Synthetic oil production method
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: process of synthetic oil production is carried out from unconventional oil stock. The method involves the preliminary preparation of the oil stock by preparing the emulsified suspension from the oil residue, crushed shale and water, the further partial oxidation of emulsified suspension by steam-oxygen gasification in the gasifier of continuous action at a temperature 1000-1400°C, pressure 1.0-3.0 MPa, and the oxygen concentration in the blast - not less than 95 rev.%, the following cooling of the obtained gasification products, further provide the purification of the cooled gasification products, at first by washing with the hydrocarbon fraction, boiled above 250°C with emission of black-hydrocarbon suspension, further provide the water purification of the gasification products with separation of black-water suspension with ashes components and provide the final purification of gasification products from the sulfur compounds by water solution of alkaline sorbent agent, obtaining the cleared synthetic natural gas with ratio H2:CO from 1.5:1 upto 2.5:1. Further the product is converted according to the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis method in the tubular reactor with the fixed layer of the cobalt based catalyst at the temperature of 180-280°C, the pressure of 2.0-4.5 MPa and the feed space velocity of 2500 upto 10000 h-1, the synthetic oil with the fractions content of boiled upto the temperature of 360°C not less than 50 wt is obtained from the hydrocarbons mixture after the separation of hydrocarbon gases and reaction water %.
EFFECT: improvement of the environmental characteristics of the method due to reduction of the emission into the atmosphere, simplification of the technology.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to generate electric power from feed stock containing carbon, specifically from coal and/or dry biomass. Method of power generating from feed stock containing carbon includes stage of dry feed stock gasification in the gasification reactor by gas flow mainly containing CO2, at high temperature with generation of the first gas flow mainly containing molecules of carbon monoxide; oxidation in oxidating reactor by oxygen carriers in oxidized condition (MeO) at high temperature with generation of the second gas flow containing CO2 and oxygen carriers in restored condition (Me); activation in activation reactor of the oxygen carriers in restored condition by the activation gas flow containing oxygen components, and with creation of the oxygen lean activation gas flow; and conversion of thermal energy part of the activation flow in the electric power.
EFFECT: invention generates electric power from biomass containing carbon, and creation of the valuable product of common energy to supply the electric power generating system, such as turbine alternator.
15 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for producing synthesis gas by combined gasification in a solid and fluid fuel ash flow. The above fuel is supplied separately into a coal gasification reactor through a number of burners; the burners have a combustion angle of more than 0° that reduces carbon formation and increases a degree of conversion. A solid fraction is supplied in a combination with an inert gas into the gasification reactor. The ash solid fuel contains at least partially fine coal particles produced by coal recovery and cannot be applicable for gasification in a fixed coal bed. The ash fluid fuel contains a residue of gasification in the fixed coal bed.
EFFECT: assisting the gasification with the combined use of the ash fluid residue of gasification in the fixed bed and small coal particles, which cannot be applicable for the gasification in a fixed coal bed, as well as minimising the carbon formation.
10 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: brown coal with the moisture content of 20-53% up to the fraction size of 2-3 mm and then delivered to two-stage vortex drying by the intake of a part of a generator gas from a gas-generator plant with a temperature of 960°C with O2 unavailable in it. Dried coal is mixed with water to receive a coal-water slurry, which is subject to fine grinding, thereafter it is diluted by water up to the ratio of L:S=2:3, and gasification is made by the delivery of air at a pressure of 0.1-0.11 MPa at a temperature of 850-1100°C. The quantity of blown air (α) is equal to 0.25-0.35 of stoichiometric quantity (α=1), required for the complete oxidation of carbon, hydrogen and sulphur contained in dry ash-free basis of the gasified brown coal.
EFFECT: invention allows improving the efficiency factor and the production output of the gasification process and exclusion of the explosive risk.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gasification of solid carbon-bearing combustibles, i.e. lignite and coal, shale oil and peat. Gasification comprises heating and pyrolysis of solid carbon fuel fed into bath with fused melt of sealed electrode kiln at forcing gasifying agents through fused slag with solid carbon fuel. Besides, electric current is passed by electric circuit including electrodes fed into kiln bath and kiln hearth. Synthesis gas, slag and metal alloy is removed from kiln working space. Three-phase current if fed through fused slag with solid carbon fuel, current magnitude being defined in compliance with solid fuel consumption and required power defined by relationship:
EFFECT: more efficient application of electric power, more stable process.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a device for solid fuel materials feed to a gasification reactor of solid fuel materials, which includes the following: crushing device (2), dust collector (3), storage reservoir (4), at least two sluice feeders (5), one or more connection devices (12) for transportation in a dense flow, feed tank (13), gasification reactor (15), in which crushing device (2) is connected to storage reservoir (4) by means of connection device; with that, dust collector (3) is arranged between crushing device (2) and storage tank (4), which includes pressure rise device (18) that returns transporting gas from feed tank (13) to sluice feeder (5). With that, storage tank (4) is connected to sluice feeders (5) through connection devices, which are made so that they can be moved by gravity or transported in a dense flow, and sluice feeders (5) are connected to feed tank (13) by means of jointly used one or more connection devices (12), which are useful as pipeline (12) for continuous feed for transportation in dense flow. With that, feed tank is connected to gasification reactor through additional fuel pipelines (14). Invention also refers to a method for feed of fine fuel to the coal gasification reactor.
