval devices, and some part is located in the tubular storage unit, without its damages or stops.

1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for measurement of geophysical parameters in bottom area of seas and oceans. Substance: seismic module comprises a tight body (1), inside of which there is a hard disk drive (5), a unit (7) of a hydroacoustic communication channel, a ballast (2) breaker (8), a timer (9) of the breaker (8) of ballast (2), a flashing beacon (10), a joint (11) of external communication, a source of power supply (12), a hydrophysical module (13), a radio beacon (14), a seismic sensor (15), a unit (20) of spatial orientation. Besides, the unit (20) of spatial orientation comprises an electronic 3D compass, three accelerometers and three meters of angular speeds rigidly coupled with the seismic sensor (15). The seismic detector (15) is made in the form of a wideband molecular-electronic sensor. The tight body (1) is made in the form of a hemisphere with a base in the form of a plate, along the upper diameter of which there are mechanical elements of the ballast (2) breaker (8) installed. Mechanical elements of the ballast (2) breaker (8) are made in the form of slings (3), which are coupled to ballast (2) and tightly adjoin the base of the tight body (1) along its lower diameter. The hydroacoustic communication channel for connection of the seismic module with the dispatching station is made as single-relay.

EFFECT: increased validity of recorded data.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building, particularly, to surface scientific and research vessels. Scientific and research icebreaking vessel is proposed for carrying out 3D seismic technology exploration irrespectively to ice conditions which vessel has a hull where seismic equipment is located, as well as a shaft for bay cable laying. To move source of acoustic waves untethered unmanned submersible is used which bases on a vessel and is dropped and lifted via separate vertical shaft using running - pulling tool.

EFFECT: improved operational performance of scientific and research vessel for seismic exploration.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: physics; geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used in marine seismic prospecting. Disclosed is an underwater seismic recording system for reducing noise in seismic signals caused by reflected ghost waves or movement through the water. The system comprises two motion sensors. One sensor has a first response and sensitivity to noise caused by movement of the platform, as well as to acoustic waves. The second sensor has a different structure, which insulates the sensor from acoustic waves such that the response is primarily associated with noise caused by movement. Output data of the responses of the two sensors are combined to eliminate the effect of the noise caused by movement. Upon further combination with a hydrophone signal, noise caused by reflected ghost waves is reduced.

EFFECT: high accuracy of prospecting data.

14 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: veterinary medicine.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises selection of only living, mature females of Trichuris vulpis from colon, blind gut of wild and/or domestic carnivorous animals infected spontaneously with whipworms in the study with helminthological methods when autopsy, into separate tubes with officinal isotonic solution (0.9%) of sodium chloride (solutio Natrii chlorati isotonica) and the exposure of the tubes with the females of Trichuris vulpis at t = 37.5-39°C for 5 hours under conditions of a thermostat.

EFFECT: method enables to select a large amount of fertilised eggs of T vulpis, not contaminated with particles of undigested feed, the particles of destroyed tissue of genitals of female of T vulpis and secondary bacterial microflora.

2 ex

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