Structure and method of electric heater control for temperature limitation
FIELD: food industry, tobacco.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to electrically heated smoking devices. The control method of an electric heating element is provided by: maintaining the heating element temperature at a target temperature by electric current pulsinng to the heating element; tracking of the electric current pulses duty factor; and determining whether the duty factor differs from the offered duty factor or duty factor interval, and if so, the target temperature lowering, or termination of current supply to the heating element, or the duty factor limitation of pulses of electric current supplied to the heating element. Since the temperature is maintained at a certain level of the target temperature, any change in the duty factor or duty factor range, intended to maintain the target temperature, indicates abnormal conditions.
EFFECT: invention reduces the probability of the substrate burning, which forms an aerosol which could lead to the formation of undesired compounds in the smoke.
16 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to systems of heat tracing. The method of controlling the heat tracing circuit with automatic determining of interval duration of lack of power supply comprises calculation of the interval duration of lack of power supply based on the value of temperature of the process pipeline, measured at the end of a predetermined initial interval of the lack of power supply, as well as taking into account of the particular temperature of set point for the process pipeline and temperature of non-sensitivity area exceeding the temperature of set point. The set point temperature is determined taking into account the process fluid medium, the characteristics of the heating cable and the operating conditions of the process pipeline. The interval duration of the lack of power supply is limited by the time required for the process pipeline temperature reaches the temperature of set point.
EFFECT: providing of reduction of the number of on-off cycles of the heat tracing circuit and, consequently, increase in the life of the circuit components.
14 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device for zonal heating of a cryogenic control apparatus, for example, of a shutting off element which comprises a hollow casing 1 fixed in the housing of a cryogenic cavity, a stem 2 mounted inside the casing, movable along it and connected by one end to the output of the stem travelling drive 3 and by the other end - to a shutting off element 4 which provides for the change of the flow passage section in the pipeline where liquefied gas is transported. At least one resistance heating element 11 and temperature sensor 12 are mounted on the outer side of the control apparatus casing 1. The heating element 11 and the temperature sensor 12 can be mounted on the drive 3 case as well. Additionally the device comprises a voltage regulator 13, a temperature selector 14 and a control device 15 connected by its first input to the output of the temperature selector, by its second input - to the output of the temperature sensor and by its output to the control input of the voltage regulator with the power input of the latter being connected to the input of a power supply source 16. For easier installation on the apparatus casing 1 the heating element 11 can be made annular and detachable in axial direction.
EFFECT: invention provides for uninterrupted equipment operation.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an apparatus for controlling heating of a heat-dissipating glass, which transmits a sinusoidal signal in accordance with the size of the heat-dissipating glass such that the sinusoidal signal is transmitted at a moment in time when current of the sinusoidal signal is equal to zero, and transmission of the sinusoidal signal stops at a moment in time when current of the sinusoidal signal is equal to zero. The signal is transmitted to the heat-dissipating glass so as to control power supply taking into account the load created by the heat-dissipating glass, and the moment the sinusoidal signal passes through zero is determined using a phase detection portion, and heat control portion generates a control signal so that the signal is transmitted at a moment in time when current of the sinusoidal signal is equal to zero, and also transmission of the sinusoidal signal stops at a moment in time when current of the sinusoidal signal is equal to zero, and then transmits the control signal to a former, and the signal transmitted from the power supply portion is transmitted through the signal former to the heat-dissipating glass, and each signal transmitted to each heat-dissipating glass can be transmitted in different periods of time.
EFFECT: reduced noise generation, high reliability and longevity.
8 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: circuit (1) for heating conductor control used to regulate AC power supply to the heating element (21) connected to it contains a breaker (31) having at least three switching states regarding power supplied to the heating element (21), for example two half-waves are connected, positive and negative half-wave is switched off and both half-waves are switched off, and control device (32) to define temperature of the heating element (21) and to select a switching state of the breaker (31) depending on temperature and/or temperature mode set by a user.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of control over power supply to the heating element.
21 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heating device (10), as well as to a ground transport vehicle or an aircraft containing one or more heating devices (10), containing many PTK resistors (30) and at least one alternating voltage source connected to PTK resistors; PTK resistors (30) have such dimensions that voltage drop on PTK resistor (30) does not exceed the value of 40 V/mm, PTK resistors (30) are adjacent to one or more heat transfer zones (40); heat transfer zones (40) include many adjoining air channels.
EFFECT: reduction of current distortion associated with PTK resistor.