EFFECT: reduction of number of pieces of equipment, height of a building structure, and improving reliability of the device.
33 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in chemical industry. Carbon dioxide-bearing waste gas is directed in counter stream through several zones (4, 3, 2, 1) to flow of solid non-gasified loose material and thermally degradable organic matter up to pressure equalisation zone to get converted into pyrolised gas. Organic matter is thermally decomposed at first stage 1 at 250-700°C in conditions of reduction into hydrocarbons with short chains, hydrogen and carbon monoxide to produce coke and residue. At intermediate 2, coke is decomposed at increasing temperature. Note here that carbon dioxide formed is sucked off counted stream of solid matter in direction of combustible gas production stage 1. At stage 3 of carbon dioxide formation at 800-1600°C coke residues and carbon dioxide are converted into carbon oxide at pressure and temperature set according to Boudouard equilibrium. At cooling stage 4, solid residues and lumpy loose material is cooled in counter stream of CO2 to below 100°C and discharged. Discharged loose material is returned into circulation circuit.
EFFECT: notable reduction in consumption of fossil fuel.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 9 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid fuel gasification. A gaseous product containing CO, H2, CH4 is obtained from biomass in an apparatus 1. The apparatus 1 has a reactor 2 which is bounded by a base 5 and reactor walls. The reactor walls have a peripheral wall 10 and a top wall 11. The reactor 2 has an inlet hole 18 for feeding the biomass, a rising pipe 24 for chemical conversion of the biomass to the gaseous product. The rising pipe 24 has an upper end 28 and a lower end 26, as well as an outlet hole 44 for releasing the gaseous product. The rising pipe 24 is attached to the reactor wall 10. The base 5 of the reactor 2 consists of two lower sections 7 and 8. The lower end 26 of the rising pipe 24 lies above the lower section 8 of the base and is at such a distance from the lower section of the base 5 that it can freely move in the longitudinal direction as a result of thermal expansion.
EFFECT: invention reduces damage to the rising pipe as a result of thermal expansion.
16 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to decontamination of wastes. Spent activated carbon undergoes thermal treatment with water vapour. The water vapour is split into two streams, part of which is fed into a plasmatron. The low-temperature vapour plasma obtained in the plasmatron is fed into a container where, upon mixture with the remaining part of the water vapour, a high-temperature jet of reaction gas at temperature 1000-1200°C is obtained. The activated carbon is blown with the obtained reaction gas. 1.3-1.5 kg of water vapour is spent on 1 kg of activated carbon. A gaseous mixture containing H2 and CO is obtained from decontamination of the spent carbon.
EFFECT: possibility of obtaining a valuable product in form of a gaseous mixture containing H2 and CO during decontamination of spent activated carbon.
SUBSTANCE: burner for for highly caking coal is installed in the through hole made in the wall of gas generator used for refined solid fuel. At this the channel of solid fuel feed by propellant and the channel of gasifying agent feed are made as a double pipe. The burner also has third channel ensuring circulation of cooling water between the channels of solid fuel and gasifying agent. Cooling water is then discharged for reuse. The burner is equipped with device for temperature regulation of cooling water which detects locking of solid fuel channel and regulates cooling water temperature.
EFFECT: invention allows ensuring steady operation of the gas generator.
7 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: coal processing.
SUBSTANCE: The invention relates to gasification of solid fuel. The gasification is carried out in the gasifier 10 fitted with the burner 12. Solid fuel is fed in gas stream into the gasifier 10 through the channel 13, while the gasifying agent is fed through the channel 14. The burner 12 is also fitted with the detector 20 for identifying clogging in the solid fuel channel 13. When the pressure loss quotient, which is calculated from the pressure differential, reaches of exceeds the given value, the solid fuel is cooled.
