Method for liquid-phase synthesis of multi-component ceramic material in zro2-y2o3-gd2o3-mgo system for production of electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for production of electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell. Liquid-phase synthesis of multi-component ceramic material in ZrO2-Y2O3-Gd2O3-MgO system is carried out by selecting salts ZrO(NO3)2⋅2H2O, Y(NO3)3⋅5H2O, Gd(NO3)3⋅6H2O and Mg(NO3)2⋅6H2O as initial reagents. Above salts are used to prepare diluted solutions. Reverse precipitation of hydroxides from respective salts is carried out using aqueous ammonia solution NH4OH till complete precipitation of all hydroxides and occurrence of the precipitate. Gel-like precipitate is filtered and frozen at -25°C for 24 hours. Synthesized powder of solid solution (ZrO2)0.92(Y2O3)0.03(Gd2O3)0.03(MgO)0.02 is subject to thermal treatment at 800°C. Then compacts are formed by the method of uniaxial pressing under pressure of 150 MPa. Above compacts are burned at a temperature of 1400°C in the tube heater with isothermal holding for 2 h and heating rate of 350-400°C/h.
EFFECT: invention allows to lower precipitate agglomeration degree, increase its dispersivity and homogeneity and also hydroxide precipitation completeness.
4 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: electrochemical energy converter includes electrodes, an electrical connector and a hard electrolyte layer made of a mixture of metal oxides including zirconium dioxide and an oxide of metal chosen from the group including calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, oxides of rare-earth elements or their mixtures, as well as electrode layers permeable for gases, which carry electrical current and coated on some part of their surface with contact layers. The converter is made in the form of a multi-row section, the rows of which are formed with tubular assemblies consisting of electrochemical cells made in the form of conical washers containing a hard electrolyte layer, as well as electrode layers, with central bushings forming an internal gas collector, in which current leads are arranged simultaneously. Some part of conical washers is separated between separators permeable for gas, and the other part of conical washers is separated with an external gas collector. Electrode layers located on the surface of the conical washers on their inner and outer sides have opposite polarities and are separated with a hard electrolyte layer; with that, the internal electrode layer and the external electrode layer are connected to current leads of the internal gas collector.
EFFECT: combination of tubular and planar structures in an electrochemical converter provides its stability for change of thermal loads.
9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) based on composite oxides of 3d-metals. Cathode material is based on cathode material for SOFC based on copper-containing layered perovskite compounds with a common formula of Pr2-xSrxCuO4-y, where 0.0<x<1; 0.0≤y≤0.5. Cathode material may be used successfully with SOFC electrolytes based on zirconium dioxide doped with yttrium and scandium (ScYSZ) and lanthanum gallate doped with strontium and magnesium (LSGM) with obligatory presence between ScYSZ and cathode material of an additional coating (buffer layer) based on ceric oxide doped with gadolinium (GDC), and in case of LSGM electrolyte with presence of a protective layer of ceric oxide doped with lanthanum (LCO).
EFFECT: development of cathode material possessing simultaneous high oxygen-ion conductance and coefficient of thermal expansion close to coefficient of thermal expansion intrinsic to solid oxide fuel cells.
4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composite oxygen electrode, containing porous structure of base, which includes two separate but percolated phases, with first phase representing electron-conducting phase and second phase representing oxide ion-conducting phase, and electrocatalytic layer on the surface of said structure of base, with said electrocatalytic layer containing first nanoparticles, representing electrocatalytically active nanoparticles and second nanoparticles, formed from ion-conducting material, with first and second particles being randomly distributed throughout electrocatalytic layer. Invention also relates to method of electrode obtaining.
EFFECT: claimed method possesses higher activity.
10 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrochemical generators, in which chemical energy of fuel is converted directly to electric energy, and namely to high-temperature electrochemical devices with internal fuel conversion. The invention describes a manufacturing method of a high-temperature electrochemical device converting chemical fuel energy to electricity and heat at one stage, with removal of some part of conversion products in the form of a high-temperature fuel element with internal catalytic conversion. A protonic carrier of the fuel element is activated by a complex multifrequency superhigh-frequency generator till the state of formation of flat proton-carrying plasma on frequencies adjacent to resonances of a grid so that continuous sintering of ceramics of a protonic membrane is performed during operation with elimination of structural defects, which contributes to recovery of the structure of the protonic membrane and a number of qualitative parameters, which generally determines parameters of the whole device that is structurally made uniformly in the form of a superhigh-frequency waveguide reactor system converting energy of hydrocarbon raw material by air oxidation.