11 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: heating device includes a heating element, a heat pipeline and the first and the second converters of the temperature control, which are in direct contact with the heat pipeline; at that, the first converter of the temperature control is located at the first distance from the heating element; the second converter of the temperature control is located at the second distance that is shorter than the first one from the heating element; actuation threshold of the first converter of the temperature control is less than actuation threshold of the second converter of the temperature control. The other aspect of the invention is the heating method using the heating device and manufacturing method of the heating element.
EFFECT: accurate and reliable temperature monitoring and control.
15 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plant includes two refrigerating and/or freezing devices installed near each other, or a refrigerating and/or a freezing device that is installed near the wall. Refrigerating and/or freezing device includes at least one heating element to prevent condensate formation. Heating element is not insulated with foamed material and located at least on one outer side of the device, which is directed to adjacent device or to the wall, or in the area of the above side. Heating element is a component of a modular system that can be further installed at least on one outer side of the device or in its area. Plant includes two refrigerating and/or freezing devices installed near each other, or a refrigerating and/or a freezing device that is installed near the wall, at least with one heating element to prevent condensate formation. Heating element is not insulated with foamed material and located at least on one outer side of the device, which is directed to adjacent device or to the wall, or in the area of the above side; heating element is the component of the modular system, which can further be installed in the mentioned area of the device.
EFFECT: easy method for prevention of condensate formation.
SUBSTANCE: the invention relates to method of regulation of steam installation in home appliances, where the steam installation produces water steam, in particular, hot steam of overheated steam. Water steam is fed to the processing section, specifically, to the drum. The said steam installation comprises at least one steam generator with heating element and water feeding means. The steam generator temperature is measured, specifically, the surface temperature and/or the heating element temperature, and in normal operating mode the heating element of water feeding means are regulated in such a manner so the measure temperature is kept within the given lower and upper limits. The normal operation mode comprises the first stage and the second stage, furthermore, in the first stage which begins after reaching the given lower temperature limit until reaching the given upper temperature limit the heating element is active and the water feeding means feed the water with the given volume flow, which is the fixed second volume flow or the volume flow which is changed accoring to the measured temperature in the given second dependence. In the second phase of normal operating mode which which begins after reaching the given upper temperature limit until reaching the given lower temperature limit the heating element is deactivated or its heat reduced in comparison with the first phase, and the water feeding means feed the water with the given third volume flow or the volume flow which is changed in accordance with the measured temperature in the third dependence. The second phase duration is measured, compared with the given duration value, and if the measured value differs from the given value more than the given difference value, the troubleshooting service begins.
EFFECT: guaranteed constant steam temperature and/or steam constant volume flow, which prevents spotting and textile products damage.
25 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: heat generating electrode is made in the form of conductive plate (1) with one side coated by heat generating substances consisting of layer (2) of powdered homogenous mixture of polycrystalline substances covered by electroinsulating oxide film (3). During manufacture of electrode the following mixture is made with mass fractions (wt %) of calcinated magnesia oxide - 10-30, rubidium chloride 16-20, cesium chloride 5-15, ferrous oxide 10-14, iron oxide 10-14, granite 20-36. Components are powered up to size of particles less than 50 mcm and mixed. Ready mixture is mixed up with water up to pasty consistency. One layer of the mixture is applied to surface of one or two sides of electrode. Pin-point welding of each layer is made. Protruding irregularities of ready coating are removed. Coated electrode is conditioned at muffle furnace at 800°C during 2 hours. Electrode coating is baked till non-conductive oxide film is formed at the surface.
EFFECT: improvement of operational performance.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: heating element with controlled power for liquids includes housing, disconnecting device coupled with temperature sensor and mains. The housing of heating element is made of stainless steel in the form of truncated cone or part of sphere and installed up side down and represented as a vessel bottom. Insulating glass ceramic layer is located on the outer surface. Apart from the lower cone cross section or top part of the sphere having cross section diametre no more than 20% of large diametre of heating element bottom, metal ceramic resistor (7) with temperature sensor (8) is installed on the outer surface. There is a shield inside truncated cone or part of sphere, which is made from sheet material capable of withstanding liquid boiling temperature and ensure permanent clearance no less than 3 mm between heating element surface contacting liquid and shield. In addition, there is an opening in the top part of the shield (4), which diametre coincides the diametre of the part of heating element, which is not covered with resistance layer. The electrical diagram of heating element includes unit (9), which controls power of heating element (7) regulated by temperature sensor (8), installed on the surface of metal ceramic resistor (7).
EFFECT: exclusion of liquid boiling on thermal element surface, exclusion of counter current hot and cold liquid flows crossing in heating element, increased rate of liquid heating, energy conservation during liquid heating, reduced noise levels and scale formation on thermal element surface during liquid heating.