EFFECT: reduced heat-up of solid fuel particles, delaying their subsequent melting and bloating inside the burner, ensured stable gasifier operation.
8 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises tar cleaning reactor with mixer, condenser and vessel for dried acid tar. Proposed reactor comprises cover with inlet for loading acid tar and water and electric heater. Said mixer is equipped with electric drive. This device incorporates extra pipeline with shutoff valve and accessories, drying chamber with electric heater with perforated plate and frame composed by four interconnected struts. Note here that said reactor is connected with drying chamber. Said drying chamber is connected with condenser via pipelines with shutoff valve and accessories. Drying chamber is mounted at said frame to inclined position. Invention relates also to process to be implemented at above described plant.
EFFECT: simplified process, higher quality of purification.
12 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry. Proposed method comprises multistage separation, cleaning of separation gases from hydrogen sulphide by catalytic oxidation of air by oxygen with further extraction of liquid oxidation products, sulfur and organic sulfur compounds, from reaction gases and feeding of purified gas to end separator for stripping. Liquid oxidation products in amount of 0.1-3.5 kg/t of oil are fed for stripping while prepared oil in amount of 2-10 l per 1 m3 of reaction gases are directed for flushing.
EFFECT: higher quality of purification and yield, environmental protection.
1 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of desalinating a gas condensate on a unit for washing the gas condensate with fresh water, involving feeding fresh or low-mineralised water for mixing with the gas condensate, wherein a demulsifying agent is added beforehand in a pipeline. The process is carried out in a turbulent apparatus with a diffuser-confusor design, wherein the prepared gas condensate at 30°C is fed into the input channel of the first section of a tubular turbulent apparatus with a diffuser-confusor design with volume rate of 22-25 m3/h. Further, 1-1.5 wt % washing water is fed into the first section of the mixing apparatus coaxially through a perforated pipe with a closed end.
EFFECT: simple design of the mixing apparatus, low metal consumption, reduced pressure drop and low water consumption.
4 dwg, 3 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of removing contaminants from a stream of synthetic wax obtained from a Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The method involves two separated steps. Formation and growth of particles which contain a contaminant. The said particles have size which is sufficient for their easy removal. The said formation and growth is stimulated by treating the said stream of wax with an aqueous fluid medium which possibly contains an acid; and removal of a certain number of particles from the stream of synthetic wax using one or more particle removal operations. The aqueous fluid medium is mixed with the stream of wax such that, water content ranges from 0.25 to 2 wt % of the weight of the stream of wax, and acid content ranges from 0.005 to 0.5 wt % of the weight of the stream of wax. Temperature of the wax mixed with the aqueous fluid medium is kept at 160°C and the stream of wax with the aqueous fluid medium are kept at high temperature for at least one minute.
EFFECT: efficient removal of contaminants from streams of hydrocarbons.
15 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of processing hydrocarbon paraffins involves hydrothermal processing metal-oxygenate components contained in hydrocarbons obtained using Fischer-Tropsch method at temperature above 100°C, where hydrothermal processing is carried out with water at temperature ranging from 100°C to 400°C, and hydrothermal processing is carried out after passing the first filtration zone at pressure 0.1-10 MPa for 1-60 minutes, where water is added in order to carry out hydrothermal processing, as well as a method of processing hydrocarbon paraffins, which involves chemical processing metal-oxygenate components contained in the hydrocarbon paraffins obtained using the Fischer-Tropsch method with one or more chemical processing reagents selected from organic acids and anhydrides, carried out in a single liquid phase in order to modify metal oxygenates.
EFFECT: use of given methods prevents clogging of catalyst layers with metal-containing particles.
20 cl, 13 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention related to a method of calcium content decrease in fluid hydrocarbon medium, which includes contacting of mentioned above fluid hydrocarbon medium with a sequestrant, represented with a carboxylic acid for calcium containing separating complex formation, b. contacting of mentioned above fluid hydrocarbon medium with water medium for emulsion formation, in which after the mentioned above emulsion separation, at least part of the mentioned separated calcium containing complex stays in the water medium, and contacting the mentioned water medium with water soluble or water dispersing polymer, with I formula for the calcium disposals inhibition on surfaces, contacting with the mentioned above water medium, where the polymer has: (I) formula, where E - is a repeating fragment, which remains after non-saturated ethylene type compound polymerization, R1 is a hydrogen atom or the lowest (C1-C6)- alkyl or carbonyl, Q - is O or NH, R2 - is the lowest (C1-C6)-alkyl, hydroxy - substituted the lowest (C1-C6)-alkyl, the lowest (C1-C6)-alkyl sulfonic acid -(Et-O)-n, -(iPr-O)-n or -(Pr-O-)n, where n - is a variable from around 1 up to 100, and R3 - is a hydrogen atom or XZ, where X - is anion radical, selected form a group, consisting from SO3, PO3 or COO, Z - is hydrogen atom or atoms or any other water soluble cationic fragment, which serves is a balance in X anion radical valence; F - when presented, is a repeating fragment with a II: formula, where X and Z are the sane as in I formula, R4 - is a hydrogen atom or (C1-C6) the lowest alkyl, R5 - is hydroxy - substituted alkyl or alkylene, which has from 1 to 6 atoms, and XZ can or can not to be presented, c and d - are positive whole numbers, e is not-negative number, and j is equal to 0 or 1.
