Combined unit for biomelioration of degraded soils with desalination and sowing of seeds
SUBSTANCE: combined unit for biomelioration of degraded soils with desalination and sowing of seeds includes a self-propelled unit with a two-section frame (2, 3) equipped with wheels. The first section (2) of the frame has one wheel pair (4), on the second section (3) there are two wheel pairs (5.6). The operator's cabin (29), the diesel engine (30), the venting device (31), the soil-cultivating machine (7), which includes an additional mobile frame (8) with hollow parabolic racks (9), a bottomless bucket (10) with a shutter (11) in the form of a flat knife with a mouldboard (12), and a disc-chopping device (14) are installed on the first section (2) of the frame. A product pipeline (17) with nozzles, connected through a pump (15) with a meliorant container (16), is mounted under the mouldboard (12). Behind the mouldboard (12), on the back wall (19) a flat knife for stripping the cut-off boundary layer of the soil is fixed. A product pipeline (27) with nozzles (28), connected to the liquid manure container (26) through the pump (25) is fixed behind the back wall of the bottomless bucket (10), under the casing. A filter (55) of the gas distribution device (42), a pneumatic drill (48) hopper, a fan (46), a container (49) for aqueous solution of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, a container (54) for loose meliorants with a pump and a product pipeline, and a water container (56) are installed on the second frame section (3), and a bar-type roller (57) is attached to the end face. In the second frame section (3), an additional frame (32) is placed, with the movably fixed mechanism of deepening a tiered volumetric subsoiler (34) made with hollow parabolic racks (35) connected by mouldboards (36). The product pipelines (37) in the racks and under the mouldboards (36) are connected to the container (40) for the components of the organomineral water-regulating shield, are connected to the ejectors by the gas distributing device (42), the pressure nozzles behind the mouldboards (36) of the shield components in the gas jacket. On the additional frame (32) a battery of bilateral duckfoot shovels (44) with hollow racks, a pipeline, and nozzles is mounted. The mouldboards (36) connecting the parabolic racks (35) of the tiered volumetric subsoiler (34) are made arc-shaped with the insertion of horizontal sections of different lengths at extreme points, and two symmetrical conjugate mouldboards (36) contain a transverse profile with a curved surface and exceeding the level of conjugations above the edge level. The disc-chopping device (14) is made with a drive axle fixed to a hollow rack between the side walls of the bottomless bucket (10) and alternating of chip-saw discs, small discs with rigidly fixed double-edged pick-shaped knives and discs with moving beating knives on the axis. The discs with pick-shaped knives are frictionally connected with the leading small discs and are installed in front of and between the pairs of chip-saw discs with a diameter exceeding the rotation perimeter of the pick-shaped knives. Inside the pair of chip-saw blades on the axis (59) there are small discs with installed rollers and beater knives. Two-edged chopping knives with a tiered installation and cutting edges perpendicular to the disc butt are fixed on the butt surfaces of the chip-saw discs, and harpoon-shaped chopping knives are rigidly fixed on the perimeter of the discs.