SUBSTANCE: to the known thermostatic system auxiliary heating element and electronic key connected into a series circuit and coupled to the network terminals, auxiliary temperature sensor and amplifier, reference voltage source, three voltage comparators and two logic components are added; the first logic component is connected by its output to control input of electronic key and with its inputs to outputs of the first, second and third voltage comparators respectively; the second logic component is connected by its output to control input of the auxiliary electronic key and by its inputs to inputs of the first, second and third voltage comparators respectively; at that amplifier of the main temperature sensor is coupled to sum inputs of the first and third voltage comparators and auxiliary sensor is coupled to sum input of the second voltage comparator and countdown input of the third voltage comparator; reference voltage source is connected by its input to the network and by its output to countdown inputs of the first and second voltage comparators; at that the first logic component performs conjunction of inverted signal of the first comparator and disjunction of inverted signal of the second comparator with conjunction of signal of the second comparator and inverted signal of the third comparator while the second logic component performs conjunction of inverted signal of the second comparator and disjunction of inverted signal of the first comparator with conjunction of signal of the first comparator and inverted signal of the third comparator.
EFFECT: increased homogeneity of temperature field.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: temperature stabilisation device of a temperature-controlled object contains a heater placed at the substrate with a temperature sensor and control system. The heater is equipped with a stand-by heating element with a temperature sensor. The control system is intended for regulation of temperature of a temperature-controlled object by means of switching on/off of heating element. The substrate can be represented by a body of a temperature-controlled object made of high heat-conductive material or by a high heat-conductive metal shell. The shell limits a temperature-controlled object. The main and stand-by heating elements have identical heat and geometric characteristics and they are placed at a dielectric base with s shift equal to a pitch of painted design. Auxiliary heaters with temperature sensors can be installed at the substrate.
EFFECT: expansion of functionality, improvement of operational reliability, quality of temperature stabilisation, in particular, for space distributed objects in a wide range of temperature changes.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a thermostat for calibrating and checking oceanographic tools. Disclosed is a thermostat, having a working heat-insulated chamber and a Peltier cooling element with a fan placed in said chamber, connected to directly to a stabilised power supply, a resistive heating element which is controlled by an actuating switch in form of a power transistor, and an electronic temperature controller consisting of a bridge circuit with a sensor and a temperature setter, with a bridge imbalance amplifier, wherein the electronic temperature controller further includes a unit for smooth adjustment of heater power and a unit for alerting on/off switching of the heating element connected in series between the bridge circuit and the input of the power transistor, wherein the unit for alerting on/off switching of the heating element is based on an operational amplifier with a differentiating RC circuit in the inverting feedback of the operational amplifier, and the unit for smooth adjustment of the power of the heating element is in form of a sawtooth-voltage generator with controlled cutoff threshold, built from two OR logic elements with an integrating RC circuit at the output of the generator.
EFFECT: increasing accuracy of temperature control to 0,001°C and cutting the time it takes for the thermostat to reach a given temperature three-fold by optimising the control algorithm.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: adjusting head piece has a housing that includes a drive part and an attachment part equipped with fastening structure intended to provide connection to a radiator valve. Besides, drive part envelopes an electric drive connected to a drive element. The latter has the possibility of bringing a radiator valve gate valve into action. In order to provide the possibility of easy adaptation of an adjusting head piece to radiator valves having different fastening structures, the above attachment part is made so that it can be disconnected from the drive part.
EFFECT: creation of an adjusting head piece adaptable in an easy way to radiator valves having different fastening structures.
15 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: temperature control device includes temperature selectors of the object and air flow, temperature sensors of the object and air flow, reversible counter, two OR elements, thyristor actuating element, heater, microprogramming control unit, two controlled frequency dividers, register, temperature indicator, binary counter, and digital-to-analogue converter.
EFFECT: improving control accuracy owing to creating the temperature control device implementing a tracking control mode on the basis of an integrated data processing from two sources of measurement information.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a terminal for connection of a setting signal source, a summator, an integrator, from the first to the third relay elements, from the first to the sixth comparators, from the first to the third dynamic D-triggers, terminals of buses with grid voltages of phases A, B, C, from the first to the ninth power switches, load resistors, a zero potential bus, current sensors, from which every one comprises a current transformer, a demodulator (rectifier) and a smoothing filter. The substantial difference of the proposed device is represented by its higher energy indices, achieved due to the fact that each of grid voltage phases operates n the mode of multizone frequency-width-pulse modulation, which becomes possible due to introduction of power switches into A, B, C phases and their appropriate connection to outputs of D-triggers.