EFFECT: calcium disposal decrease on a surfaces contacting with water phase water in oil separated emulsion.
21 cl, 7 ex, 7 tbl
FIELD: oil-and-gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention related to method of diesel fuel refinery and aimed to increase quality of a typical and off-quality fuel by decontamination it out from harmful impurities. Invention consists diesel fuel decontamination method, which includes dosed mixing of row fuel with water, solution cavity treatment and its separation on the fuel and deposits and water in a precipitation tank, before dosed mixing with a row fuel water to be saturated with iron ions till solution get yellow-brown colour with pH>6, solution cavity treatment executed by supersonic sound during its CO2 barbotage with temperature 75-80°C and overburden relatively to solution pressure >0.2 gatm, after that solution treated with light photons with energy 60-70 kkal/mole, passed through magnetic field and forwarded to tank.
EFFECT: invention is also related to diesel fuel decontamination equipment.
13 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to method of reaction mixture processing, obtained by Fischer-Tropsh process (F-T), which includes synthesis-gas, Fischer-Tropsh hydrocarbons, oxygenates and catalyst particles, claimed method being characterised by including: (a) modification of metal-oxygenate components, contained in reaction mixture, obtained by Fischer-Tropsh process, in hydrothermal reaction zone and (b) influencing with subjected to filtration adsorbent on reaction mixture obtained by Fischer-Tropsh process, in hydrothermal reaction zone, subjected to filtration adsorbent being added into hydrothermal reaction zone.
EFFECT: application of given method allows to reduce formation of depositions on technological equipment.
10 cl, 3 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention includes the primary methanol separation on the hydrophilic ultrafine or superfine fiber up to the residual methanol concentration no more than 250 mg/l of the liquid hydrocarbons, extraction of the methanol from liquid hydrocarbons with water, separation of the water solution of methanol from liquid hydrocarbons, removal of the purified hydrocarbons and water solution of methanol, if necessary the removal of the residual water solution of methanol from liquid hydrocarbons with sorption and following desorption and/or catalytical conversion obtaining hydrocarbons and water.
EFFECT: decrease of the energy consumption and efficiency increase in the process of liquid hydrocarbons purification from water methanol solution.
2 cl, 7 ex, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: recovered medium is mixed with water in the ejector. It is accompanied with high-pressure water supply to ejector pump nozzle in the line connecting high-pressure system and ejector pump inlet. Thereafter mixed water and recovered agents are drained out through the pipeline to the sedimentation tank. Recovered suspension is collected from the tank through the pipeline connecting suspension layers and ejector pump inlet. Optimal performance of the ejector is ensured by observing the suggested ratios of ejector nozzle diameter, ejector diameter and ejector nozzle length.
EFFECT: higher productivity.
4 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil refining industry. Invention relates to the method of two column propane deasphalting of the oil residues in two connected in series extractors, via one feed is mixed with liquid propane, mixture is cooled and supplied to the first extractor to be separated to solution of asphalt-free oil I and asphalt phase. Feed is mixed with part of propane with cooled mixture supply above the bottom inlet of the residual propane volume, solution of asphalt-free oil I without heating at top of the first extractor is supplied to bottom of the second extractor, where due to temperature increase at top is separated to recycle stock and solution of asphalt-free oil II, with propane regeneration from it by gradual heating and pressure decreasing in the propane evaporators to pressure in propane condensation system, with additional heating of the solution of asphalt-free oil II from the last propane evaporator to 240-250°C, with recycle stock return by pump to top of the first extractor, with supply of the produced products to strippers operating without water vapour supply to them.
EFFECT: improved quality of asphalt-free oil and asphalt, reduced power consumption.
2 cl, 1 ex