EFFECT: increasing efficiency and specific performance of high-temperature fuel elements owing to increasing protonic conductivity of a separating membrane; overall increase of fuel use efficiency due to endothermic carbon-dioxide reforming and possibility of synthesis gas reservation; increase of safety of reactors using methane; overall reduction of capital investments per unit of produced energy; increase of service life of an item owing to eliminating destructive factors typical of similar technical items.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a combination of schemes of flows inside each element and between elements of a packet of fuel elements (FE) or a packet of electrolytic elements. The packet of elements comprising multiple FE or electrolytic elements, has a combination of schemes of flows of anode gas and cathode gas inside each element and between the elements in respect to each other, so that cathode and anode gas inside the element flow either in parallel flow or in a counter flow, or in a transverse flow, at the same time the flow of anode and cathode gas in one element has a parallel flow, a counter flow or a transverse flow in respect to the flow of anode and cathode gas in the adjacent elements.
EFFECT: increased input capacity and density of current due to the minimised gradient of temperatures by the elements and in the packet as a whole.
22 cl, 28 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of catalysis, namely to catalytic active porous composite materials, which can be used as carrying electrodes of electrochemical devices for obtaining hydrogen and/or oxygen or high- and medium-temperature solid oxide fuel elements (SOFE). The invention relates to a composite electrode material for electrochemical devices, which contains a metal component in the form of a two-component alloy of nickel with aluminium and a ceramic oxide component; as the two-component alloy used is aluminium-plated nickel, with aluminium content of 3-15 wt %, and as oxide component used is aluminium oxide. The material composition is characterised by a weigh ratio of the metal component to the oxide component in accordance with formula yNixAl100-x-(100-y)Al2O3, where x=85÷97; y=30÷60.
EFFECT: obtaining a porous carrying electrode for electrochemical devices with improved thermodynamic stability, catalytic activity, high electric characteristics.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to solid oxide fuel cells made using a method comprising the following steps: depositing a fuel electrode layer; an electrolyte layer containing stabilised zirconium on the fuel electrode layer to obtain a system consisting of a fuel electrode base and an electrolyte; sintering the system of the fuel electrode base and the electrolyte with each other to obtain a half cell; depositing, on the electrolyte layer of a pre-sintered half-cell, one or more oxygen electrode layers, wherein at least one of the layers contains a composite of lanthanum-strontium-manganite and stabilised zirconium to obtain a full solid oxide cell; sintering the one or more oxygen electrode layers with the pre-sintered half-cell; and saturating the one or more oxygen electrode layers of the full solid oxide cell with manganese to obtain a manganese-saturated fuel cell. Also disclosed is a battery containing one or more solid oxide cells made using the disclosed method.
EFFECT: longer life of said fuel cell.
13 cl, 7 dwg, 20 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to material for making a proton-exchange membrane for an electrochemical device, particularly a fuel cell, an electrolysis cell or an accumulator. Activated boron contained in a matrix is boron nitride which is activated by a liquid containing radicals and/or ions of an acidic or alkaline solution for forming bonds in the boron nitride in the presence of an electric field, before use thereof to make said electrochemical device. The membrane is impermeable to hydrogen at pressure of 1 bar.
EFFECT: proton-exchange membrane according to the present invention provides high mechanical and thermal stability and operates at a relatively high temperature and at room temperature.
29 cl, 11 dwg, 4 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fuel element system comprises a fuel element (10), the first combustion chamber (20), the first check valve (17) for heating gas and a system (50) of gas supply. The fuel element (10) includes an element with solid electrolyte with an anode (12) and a cathode (13). The fuel element (10) produces energy by means of reaction of a hydrogen-containing gas and oxygen-containing gas. The first combustion chamber (20) selectively supplies heating gas to the cathode (13) of the fuel element (10). The first check valve (17) for heating gas mixes at least some of released gas exhausted from the cathode (13), with the heating gas of the first combustion chamber (20), so that the mixed heating gas from the exhausted gas and heating gas is supplied to the cathode (13). The gas supply system (50) is connected to the first check valve (17) for heating gas to supply exhausted gas from the cathode (13) so that it is mixed with the heating gas of the first combustion chamber (20).
EFFECT: increased efficiency of gas usage released from a cathode, by means of its usage for increasing temperature of a fuel element, and reduced deposits of carbon on an anode.
