SUBSTANCE: hardness gauge comprises the housing (1) with stands (3) and the base (2) with the central opening. In the housing the ball element (8) with the through opening is installed with the possibility of fixing, in which the guiding pipe (9) is rigidly fixed, along the longitudinal axis of which a rod (13) with the pointer arrow (26), with the removable tip and the replaceable load (16) fixed by the nut (17), is mounted with the possibility of moving. In the guiding pipe wall the longitudinal groove (24) is made, with transverse ledges (25) for the pointer arrow located on the rod perpendicular to its longitudinal axis, and the measuring line (29) is mounted on the pipe surface to indicate the values of the rod lifting and the depth of the tip immersion in the snow cover. The novelty consists in that the housing is made in the form of a clamp with internal ribs (5) on the bottom butt, separated by at least three slots (6). The split cage rests on the ribs, which is covered by the clamp and forms with a ball element the movable connection tightened by means of a bolt (11) and a nut (12), tightening the clamp ends. The lower part of the guiding pipe is provided with four balancing weights (31) uniformly distributed over the surface, one of which is placed coaxially with the longitudinal groove. The rod (13) is provided with additional radial threaded openings (27) arranged in a row in height, and the longitudinal groove of the guiding pipe is made with additional transverse ledges (25) providing the lifting height adjustment of the removable tip having a conical (14 ) or a spherical (15) shape, depending upon the snow cover state. Moreover, the hardness gauge additionally comprises the rod transport position locking mechanism placed in the lower transverse ledge zone, and the rod (13) is made with the possibility of installing the impactor.
EFFECT: increasing the measurement accuracy, reduced labour intensity in the measurements, the simplification of fixing the ball element in the housing, ensuring the movable parts locking during transportation and the expansion of functionalities due to the determination of strength on the surface and by the depth of snow cover with tips of different profiles.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wood science and wood-working industry and deals with assessment of mechanical properties of natural and modified wood. Essence of the invention is as follows: indentation of a puncheon is performed into a solid wood specimen and a cavity is formed. The cavity is made in the form of a ball segment at indentation depth of 0.0007 m<h<0.0029 m, and hardness is determined by formula.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of obtaining an overall hardness index representing an integrated hardness value considering anisotropy of wood, methods and methods of its modification, and improving measurement accuracy.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: hardness tester comprises a case, provided with a ball element, having through hole, guide pipe, rod with pointer with arrow, conical tip and replaceable load, fixed with nut. Case is designed in the form of collar, inside which the split-type ferrule is enclosed, covering the ball element. Tension in the connection ball element - split-type ferrule is provided with bolt and nut, tightening the ends of collar. The guide tube is made with possibility of axial displacement upward and downward relative to the ball element and case by means of rack-and-gear drive. Fixation of rod changed over to the extreme upward position with conical tip, changeable load and nut, as well as provision of their fall during measurement is carried out using the pointer with arrow and gate, connected by the drive cable with the twist-type trigger, installed on one of two handles, placed at the bottom of the guide tube, where the rack bearing the thrust ring and level indicators is also installed. Fixation of the guide tube in the ball element at the end of the device setting is carried out by the locking bolt. Hardness tester is leaned upon the inspected covering by means of three telescopic columns.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of determining the strength of snow cover, reduction of labour coefficient of works related with the measurement of this parameter and provision of serviceability of the device by the operator.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the non-destructive tests, in particular to method of detection of critical changes of metal technical state due to ageing processes. Essence of the invention is as follows: surface is prepared, on the prepared surface the indentor acts, and metal microhardness is determined. Initially to the prepared surface of the metal specimen similar to metal of the studied structure but in initial state the indentor acts in different zones performing series of measurements in each zone. Distribution of the microhardness in each zone is determined, then minimum microhardness is determined, it is used as base minimum value for the given metal. Then similarly the microhardness is measured at the studied section of the studied structure of the same metal, based on the measurement results the microhardnesses distribution is determined, it is compared with the obtained base minimum microhardness. More lower values of the microhardness in metal of the studied structure as compared with the base minimum microhardness say about presence of the critical changes in metal of the studied zone of the structure due to the metal ageing.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of estimation and forecast of the structures operational reliability.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of study of physical properties of metals and alloys, namely to analysis of plastic properties of thin films of amorphous-nanocrystalline multicomponent metal alloys (ANCMA) after their transition from one state to another as a result of heat treatment. Essence: heat treatment of samples is performed in a predetermined temperature range and their subsequent cooling, their fastening on the metal substrate coated by the polymer composite material on the side of the sample, microindentation of the samples as a quadrangular pyramid with load, speed and time of exposure to the sample till appearance of cracks in the form of shapes close to inserted squares, and the calculation of the coefficient of plasticity of the test film sample. Additionally the average distance and the minimum average distance between adjacent cracks of the respective sides of the squares are determined, and the coefficient of plasticity is found from this formula.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of calculations of the coefficient of plasticity.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: thickness of coating, hardness and elasticity modulus of material of the base are determined by means of known methods. Loading (implementation) of diamond pyramidal indenter is performed into the product to the depth exceeding the coating thickness. The diagram of load value variation with increase in implementation depth is recorded, as per which relationship between the change of relative surface microhardness and relative thickness of the coating is built. An ascending branch of relative hardness variation curve is approximated in the form of mathematical dependence and modulus of normal elasticity of the coating material is determined as per results of joint numerical solution of the approximated equation and the equation describing theoretical hardness of a model layered body in the same area of indenter implementation depths.
EFFECT: simplifying the method for determining elasticity modulus value of thin coating material.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: specimen material to be tested is loaded by ball indenter to measure dent depth on specimen material surface after load removal Load removes, ball indenter material plastic strength is defined and dent actual depth total factor is determined to select formula for determination of specimen material plastic strength.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination, expanded range of determined plastic strength magnitudes.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: slide preparation in indenter introduction zone, introduction of indenter into the tested specimen and determination of the indent depth is performed. Slide is prepared on the end face of the tested specimen; slide surface is perpendicular to the tested surface of the specimen. Indenter is used as a knife having a blade with the section in the form of an oblique triangle, which is introduced to the tested specimen normally to its tested surface to depth h0, which exceeds the depth of strengthened layer hyn, thus creating plastic deformation zone during introduction of indenter on both sides of its indent. When the indenter is being introduced, a line formed with its blade is oriented perpendicular to the slide surface, and the following is determined on the slide: point O of maximum depth h0 of the indenter's indent, which is left with the indenter's blade, point B of boundary of zones of deformed and non-deformed material on surface of tested specimen and point A of the edge of the indenter's indent on the surface of the tested specimen. Boundary of zones of deformed and non-deformed material is determined, and then, angle of common deformation zone βcommon=∟AOB is determined. On the slide, in boundary deflection place of zones of deformed and non-deformed material, point B1 of transition is determined from deformed zone of base material to deformed zone of strengthened surface; point O and B1 of the straight line is connected and deformation angle of base material βbase=∟AOB1 is determined and the strengthening degree of surface layer εβ is determined as per the ratio of βcommon and βbase angles using the following formula: εβ=βcommon/βbase.
EFFECT: providing prompt and reliable determination of characteristics of strengthening the surface layer of investigated materials.
12 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of physical metallurgy, in particular, to methods for detection of phases ratio in ferrite-perlite steels. The invention concept is as follows: a smooth section of surface of an investigated steel sample is prepared. As a recommended force at an indenter, a force is accepted as produced as a result of microhardness definition in a reference sample made of steel, the grade of which corresponds to the steel grade of the investigated sample, and corresponding to a histogram of reference sample microhardness values, having express double-mode distribution. Measurements of microhardness are carried out at least in 50 random points of the prepared smooth section of the investigated sample surface and in steps at least three times: first with the recommended force to the indenter, then with the force higher and lower than recommended by 3-5 N. Histograms are built, which correspond to measurements of microhardness of the investigated sample at each step of measurements, and ratio of phases is determined in accordance with the histogram having double-mode distribution of microhardness of the investigated sample, by ratio of histogram areas corresponding to each phase. If double-mode distribution has several built histograms, then when defining the ratio of phases, measurement results are used, which are produced at the highest force at the indenter.