EFFECT: higher energy indices of a voltage controller, due to load current balancing between phases.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a terminal - a source of an input signal, the first and second summators, an integrator, relay elements, from the first to the ninth comparators, from the first to the third dynamic D-triggers, power keys, current sensors, a logical element "3OR", terminals for connection of sources of voltage with phases A, B, C, output terminals, a load with a zero output, a terminal of setting zero initial conditions in current sensors. To increase reliability achieved due to multi-level protection against current overloads, a logical element "3OR" is introduced into a voltage controller, inputs of which are connected to discrete outputs of sensors of current with phases A, B, C, and the output is connected to R-inputs of dynamic D-triggers and with strobing inputs of the first, second and third relay element and with strobing inputs of the seventh, eighth and ninth comparators. As a result in case of current overload relay elements, D-triggers are changed over into a condition, when power keys open, and seventh, eighth and ninth comparators switch into an identical condition resulting in "saturation" of an integrator, which duplicates functions of strobing inputs of relay elements.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation of a proposed device whenever current overloads occur in its output circuit.
SUBSTANCE: thermal controller maintaining a preset load temperature by phase control or monitoring zero transient of voltage supplied to the load, carried out upon measurement and analysis of the load temperature with the help of a heat sensor, comprises a module of supply source synchronisation network, extracting a sync signal from AC voltage; a power module, in which the AC supply source is connected to the primary winding of a transformer, and a supply driver and a component generating an opening symistor pulse are accordingly energised from the secondary winding; a microprocessor generating a signal of phase control or a control signal for zero transient to analyse the load temperature measured by the heat sensor and adjustment of the specified temperature to the specified value; and also a symistor driver sending voltage received from a unit generating an opening voltage pulse as an opening signal to a control electrode of the symistor connected with the load, depending on a phase control signal issued by a microprocessor or a control signal of phase zero transient.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of temperature control.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method of setting thermal conditions of ceramic rocket cowlings during radiant heating through automatic temperature control on a finite number of points and measuring optical properties on the steel part of the heated surface, a coating is deposited on the outer surface of the cowling, said coating consisting of two components, the emissivity factor of one of which is more than twice higher than that of the other component and is equal to 0.8-0.9, and temperature for each heating zone with constant heat flux density is set by calculation.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reduced expenses when setting the temperature field during ground tests on ceramic cowlings in radiant heating installations owing to use of high-temperature coatings with controlled emissivity factor.
SUBSTANCE: system has a sensor for detecting outdoor temperature, a sensor for detecting return temperature Treturn of a heat carrier circulating in a heat distribution system with a flow rate, and a controller. The controller is adapted to determine a required heating power Preq to be delivered by the heat distribution system to maintain a heating power balance according to the equation Preq=Ploss - Psource, where Ploss is an approximation of heating power losses from the building, and includes a dynamic approximation of heating power transfer through walls of the building, based on at least the desired indoor temperature, the detected outdoor temperature, a heat transfer coefficient of the wall, and heat capacity of the wall, and Psource is an approximation of heating power sources external to the heating system, and, based on the detected return temperature, control a combination of forward flow temperature and flow rate so as to ensure that the distribution system delivers the required heating power. According to the present invention, a dynamic model of the heating power balance of the building is used to control the heating power delivered by the heating system.
EFFECT: improved control compared a control scheme based on flow temperature control based on outdoor temperature.
20 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: personal use articles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an unheating device for inhalation flavour, which comprises: a hollow holder, at that the holder forms an internal passage for passing air drawn from the side of the front end to the mouthpiece end; and the flavour-emitting source arranged in the holder, at that the flavour-emitting source is air-permeable and is able to emit flavouring into the air passage without igniting; and the flavour-emitting source divides the air passage into two areas along the longitudinal axis; one of the areas forms the front section at the side of the front end, extending from the front end to the mouthpiece end of the holder for suction, and the other area forms the rear section at the side of the mouthpiece end; at that the rear section comprises a front passage extending from the front end to the mouthpiece end of the holder for suction along the front section at the side of the front end, and the rear passage extending from the front passage to the mouthpiece end, at that the front passage and the front section at the side of the front end are arranged on both sides of the longitudinal axis, and at that the open surface area of the flavour-emitting source is greater than the cross sectional area of the holder for suction, limited by its inner circumference.
EFFECT: providing a larger contact area between the air and the flavour-emitting materials.
16 cl, 20 dwg