12 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a manufacturing method of an electromechanical energy converter with a solid electrolyte that includes application of metal ceramic material (2A), (2 B) onto both sides of central ceramic plate (1); on both sides of the same plate in metal of ceramic material (2A), (2B) there made are channels (3A), (3B); then, channels (3A), (3B) on both sides of the plate are coated with layers of metal ceramic material (4A), (4B). After that, on both sides of the ceramic structure made using such a method there applied are current-carrying structures (5A), (5B), and then, further layers of metal ceramic material (6A), (6B), which contain nickel. Then, the following coatings are applied onto both sides of ceramic structure prepared in such a way: layers forming solid electrolyte (7A), (7B), layers forming electrodes (8A), (8B), and contact layers (9A), (9B). Electrochemical energy converter has a flat multilayered ceramic base, the average layer of which is formed with the ceramic plate rigidly attached to porous metal ceramic layers (AN1), (AN2), in which fuel supply channels (3A), (3B) are formed.
EFFECT: device is compact and processible and ensures increase of its service life.
14 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of the ceramic construction and functional materials. Ceramic composite material based on the aluminium and zirconium oxides are produced by stabilisation in the tetragonal phase of zirconium dioxide by the mechanical method: in activator zirconium salt and stabiliser (rare-earth element salt) are mixed, then mixture is heat treated at temperature 500-600°C for 1-3 hours. Content of rare-earth element oxide is 3-10 mol % of zirconium dioxide content as recalculated to oxides. In the activator the produced stabilised zirconium dioxide and aluminium oxide with addition of magnesium carbonate are individually ground, and mixed. The products are formed by method of axial pressing at pressure 190-300 MPa, and annealing is performed at temperature 1550-1600°C for 1-3 hours. Grinding and mixing of all components are performed in high speed activator upon acceleration of grinding bodies at least 10 g. Wet grinding of mixture of aluminium oxide and magnesium carbonate is performed to particles size below 100 nm.
EFFECT: production of ceramics with increased coefficient of crack resistance.
8 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed is ceramic particle, with at least, two phases of microstructures, containing amorphous phase, constituting from 30 volume percent to 70 volume percent of particle, and first basically crystalline phase, which contains multitude of mainly crystalline areas, distributed in amorphous phase. Method of ceramic particle production is also described.
EFFECT: increased crush resistance of ceramic particle.
25 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: high-strength magnesium silicate proppant obtaining method that includes milling of the source mixture, its granulating and annealing of the obtained granules, milling of the source mixture with MgO content equal to 24-28 wt % is made up to the particle size of 8 mcm and less, and granulation process is made with water with added sodium or potassium salt of naphthalenesulphonic acid polymethylene or polycarboxymethylene of a sulphonic acid in quantity 0.02-0.07% of the mixture weight in terms of solid matter. The invention is developed in the secondary claims.
EFFECT: obtainment of a high-strength proppant of a medium density.
3 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: fluoride nanoceramic is obtained by thermomechanical treatment of the starting crystalline material made from CaF2-YbF3, at plastic deformation temperature to obtain a workpiece in form of a polycrystalline microstructured substance, which is characterised by crystal grain size of 3-100 mcm and a nanostructure inside the grains, by annealing on air at temperature of not less than 0.5 of the melting point with compaction of the obtained workpiece in a vacuum at pressure of 1-3 tf/cm2 until the end of the deformation process, followed by annealing in an active medium of carbon tetrafluoride at pressure of 800-1200 mmHg. The starting crystalline material used can be a fine powder which has been subjected to heat treatment in carbon tetrafluoride, or a moulded workpiece of crystalline material made from the powder and heat treated in carbon tetrafluoride.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a fluoride nanoceramic with high degree of purity and high uniformity of the structure of said optical material.
4 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil and gas industry, and namely to the manufacturing procedure of ceramic proppants intended to be used as propping agents at production of oil or gas using the formation hydraulic fracturing method - FHF. In the manufacturing method of magnesium-silicate proppant, which involves preparation of initial charge components, their grinding, granulation, annealing and sieving of annealed granules, granulation is carried out using the water containing at least one salt of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium from the group of water-soluble chlorides, sulphates and carbonates, in quantity of 18 - 38 g/l, at the following content of the above salts, g/l: sodium salts 13.3-30.0; magnesium salts 2.6-6.0; potassium salts 0.7-1.5; calcium salts 0.3-0.5. Magnesium-silicate proppant is characterised by the fact that it is obtained by means of the above method. Invention is developed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: increasing air brick strength; reducing dust content of proppant and improving the permeability of proppant pack.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil and gas industry, and namely to the manufacturing procedure of ceramic proppants intended to be used as propping agents at production of oil or gas using the formation hydraulic fracturing method - FHF. In the manufacturing method of composite magnesium-silicate proppant from iron-containing raw material, which involves preparation of initial charge components, their grinding, granulation and annealing, at the grinding stage there introduced to the charge with iron content in terms of Fe2O3 of at least 4 wt % is mixture of sodium silicofluoride and colemanite, which is crushed to the size of at least 2 mcm in quantity of 0.12-0.6% of the charge weight, at the following content of the above components, wt %: colemanite 0.02-0.2, sodium silicofluoride 0.1-0.4, and annealing is performed at the temperature below Fe3O4↔Fe2O3 inversion temperature at annealing in oxidising atmosphere and below Fe3O4↔FeO inversion temperature at annealing in reducing atmosphere. Magnesium-silicate proppant is obtained by means of the above method. Invention is developed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: stable magnetic properties.