EFFECT: expansion of arsenal of methods for determination of phases ratio in steel with preservation of required accuracy and validity of parameters defined when executing the proposed method.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: introduction of spherical indenter to tested material is performed at continuously increasing load, recording of indentation diagram with loading and unloading branches is performed and measurement of residual depth of indent after full unloading is carried out. Indentation diagram recording is performed in "load - elastoplastic approximation of indenter and material" coordinates, load, elastic approximation of material and indenter and residual depth of indent is measured, which correspond to the beginning of decrease of derivative of load function from elastoplastic approximation, and elastic material deformation is subtracted from common elastic approximation.
EFFECT: reducing labour intensity, improving accuracy, efficiency and enlarging functional capabilities of the method.
1 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: before or when lowering force/path sensor (20) located inside bar (5) of test material, corrected force (FBer) measuring value is determined from initial position (S25) to return point (S51), and for multiple measuring moments (t32-t48) there determined is difference of force (ΔF32-ΔF48) between corrected force (FBer) measuring value and force value (F32-F48) measured at the corresponding moment (t32-t48), and that zero moment (t41) in which position (21, S41) of test material (5, 8) to zero moment in which the position of test material to zero moment (t41) is used as accurate starting position (21, S41) of surface of the measured material (22).
EFFECT: improving measurement accuracy with simultaneous reduction of sensitivity to electronic and/or mechanical interference.
21 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises electroacoustical rod resonator with indenter and unit flange, loading unit connected with the exiting amplifier-generator system, resonator vibration pickup, measuring unit with indicator, and drive and damper for control of the resonator velocity. The unit flange of the resonator is connected with the bottom surface of the rectangular frame, two sides of which are connected with the loading unit made of two calibrated springs secured to the housing. The two other sides are connected with the spring-loaded slides provided with rubber bearings or small rubber wheels which can freely reciprocates along the normal to the frame and generatrix of the housing. The top beam of the frame is connected to the drive comprising two hooks which are disengaged upon touching the indicator of an article to be tested. One of the hooks is connected with the frame, and the second hook is connected with the rigid printed circuit board of the excitation system. The board is also used for transmitting motion. The opposite side of the board is rigidly connected with the rod of the viscous friction damper. The other end of the rod is connected to the spring-loaded mushroom-shaped head. The head is mounted for reciprocation with respect to the housing and is fixed with respect to the housing with the use of two locators, which are set in the slots of the housing.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of testing.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engineering research.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for determination of physical and mechanical characteristics of grounds. Prismatic wedge is pressed into ground at permanent speed. Wedge is fixed at extendable core of rod for rotation relatively rod in plane being parallel to bases of its prism. Firstly the prismatic wedge is pressed in ground for its total height at speed of 1,5 m/minute to prevent its turn relatively rod. Then wedge is pressed for 5-10 mm deeper at speed of 5m/minute without prevention in its turn relatively rod. During pressing-in process of prismatic wedge, depth of its pressing-in is registered continuously as well as of resistance of ground to pressing-in. Angle of turn of prismatic wedge relatively rod is also registered. From the results achieved at preset depth of testing, the following various physical and mechanical characteristics of ground are calculated which characteristics can not be determined by known techniques: specific resistance of ground to wedge pressing-in, module of resiliency of ground; limit resistance of ground to shift, specific work of crack-forming of ground, angle of direction of anisotropy of ground strength.
EFFECT: improved truth of results of measurement for single-time test; reduced labor input; ability of determination of ground anisotropy.
FIELD: metal working.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises introducing indenter whose rigidity is much higher than that of the tool into the surface layer of the wedge-shaped tool. The indenter is set in a contact with the wedge edge in the direction perpendicular to the edge along one of the surfaces of the wedge. The rigidity is determined by dividing the force by the area of the mark.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: physical-mechanical measurements.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used for continuous registration of hardness of soil layers during basic treatment of different types of soil, during cultivation and fertilization and/or melioration. Device for continuous measurement of hardness of soil has motor-transportation aid provided with engine, forced gas-turbo-supercharging, supercharging pressure detector connected in series with functional converter and analog-to-digital converter, soil hardness meter, coupling set point device, indicator, crankshaft frequency of rotation detector and tachometer. Output of analog-to-digital converter is connected with first input of soil hardness meter, which has output connected with indicator. Second input of soil hardness meter is connected with coupling set point device. Crankshaft frequency of rotation detector is connected with tachometer.
EFFECT: higher speed of operation; reduced labor input.
FIELD: testing equipment engineering.
SUBSTANCE: indenter held on a bar is forced into soil at constant speed. Indenter immersion depth and soil resistance force counteracting the indenter immersion are continuously recorded and soil resistance characteristics at given depth are calculated. Indenter used is shaped as regular three-sided pyramid and is capable of turning relatively to the bar in any direction in any plane which passes through the longitudinal axis of the bar. Firstly, pyramidal indenter is forced in for its whole height at 1,5m/min speed with prevented rotation relatively to the bar, then it is immersed for additional 5-10 mm at up to 5 mm/min speed without prevention of its rotation relatively to the bar with continuous recording of rotation angle of main axis of the pyramidal indenter relatively to longitudinal axis of the bar. On basis of measurement results, the following parameters are calculated: specific resistance of soil to immersion of pyramidal indenter, soil elasticity coefficient, maximum resistance of soil to shifting, specific crack-forming work of soil, magnetic azimuth of soil weakening direction at given testing depth.
EFFECT: increased precision and trustworthiness of tests, lowered effort.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring the depth of the hollow in the same metallic blanks. The susceptibility to stress concentration is determined from the formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises loading the specimen of the material to be investigated by means of the indenter together with linear heating of the specimen. The process of indenting is performed in the regime of heating of the zone of indenting with a constant rate with simultaneous changing of the value of deformation of the specimen under the action of the indenter throughout the experiment.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
8 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: it is necessary to study the contact of the sample under testing and a metal ball of the preset weight and diameter. The ball should be thrown from the height of 20 cm. One should measure the diameter of the print, moreover, one should determine the print's surface area according to a certain formula followed by calculating the hardness number according to the formula. The innovation enables to simplify the method and shortens the terms of detecting the hardness of soft medicinal forms without applying any special equipment.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of detection.
FIELD: testing technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of acting upon part of object by means of indenter at predetermined pitch and load; performing predetermined number of measurements for determining micro-hardness values; measuring micro-hardness of object in real working condition successively at first during initial period and then during further period after predetermined time interval of object operation; dividing values of micro-hardness received during said periods by equal intervals and plotting for initial period and for further periods respective histograms of distribution of measured micro-hardness values; in each histogram registering for each micro-hardness interval number of measurement results in given interval taken as percentage value of total number of measurements realized respectively during initial and further time intervals; then numerating micro-hardness intervals in histograms beginning from numeration of initial time interval while successively and continuously going on in histogram of next time interval; evaluating quantity of object damage degree during operation period between further and initial time intervals according to factor of accumulated damages of object and calculating said quantity by comparing histograms for initial and further time intervals with use of given formula.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy, lowered labor consumption of balancing object.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of building materials; manufacture of cellular materials on base of mineral binders.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of indentation depth Hi of conical indenter in mix at fixed interval of time. Height of indenter is no less than 300 mm and its mass ranges from 200 to 300 g. Determination of plastic strength (τ) of foam concrete mix at varying content of foaming agent in it is carried out according to the following formula: τ=kP(Hi)2, where P is mass of cone with sliding rod, g; k is coefficient dependent on cone vertex angle.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of foam concrete obtained from homogeneous foam concrete mixes at correct consumption of foaming agent.