Method for producing thin nanodiamond film on glass substrate
SUBSTANCE: thin nanodiamond film is obtained on a glass substrate by spraying the target material by a pulsed laser in a vacuum. The target is represented by detonation nanodiamond tablets, and the pulsed laser radiation source is represented by the laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm of a series of 13 to 20 pulses, with a pulse energy from 3.8 to 5.8 J and a duration from 1 to 1.5 ms. The process is accompanied by dispersing the detonation nanodiamond conglomerates up to individual nanocrystals and purification from impurities in the process of high-energy laser pulse impact. The resulting film is a two-dimensional polycrystalline nanodiamond aggregate.
EFFECT: obtaining thin-film hardening coatings and creating nanostructured materials.
9 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: diamond-like coatings are produced in vacuum by spraying of target material with an impulse laser. The target material made of graphite of high degree of purity (more than 99.9%) is exposed to combined laser radiation: first short-wave (less than 300 nm) pulse radiation, the source of which is a KrF-laser with wavelength of 248 nm and specific energy of 5·107 W/cm2, as a result of which ablation is carried out, and gas-plasma phase of target material is generated. Subsequent exposure of a gas-plasma cloud during cloud flight from a target to a substrate is carried out by long-wave (more than 1 mcm) laser radiation. The source of long-wave laser radiation is a gas CO2-laser or a solid-state fibrous laser radiator.
EFFECT: increased diamond phase in a produced coating and increased energy spectrum of plasma at stage of its flight.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for production of individual crystals of zinc oxide and arrays thereof for application as active elements, material for photocatalytic water treatment, piezoelectric sensors as well as for fundamental physical studies of crystal growth kinetics. Crystals are grown in the air using a continuous action ytterbium fibre laser with yellow metal surface with a layer of multi-walled carbon nanotubes applied thereon treated with such laser radiation with power density equal to approximately 105 W/cm2 during 10 sec. The method enables production of micro- and nanostructured zinc oxide arrays consisting of filamentary crystals, microplates and druses.
EFFECT: invention enables crystals production without special catalysts or crystallisation chambers.
SUBSTANCE: brass target coated by carbon nanotubes is processed in air by continuous radiation of ytterbium fiber laser in the presence of electrostatic filed of 250-750 V/m intensity ordering zinc and oxygen ion motion and accelerating it toward reaction area. Changing electric field parameters in said range allows producing blocks of zinc oxide 50-400 nm-dia whiskers including vertically ordered crystals.
EFFECT: production of crystals without catalysts or crystallisation chambers.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics of low-temperature plasma and plasma chemistry, as well as electrical engineering and electrophysics, and specifically to acceleration techniques and can be used to generate high-enthalpy jets of carbon-bearing electrodischarge plasma and obtain ultrafine crystalline phases of hard and superhard materials. The method involves conducting a plasma chemical synthesis in the shock wave of an impact-wave structure of a hypervelocity pulsed jet of carbon-bearing electrodischarge plasma which flows into a closed sealed volume filled with nitrogen gas, wherein synthesis is carried out in a shock wave arising from the reaction of two synchronous equal-enthalpy hypervelocity jets of carbon-bearing electrodischarge plasma, flowing in opposite directions on the same axis from shafts of two identical accelerators, wherein the hypervelocity pulsed jets of the carbon-bearing electrodischarge plasma are generated at equal pulse current of the power supply of the accelerators with amplitude of 140 kA, discharge power of 145 MW and delivered energy of 30 kJ. The method is realised in apparatus which is in form of a cylindrical electroconductive shaft placed coaxially inside a solenoid 8 and made from graphite, inside which there is a fuse 5 made from ultrafine carbon material which electrically connects the beginning of the cylindrical electroconductive shaft and a centre electrode, which is connected to one terminal of the power supply circuit of the accelerator, the second terminal of which is connected to the end of the solenoid 8, further from the centre electrode; the second end of the solenoid 8 is electrically connected to the beginning of the shaft; the vertex of the centre electrode, the beginning of the shaft and the beginning of the solenoid lie in one plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the shaft, and the housing 7 of the centre electrode unit is made from magnetic material and overlaps the area where the fuse 5 is located, the length of the part which overlaps the area where the fuse is located being equal to 40-50 mm, and its outer surface is cone-shaped, wherein the shaft of the accelerator is in form of an inner 1 and an outer 2 current-conducting cylinder, coaxially placed one inside the other and electrically connected on the entire mating surface, and the centre electrode is composed of a tip 3 and a tail 4; the inner cylinder 1 and the tip 3 are made from graphite, the outer cylinder 2 is made from hard nonmagnetic metal and the tail 4 is made from structural metal with high electroconductivity; the free ends of the shafts of both accelerators are mounted by through insulator-sealers 20 in axial holes of disc-shaped metal covers 21, which are hermetically connected to opposite ends of the cylindrical metal housing 22 of the reactor chamber, while providing opposite, coaxial and symmetrical arrangement of shafts on the longitudinal axis of the reactor chamber which is filled with nitrogen gas.