5 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil and gas industry, and namely to the manufacturing procedure of ceramic proppants intended to be used as propping agents at production of oil or gas using the formation hydraulic fracturing method - FHF. In the manufacturing method of ceramic proppant, which involves grinding of initial charge components, preparation of slurry, introduction of an additive to it, supply of suspension to a tower spray-type drying oven - TSDO, formation of granules and their heat treatment, there used is slurry containing 69-85 wt % of solid component and additive in quantity of 0.1-2.0% of the solid component weight, which consists of surface-active substance - SAS and a binding agent, formation of granules is performed by dispersion of slurry at its supply to TSDO through at least one calibration orifice at the outlet pressure of 30-450 bar or on the disc placed in TSDO and rotating at the speed of 3000-9000 rpm. Proppant is obtained by means of the above method. Invention is developed in dependent claims.
EFFECT: improvement of proppant roundness and sphericity properties; simplification of the procedure.
5 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining ceramics. Claimed material contains matrix, made in form of solid solution of scandium oxide in yttrium oxide with composition Y1-xScxO1.5, where x=0.25-0.35, and filler, made in form of solid solution of scandium oxide in yttrium-aluminium garnet with composition Y3-3zAl5-5zSc8zO12, where z=0.20-0.45, with material containing matrix in amount 80-90 wt % and filler in amount 20-10 wt %. Described is method of material obtaining, which includes mixing of preliminarily obtained matrix with preliminarily obtained filler, mixture formation and thermal processing.
EFFECT: invention ensures obtaining material with high exploitation characteristics, light-permeability, thermal resistance, heat conductivity, dielectric permeability and strength by simple method of synthesis.
4 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: interchangeable frame of manufacturing device of three-dimensional object (3) includes frame (1) and platform (2) located in frame (1) with possibility of vertical movement; frame (1) and platform (2) form the working space of the above device. Interchangeable frame is provided with possibility of being introduced to the above device and removed from it; at that, the above device is meant for manufacture of three-dimensional object (3) by means of curing of powder or liquid material (3a), which is intended for manufacture of the above object (3), layer by layer in places in each layer, which correspond to cross section of object (3) to be manufactured. Inner side of frame (1), which faces the working space, includes glass-ceramic plates (13).
EFFECT: heating of working space to high temperatures owing to low thermal expansion coefficient of glass-ceramic plates is provided.
19 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to produce items from quartz ceramics includes wet grinding of quartz stock, preparation of slurry, moulding of items in gypsum moulds, drying and annealing of items. Raw materials are ground unburnt wastes of quartz ceramics cleaned from gypsum traces, and slurry preparation is carried out by means of wet grinding in a ball mill at the ratio of "material: grinding bodies: water" equal to 1:(0.5-0.7):(0.13-0.15), for 2-6 hours with subsequent hydration of quartz glass grain for 10-30 hours while mixing the slurry. Annealing is carried out at the temperature of 1150-1200°C for 2-4 hours.
EFFECT: reduction of sintering temperature to produce strong and heat resistant items, high homogeneity of a material in items, elimination of underfilling and flaking, reduced scrap by cracks in production of large thin-walled items at the stage of moulding and annealing.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to monolithic ceramic body with peripheral area from mixed oxide and metal surface and can be applied as implant or protective means for people, vehicles, buildings or spacecraft. Ceramic body contains first metal (I) oxide (preferably zirconium or aluminium), peripheral area form mixed oxide, which contains oxide of first metal (I) and second metal (II), which has high affinity to oxygen (preferably titanium), and metal surface from metal (II) on peripheral area from mixed oxide. Peripheral area from mixed oxide contains continuous concentration gradient of first metal (I), starting from 100% in core and to 0% in transitional area to metal surface of ceramic body, and continuous concentration gradient of second metal (II) in reverse direction, counted per the total content of metals (I+II). Content of oxygen in peripheral area from mixed oxide remains constant, and monolithic structure of ceramic body does not contain borders of phase separation. Ceramic body is obtained by method of ionic implantation of metal (II) into ceramic body, which consists of metal (I) oxide.
EFFECT: increase of service term and work capacity of products.
23 cl, 10 dwg