EFFECT: reducing the time for melioration of degraded lands with the provision of increasing the productivity of agricultural land.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tool comprises a wedge rack, a fertiliser duct mounted on its rear part, and at its lower part - ploughshares and the vertical rotary blade mounted in the rack alignment and in front of it. Under the plowshares there is the distribution fertiliser duct coupled with the fertiliser duct with exit windows and guide vanes placed at a variable angle to the direction of motion. At the place of coupling the distribution fertiliser duct and the fertiliser duct there is a fertiliser flow divider. The tool is equipped with screw fertiliser dispenser for mixing NPK fertiliser and powdered polyacrylamide having a cylindrical regulator of seeding rate, and a high-pressure fan. The screw fertiliser dispenser drive is made from the vertical circular blade. The fan is driven by a hydraulic motor. The plowshares have upper sharpening and welding of the lower part of the blade with hard wear-resistant alloy. In the middle part of plowshares throughout their length there are fertiliser-outlet openings directed towards the plane of the plowshare at an angle equal to the angle of sharpening the plowshare blade. Over the fertiliser-outlet openings the wedge rippers are provided of the soil layer cut by the plowshare. The upper sharpened part of the rippers has welding of the solid wear-resistant alloy. The distribution fertiliser duct at the lower part is radially paired with the fertiliser-outlet openings. The length of the wedge rippers made at an angle to the plane of the plowshare overlaps the outlet part of the fertiliser-outlet openings. Opening angle of the wedge rippers is equal to the angle of friction of sliding soil on the metal. The bottom of the fertiliser dispenser is made with a slope to the screw at an angle greater than the angle of friction of sliding fertilisers on metal.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of a mixture of mineral fertilisers with polyacrylamide around arable horizon that results in improved soil properties providing receiving of high and stable yields of crops.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame with systems of hinging and adjusting the depth of processing, working elements. The working elements are made in the form of chisel and hingedly fixed A-hoes on the racks. The device has pipeline connected to each other of feeding the fertiliser with check valves, a manifold, a dispenser with the container. The container is connected with the compressor of the tractor and has a pressure reducing valve. The upper part of the chisel is formed wavelike with the channels inside having outlet to the vertex of each wave, at that the fastening of the working element to the frame is made with the ability to move, and in the lower part of the rack the channel is made connected to the channel of the chisel and through the pipeline to the check valve - the compressor and dispenser with the container.
EFFECT: reduction of energy intensity of the process, reduction of fertiliser application rates and improvement of quality of soil treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agricultural machine building, in particular, to equipment for application of fertilisers. The device for combined application of fertilisers comprises a disc knife, a deforming ploughshare, closers, a damper and a parallelogram mechanism. In the device in the first version the disc knife in combination with the deforming ploughshare are suspended onto the parallelogram mechanism, which makes it possible for working elements to follow the field surface. The device is equipped with damper springs for adjustment of working elements embedding value. In the device according to the second version the deforming ploughshare with a scraper are connected to the parallelogram hinge in a hinged manner as capable of oscillation in the plane perpendicular to the direction of movement, which makes it possible to form tight walls of the furrow and to clean the cutting surface of the disc knife.
EFFECT: higher soil fertility due to application of fertilisers to the specified depth, reduced water and wind erosion.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a rectangular welded frame with hitch systems, fixtures of working bodies and the working bodies. The working bodies consist of racks of bits, and arched semihoes with a cut in the back part are hinged to them. The device has a capacity with a relief valve that is connected to the tractor compressor with air lines, and with working routes through the collector and the diaphragm dosing device to the pipeline of fertilisers supply, located on the rack. The arched semihoes and bits have interchangeable plates with cutting edges and are connected with them by means of threaded connections with the possibility of formation the gap between the bit and the plate.
EFFECT: design concept enables to expand the functionality of the device, increase operational reliability, reduce energy consumption of the process, reduce the application rate of fertiliser application while increasing the efficiency of its use, improve the quality of cultivated surface of soil.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a material line with distribution holes evenly arranged along its length and having various diameters, a material flow divider, a channel of material supply and an air duct with holes. At the same time between the air duct and the material line there is a freely rotating spring. The spring is put into rotary motion via a bushing and a flexible shaft - a cord from a sprocket that interacts with a furrow bottom in the working position.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase evenness of application and quality of liquid improves spraying into under-hoe space.
SUBSTANCE: device to apply liquid fertilisers in soil comprises a reservoir for liquid fertilisers, a compressor, freely installed force drums with hollow needles at the hollow axis. The compressor is connected directly to the reservoir for liquid fertilisers, which is connected to the hollow axis by the force manifold. There are segment windows made in the hollow axis to supply liquid fertilisers from the reservoir for liquid fertilisers into cavity of needles. Hollow needles have isolator stems in the lower part.
EFFECT: device has a simple design and ensures application of a strictly determined dose of liquid fertilisers in soil.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: machine includes a bearing system, a hinge, blades, a batcher, a support wheel, fertiliser distributing devices, the soil fertilisation device. It also has disk harrows that are placed before blades. Axes of disk harrows are fixed at an angle to a line of blades movement. There are wireways mounted before disk harrows for surface fertilisation. The blades have scatterers; the mix of air and fertilisers for under soil fertilisation arrives to these scatterers. There are two rows of packers behind the blades.