EFFECT: invention increases output of the expected phase of carbon nitride and reduces content of impurities in the dynamic synthesis product.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves growing a diamond coating by chemical deposition of vapour in UHF plasma at a growth temperature in the deposition chamber whose atmosphere contains 5-30% of methane per unit volume of H2, on the surface of tungsten products with the axial symmetry along the axis of rotation, in the needle holders, so that the rotation body can rotate freely on its axis and move axially with the speed of radial generator displacement in the range of 10-50 mm/h.
EFFECT: improved method.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to metallurgical industry, in particular, to the treatment of siliceous rocks to produce semiconductor silicon, which can be used in manufacturing solar cells and in electronics. The method includes the destruction and treatment of siliceous rocks, recovery of silica in the electric furnace to silicon, chemical and metallurgical purification and grinding to powder, while at the recovery stage, silica is additionally irradiated with a gamma-ray integral dose of 1·102- 1·106 Gy or a neutron dose of 1·108-1·1013 neutron/cm2.
EFFECT: increased decomposition depth of the ore components, reduced impurity concentration and energy expenditure during grinding.
1 tbl, 4 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to synthesis of nano-objects of different chemical elements and its compounds, which can be used in electronic components, catalysts, in medicine, construction etc. Method of plasmochemical synthesis of nano-objects is in that it is created plasma jet by means of passage of orifice gas through the voltaic arc with following going out of formed plasma through parallel hole, in which it is introduced initial dispersed material in the form of powder and it is act to plasma and this material by high-frequency magnetic field, increasing volume of plasma jet and plasma temperature, and into area between reaction zone and water-cooled chamber it is fed flow of cooling inert gas, herewith into plasma it is introduced catalyst by means of evaporation of composition cathode, into content of which it is included catalyst, cathode is moved while its evaporation for providing of arc length constancy, and in low-temperature area of plasma by electrons excitation system it is additionally increased electron energy by means of feeding of direct voltage 25 V to emitter of resonance-tunnel structure of electrons excitation system, herewith into cooling flow of inert gas it is introduced dispersed liquid. Device for method implementation contains dielectric casing of plasmatron 22 with opening 24 for feeding of orifice gas, in which there are placed holder 19 with cathode 18 and anode 23, containing openings 25 for feeding of carrier gas and initial dispersed material, reaction chamber 26, waterproof connected to anode 23, around which it is located generator of high-frequency magnetic field 27, water-cooled chamber 29, connected to reaction chamber 26. Device is additionally outfitted by rollers 20, controlled device of autofeed of cathode with checking by current between cathode and anode, cathode 18 is located in opening of anode 23 at depth 1-2 mm with clearance in 2±1 mm, herewith cathode 18 is implemented as composition, into content of which it is included nano-object synthesis catalyst, herewith device contains excitation system of plasma electrones 28, including resonance-tunnel structure with system of heatproof electrodes, located in reaction chamber 26, placed into system of heatproof electrodes sprayer 36 for feeding by means of supercharger 35 of flow of inert gas mixture and dispersed liquid, gas distributor 33, inlet of which is connected to airlift pump 34, and outlets - with opening of dielectric casing of plasmatron 22, with opening in anode 23 for feeding of carrier gas and dispersed material and with first inlet of supercharger 35, herewith the second inlet of supercharger 35 is connected to water-cooled chamber 29, which is divided for two sections and for two thirds is filled by liquid, selected from row: distilled water, alcohol, solvent, and top part of the first section is connected to bottom part of the second section through mesh 31 with openings less than 0.2 mm, and reaction chamber 26 is connected to water-cooled chamber 29 pipe 32, bottom part of which is submerged into liquid of water-cooled chamber 29.
EFFECT: development of effective method of plasmochemical synthesis of nano-objects.
2 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining carbon nanocrystalline material includes preparing a solution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (Mη=1×105) in dimethyl formamide (DMF) with c CPAN=1÷5 wt %, keeping the PAN dissolution in DMF for a period of 72 hours at 25°C, application on a glass-carbon base a layer of the PAN/DMF solution, drying the polymeric layer in a drying cabinet at 90°C for a period of 0.5÷1 hour, heat the film at a speed 2÷20°C/min under the influence of IR-radiation and keeping the film for more than 1 second at 800÷900°C, P=10-3 mm hg.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain carbon nanocrystalline material, sensitive to pH environment.