EFFECT: machine makes it possible to raise quality of the top layer soil processing, provide equal fertilisation and to increase agricultural crops yield as well.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to agriculture, particularly to irrigation of soil and is designed for watering various plants. The method of plant inter-soil pulse discrete watering consists in supply of water inside soil with a syringe element in the process of chassis travelling along surface of soil by means of successive step-by-step in every 0.1-0.15 m embedding a lower end of the syringe element into soil at depth 0.05-0.15 m and pulse sprinkling of 0.1-0.3 sec duration into soil under 0.15-0.2 MPa pressure by discrete portions of 20-100 ml metered according to a watering rate. When a water supply pulse occurs, fissures in soil are locally washed out in the zone of a pulse; fissures are mudded; there is created a discrete moistened zone facilitating successive capillary distribution of moisture in specified volume of soil without gravitation draining.
EFFECT: method of successive step-by-step metered pulse supply of water into soil facilitates discrete soil moistening and uniform and stable development of individual plants with their root system spreading in watered plot area.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machine-building, in particular to technical means for intra-soil and superficial root and non-root additional fertilisation of plants with liquid fertilisers, plant spraying, processing with pesticides with simultaneous soil tillage, mechanical destroying of weeds, earthing up plants. System contains reservoirs for liquid fertilisers installed on support sites, containing primary screen filters with hydraulic mixers and respiratory labyrinth valve, located in filling neck of the reservoirs, funnel-suppressor, installed in reservoir bottom and jet mixer located in lower zone of reservoirs, and connected with replaceable sprayers, located on non-working back surface of chisel-shaped colters by means of pipelines and check valve through successively located low-pressure filter, membrane pump and regulator-distributor. System has pipelines of reverse solution supply and additional branch of pipelines with three-way tap, connected with input end with membrane pump, connected with the first output end through T-joint with hydraulic mixer of primary screen filter and jet mixer, and with the second end connected with pipeline of reverse solution supply. Hydraulic mixer is located in upper zone of primary screen filter and includes input branch pipe, connected with three-way tap and connected in T-like way to located in primary screen filter distribution pipe with installed on its free ends at acute angle to it supplying nozzles. Regulator-distributor includes reducing pressure valve connected through high-pressure filter with output branch pipes of distributing valve for supply of solution to sprayers of chisel-shaped colters, and manometre. Regulator-distributor is connected through input branch pipe with membrane pump, through output overflow branch pipe with pipelines of reverse supply of part of solution into reservoirs for liquid fertilisers and is equipped with handle for turning on regulator-distributor and handle of pressure regulating. High-pressure filter is equipped with outlet branch pipe for removal of filtered fraction.
EFFECT: invention solves the problem of reduction of material consumption by the system, extension of functional abilities of aggregate, increase of its productivity and versatility, increase of aggregate performance efficiency with simultaneous soil processing, destroying weeds and additional fertilising of cultivated crops.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agricultural machine-building, in particular to technical means for soil tillage, mechanical elimination of weeds, earthing up plants with simultaneous intra-soil or superficial application of pesticides or root or non-root additional fertilizing of plants with liquid fertilizers. Combined aggregate contains transverse bar with centrally located system of hitching on tractor fixed on it on one side, and support wheels fixed by means of brackets, and on the other side of transverse bar, fixed by means of parallelogram mechanism, sections, each of them including copying wheel and equipped with extender longitudinal beam with operating elements installed on it. Support wheels are fixed by means of adjustable supports on longitudinal cantilevers installed in end parts of transverse bar, from two sides of which in region of supporting wheels pair brackets are additionally fixed on which there are support sites for installation of removable reservoirs with liquid fertilizers, reservoirs being connected with aggregate system of fertilizers distribution, sections are evenly distributed on transverse bar, and longitudinal beam is cantileverly fixed on free lower end of vertical elongated link of parallelogram mechanism, copying wheel is fixed above beam on vertical elongated link with possibility to regulate its position, each beam being made in form of U-shaped box equipped with mounting elements made in form of small front, large middle and small back, successively located in box bottom, longitudinal rectangular windows, and sidewalls of the box are equipped with co-axially located slot cuts and holes of square form, and inside the box along both longitudinal sides of front and back small rectangular windows profile stocks with holes are fixed with beam extender equipped with hole, and on each beam there are fixed replaceable soil-processing tools or S-shaped spring posts with hoes and chisel-shaped ripper with sprayer, connected by pipeline with system of fertilizers distribution, or A-hoe blades, or right or left single-sided subsurface cultivators or chisel-shaped rippers, or combined operating elements made in form of hoes, fixed on vertical posts equipped with installed on them removable double-sided blades with removable pinnate extenders.