3 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of controlling concentration and uniformity of distribution of a dopant in synthetic CVD diamond material used in electronic devices and sensors. The diamond material is obtained in a microwave plasma reactor, having a plasma chamber 102 in which there is one or more substrate regions of a growth surface 105, on top of which the diamond material is deposited, a gas stream system 112 for feeding process gases into the plasma chamber 102 and a system 122 for removing the process gases therefrom. Microwave radiation is transmitted from a microwave generator 106 into the plasma chamber 102 through a microwave link 110 in order to generate plasma above the region of the growth surface 105 or below the region of the growth surface if the microwave plasma reactor is in an inverted configuration with the process gases flowing upwards. The gas stream system 112 includes a gas inlet, having one or more gas inlet pipes 124 located opposite the region of the growth surface 105 and configured to inject process gases towards the region of the growth surface 105, wherein the process gases are injected into the plasma chamber 102 through one or each gas inlet pipe 124 with a Reynolds number in the range of 1-100, integrally formed in the metal wall of the plasma chamber 102 located opposite the region of the growth surface 105. The plasma chamber 102 is configured to support standing microwave modes TM011. The configuration of the microwave link 110 comprises a microwave window 119 for transmitting microwave radiation from the microwave generator 106 into the plasma chamber 102, which is located at the opposite end of the plasma chamber 102 relative to the region of the growth surface 105 and made in the form of an annular dielectric window.
EFFECT: invention enables to achieve a homogeneous chemical composition of diamond material grown in a single growth cycle while maintaining uniform plasma with a large area with very high growth rates and enables to achieve a high degree of controlling the level and distribution of defects and dopants in a diamond film without impurities and damages to the walls and the microwave window of a plasma chamber which can support compact standing microwave mode TM011.
5 cl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to manufacturing of polycrystalline materials, which can be used, preferentially for producing drilling and dressing tools. A polycrystalline diamond composite with a dispersion-strengthened additive contains a refractory metal coating 0.02-0.15 mm thick containing diamond powder and metals with the metal presented by nickel, cobalt, whereas the dispersion-strengthened additive is tungsten carbide nanopowder in the following proportions, wt %: diamond - 85-90, nickel - 7-9, cobalt - 2-4, tungsten carbide nanopowder - 0.1-3.0.
EFFECT: technical effect consists in increasing the strength and wear resistance of the sintered composite, and selecting the high-melting coating ensures the reliable attachment of the material in the drilling tool.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of monocrystalline diamond material by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), which is used in optical, mechanical, fluorescent and/or electronic devices. A diamond layer contains a mesh of nonparallel intercrossing dislocations as seen on an X-ray topographic sectional image or in conditions of a fluorescent technique, wherein the layer has thickness equal to or greater than 1 mcm; the mesh of nonparallel dislocations stretches across a volume which is at least 30% of the total volume of the diamond layer, and wherein the mesh of nonparallel dislocations contains a first set of dislocations propagating in a first direction through the diamond layer, and a second set of dislocations propagating in a second direction through the diamond layer, wherein the angle between the first and second directions is in the range of 40° to 100°, as seen on an X-ray topographic sectional image or in conditions of a fluorescent technique.
EFFECT: invention enables to control the type and/or direction of dislocations in a diamond material without affecting optical and/or electronic properties of devices based on said material and optimise said properties for a specific application.
12 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnology and can be used for labelling molecules, quantum information processing, magnetometry, and synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition. Crystalline diamond powder with a maximum particle size of 2 microns to 1 mm is ground by the nitrogen jet for 1-5 hours with the grinding pressure of 500 kPa to obtain the fine powder which is then milled in a planetary mill with balls of tungsten carbide. The resulting nano-ground powder is autoclaved with the mixture of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid at a temperature of 100-200°C. The fluorescent cubic nanocrystals of diamond of predominantly circular shape are recovered by centrifugation, with a maximum size of not more than 100 nm, comprising up to 2,000 ppm alloy addition, such as nitrogen, and up to 50 ppm of impurities. The surface of the diamond nanocrystal comprises a layer of amorphous carbon.
EFFECT: obtaining diamond nanocrystals.
15 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of producing coloured diamond materials, which can be applied as precious stones or cutting instruments. Method includes stages of growing monocrystalline diamond material in accordance with CVD-technology, with diamond material having concentration of single substituting nitrogen atoms [Ns 0] less than 1 ppm; initial CVD-diamond material is colourless, or, in case it is not colourless, then, according to colour gradation brown or yellow, and if it is brown according to colour gradation, then it has level G (brown) of colour gradation or better for diamond stone with 0.5 carat weight with round diamond cut, and if it is yellow according to colour gradation, it has level T (yellow) of colour gradation or better for diamond stone with 0.5 carat weight with round diamond cut, and irradiation of initial CVD-diamond by electrons to introduce isolated vacancies into diamond material in such a way that product of the total concentration of vacancies × way length [Vt]×L, in irradiated diamond material at said stage or after additional processing after irradiation, including annealing irradiated diamond material at temperature at least 300°C and not higher than 600°C, constitutes at least 0.072 ppm cm and not more than 0.36 ppm cm.