EFFECT: invention solves technical problem of extension of aggregate functional possibilities, increase of its productivity and versatility, improvement of mounting and dismantling of operating elements, improvement of quality of crop cultivation, increase of efficiency of soil processing, weeds destroying and additional fertilizing of cultivated crops, increase of reliability of technological process progress.
10 cl, 16 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of drainage of agricultural land of nonchernozem belt with closed drainage and the techniques of use of these lands. The method comprises loosening the drained soils to a depth of at least 60 m. In order to ensure the required by the plants of soil humidity conditions, preventing the possible damage to the pipes of closed drainage and providing industrial applicability of deep loosening, the deep loosening is carried out to a depth of hl, determined in each case from the condition of compliance with the following requirements: (hr)min ≤ hl ≤ (hr)max;(1), hl ≤ (hr)min - D - ΣΔhi , (2), where ΣΔhi = Δh1 + Δh2 + Δh3 + Δh4; (3), 60 ≤ hl ≤ ht , (4) where (hr)min and (hr)max are the minimum and maximum depth of penetration into the trench backfill of the closed drainage of the root system of cultivated culture, respectively, cm; (hd)min is the minimum depth of placement of closed drainage pipes of the project at the site where deep loosening is planned to be carried out, cm; D is the outer diameter of the closed drainage pipes at the site (cm); ΣΔhi is the sum of corrections (cm), including: the correction which depends on the accuracy of the topographic altitude survey of soil surface of the drained site, Δh1; the corrections taking into account the technogenic erosion of the soil surface during carrying out crop-engineering and land planning Δh2 and during ploughing Δh3; correction taking into account the depth of the gauge made by the tractor on the soil surface during deep loosening, Δh4; ht is the maximum possible depth of loosening soil due of the technology level and characterising the industrial feasibility of the inventive method; at that in each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the powdering layer of the drainage pipe over the bottom of the trench mp > hd - hl, where hd is the depth of placement of the closed drainage pipe. Prior to loosening the soil on the drained part the value of the set depth of deep loosening is set on the mechanism of the ripper when setting up, preparing it for work.
EFFECT: positive result is to obtain by a landholder of closed drainage durable and reliable in operation, providing design humidity conditions of soil during its operation for at least a normative term of service.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises deep loosening of soil, application of fertilizers and ferrous sulphate solution, and watering with increased irrigation rate. At that as the fertilizer the urea formaldehyde fertilizer is applied in the topsoil, which is saturated with ferrous sulphate solution and encrusted with phosphogypsum. After completion of washing the fertilizer is moved to the lower part of the ploughed horizon.
EFFECT: efficient desalination of irrigated saline soils with improvement of soil structure, increase in soil fertility and erosion resistance without damaging the surrounding area and plants.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises placing a potato on the predecessor, disking, fall-ploughing the soil, spring cultivation, preparation the seed material two weeks before planting by air-thermal heating to pipping of sprouts, cutting ridges, processing of tubers with microbiological preparation and planting tubers, inter-row treatment at finding weeds in the stage of "white string" with the gradual increase in the ridges. The first inter-row treatment is carried out after the emergence of potato sprouts, the subsequent second and third row treatments - with an interval of 10-12 days prior to the closing of potato tops. Protection of potato plants from pests is carried out using microbial agents by spraying the tops during the growing season in dry calm weather, pre-harvesting mechanical removal of the tops and harvesting potatoes is carried out. At that planting tubers is carried out on a smooth surface of soil after deep cultivation to a depth of 20-22 cm in rows with spacing between them of 90 cm to a depth of 4-6 cm with a planting density of 50000 tubers per hectare with simultaneous treatment of tubers and the bottom of the furrow with 5% solution of Phytosporin-M at the rate of its consumption of 10 litres per 1 ton of planting material by spraying with a nozzle. Cutting the ridges is carried out simultaneously with the first inter-row treatment, forming a ridge with the height of 25-30 cm and the width of 17-18 cm on top with the ridge-forming cutter with active working bodies. The second and third inter-row treatments are carried out with a simple ridge-forming cutter. In addition, protection of potato plants from pests is carried out once with 0.01% solution of Phytoverm-M at the rate of its consumption of 500 litres per 1 ha.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain the yield of food potato with high consumer properties against the background of complete elimination of chemical means of plant protection from diseases and pests by environmentally friendly methods and means of weed control, preventing pollution the environment and potato crop with toxic substances.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, application into soil of water or liquid fertilizer, after harvesting the crop the field is prepared - decontaminated, neutralized and dehydrated sludge residue is scattered across the field, obtained during biological purification on the complex of livestock wastes, then before ploughing on the irrigated field soil disking is carried out to the depth of 5 cm, the passage is made in two directions, longitudinal and transverse, and ploughing is carried out not on the slope of the field, but perpendicular to the horizontals in direction of the slope, followed by application into the soil of liquid effluent across the width of the arable field with the sprinkler unit with the sprinklers equipped with the closed pipelines to transport the said effluent from the storage pond, after application of the liquid effluent and drying the sludge remaining after application of liquid effluent in the ploughed field, soil disking or cultivating is carried out, its smoothing and compacting is carried out with smooth water-filled rollers. The effluent through the ploughing and depth of the soil enters the drainage pipes, which communicate with the open collector.
EFFECT: increase in soil fertility.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises alternate strip broadcast sowing seeds with loosening the soil to a depth of sowing on the whole working width. Continuous sowing seeds is carried out through a strip with intermittent sowing seeds on the strip sections with the length of 22.5-30 cm with unsown gaps of the same length within a given general seeding rate. The width of the space between the continuously sown strips is Lc=(2×lm-ls)>30 cm, and the width of the gap between the adjacent strips is la=(lm-ls)>22.5/2, where lm is row middle; ls is a strip width.
EFFECT: use of the invention enables to improve the harvesting capacity and quality of grain, as well as the level of profitability of grain production while reducing costs.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding biopreparations and sowing high sorption capacity plant seeds. Contaminated areas are irrigated with p-aminobenzoic acid in concentration of 0.1-0.2%. When dissolving p-aminobenzoic acid, stevia leaves are added to the hot solution in amount of 0.2%. After cooling the solution to 20-25°C, biopreparation Baikal - EM-1 is added in concentration of 1:100. Amaranth is then planted 2-3 weeks after irrigation. Repeated irrigation in the same concentration is carried out at the branching phase of the amaranth.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and can be used as a protective measure in pest control. The method comprises post-harvesting shelling, fall ploughing and pre-sowing soil treatment. At that, on the field two varieties of winter wheat are sown. Along the perimeter of the field of the main variety the pest-resistant winter wheat variety Kuma is sown with the width not less than 50-55 m, and both varieties should be similar in terms of ripening, and harvesting of both varieties is carried out simultaneously.
EFFECT: method provides reduction of the pesticide load and increase in efficiency.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing, disking, subsurface treatment and combing. At that in July the fallow field is ploughed along the perimeter to the depth of 0.15 m, the width of the band is 10-15 m. The fallow soil of the entire field is cut to the depth of 0.06 m, and the plants are pressed to the ground. The aboveground mass is dried and burned, and the roots in the soil loosened to a depth of 0.15 m are removed to the surface of the soil and dried to lethal outcome.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the quality of cleaning fallow soil from hardly-exterminable weeds.
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: method includes area treatment, beds forming, potato tubers planting, scraping, fertilizers addition, irrigation and crop gathering. To receive second crop the tubers are planted at the area where previously grain, legume crops or even annual or perennial grasses wer cultured. The potato tubers with sprouts of the previous crop are used as planting material. At that the tubers are planted during last ten days of July till first ten days of August. Second crop tubers are irrigated during sprout appearance. Crops is gathered from last ten days of October to first ten days of November.
EFFECT: method ensures high quality planting material for next year.