EFFECT: diamond material becomes fancy light-blue or fancy light greenish blue in colour.
21 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining jewellery diamonds. method of introduction of NV-centres in monocrystalline CVD-diamond material includes the following stages: irradiation of CVD-diamond material, containing single substituting nitrogen, for introduction of isolated vacancies in concentration at least 0.05 ppm and at most 1 ppm; annealing irradiated diamond to form NV-centres from at least some of defects of single substituting nitrogen and introduced isolated vacancies.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain pink CVD-diamond material and CVD-diamond material with spintronic properties.
18 cl, 12 tbl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used in chemical and jewellery industry. Nitrogen-doped diamond material, obtained in accordance with CVD technology, or representing monocrystal or precious stone, demonstrates difference of absorptive characteristics after exposure to radiation with energy of at least 5.5 eV, in particular UV radiation, and thermal processing at temperature 798 K. Defects into diamond material are introduced by its irradiation by electrons, neutrons or gamma-photons. After irradiation, difference in absorptive characteristics decreases.
EFFECT: irradiated diamond material has absorption coefficient lower than 0,01 cm-1 at 570 nm and is capable of changing its colour.
18 cl, 7 dwg, 11 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of alloys diamonds to be used in electronics and instrument making s well as jewellery stones. Alloyed diamond is produced by chemical deposition of gas phase on substrate in reaction chamber 2. Alloying solid-state component 7 is placed in alloying chamber 3. The latter has at least three connection flanges. Two of them are designed to connect alloying chamber 3 with working gas feed line 1 while third flange allows passage of pulsed laser radiation 8 via translucent window 5 into alloying chamber 3 for sputter of alloying component 7. Note here that alloying component concentration in diamond is adjusted by varying the laser parameters: laser diode pump current, laser pulse frequency and distance from laser radiation focus to alloying component surface. Working gas can be composed of the mix of hydrogen and methane at the ratio of 98:2% to 90:10%. Additionally, oxygen can be added thereto.
EFFECT: precise alloying in the wide range of concentrations (1014 atom/cm3 to 9×1019 atom/cm3) of boron, sulphur and silicon.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: ions of carbon with opposite charges interact with each other for 20-30 hours at a temperature of 850-950 °C in a high frequency electro-field in the range of frequencies of 40-80 kHz in the presence of iron as a catalyst. The process is carried out in a melt of salts, containing, wt %: SiC - 7.5-11.0; Na2CO3 or K2CO3 - 89.0-92.5. Applied is granulated iron, which has a size of granules 1-3 mm, in a quantity of 5-10% from the melt weight.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify the process of the diamond synthesis and its instrumentation, eliminate harmful and dangerous conditions.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to PCD diamond to be used in production of water-jet ejectors, engraving cutters for intaglio, scribers, diamond cutters and scribing rollers. PCD diamond is produced by conversion and sintering of carbon material of graphite-like laminar structure at superhigh pressure of up to 12-25 GPa and 1800-2600°C without addition of sintering additive of catalyst. Note here that sintered diamond grains that make this PCD diamond feature size over 50 nm and less than 2500 nm and purity of 99% or higher. Diamond features grain diameter D90 making (grain mean size plus grain mean size × 0.9) or less and hardness of 100 GPa or higher.
EFFECT: diamond features laminar or fine-layer structure, ruled out uneven wear, decreased abrasion.
15 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the application of coatings by carrying out nonequilibrium processes of sputtering in vacuum by an ion beam. It can be used for the creation of autoemission cathodes, strengthening working edges of a cutting instrument, in particular surgical, protection against chemically aggressive media and higher temperatures, requiring chemical inertness and biocompatibility of coatings, high hardness and low friction, high heat conductivity of coatings. A graphite target is sputtered by the ion beam and carbon vapours are condensed on a substrate. Sputtering of a part of the ions by a grown layer is executed with grazing incidence of ions on the substrate surface. Recoil atoms create on the growth surface of the layer compressive stresses 10 GPa, sufficient for the formation of a diamond phase.
EFFECT: increase of the process efficiency is provided due to the optimisation of technological parameters of achieving oversaturation of carbon atoms and obtaining nanosized layers, possessing high hardness, chemical inertness, low friction, high heat conductivity, low output work function.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex