Steam turbine

FIELD: heat-and-power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat-and-power engineering, particularly to steam turbines of low power. Proposed steam turbine comprises a housing with a horizontal connector, a fixed on the shaft disc with jet working blades installed in one line perpendicular to the cylindrical surface of the disc and forming rims, two diaphragms, one of which is installed before the jet working blades and comprises guide vanes and sealings to make inlets, and the other diaphragm is installed after the jet working blades and comprises sealings, which form outlets, rotary boxes to vary the working medium motion direction installed over the entire disc circumference above the jet working blades onto the sealings, which form the inlet and the outlet openings, covering the inlet and the outlet openings, a sealings unit arranged between the housing and the shaft and consisting of complete sealings and a device to feed and discharge the working medium. Invention ensures small sizes and low metal consumption of the turbine, as well as actuation of almost the whole enthalpy drop of the working medium (down to 0.03 kg/cm2), promotes reducing power losses, sharp reduction of leaks of the working medium for much higher efficiency of the steam turbine. Turbine has a larger range of RPM, since it is not sensitive to changes in parameters of the steam.

EFFECT: proposed is a steam turbine.

3 cl, 2 dwg



Same patents:

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to stage of the axial compressor of turbine machine with drum rotor. Rotor stage contains symmetrical wall (4) during rotation around the axis of rotation. Wall (4) contains enclosure limiting the general shape of the drum, and ring section (20, 21, 22) intended for securing of the blades (14) row, at that the specified section is made as integral with the enclosure. This section has definite shape, i.e. it has external surface limiting the gas flow, that is elevated relatively to the enclosure. This section has U-shape cross-section, opened part is directed towards the axis of rotation. The ring section contains two parts of wall, one upstream (20) and one downstream (22), ensuring connection with the enclosure and used as reinforcement parts. They are preferably perpendicular to the axis of rotation or inclined relatively to the perpendicular. Connection of each upstream (20) and downstream (22) wall parts with central part (21) of the securing section are at distance corresponding to edge of the central part (21) to exclude definite stress concentrations.

EFFECT: invention reduces overall dimensions of the unit.

16 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: combustion housing includes a toroid-shaped combustion chamber receiving centrifugal forces caused by combustion, which occur at ignition of vortex of combustion fluid medium along the whole above said toroid-shaped combustion chamber; and an outlet hole of the above said toroid-shaped combustion chamber. The combustion turbine includes a shaft, several discs distributed in space and radially connected to the above shaft in the centre of the above said several discs; and a combustion chamber. The combustion chamber contains fluid medium subject to combustion and has at least one wall that partially envelopes the above said several discs. The fluid medium subject to combustion flows from the above said combustion chamber and is redirected for its tangential flow above adjacent surfaces of the above said several discs, thus making the above said several discs rotate.

EFFECT: achievement of a simple design and increase of energy output due to more effective fuel consumption in larger amount, as well as by transmission of higher rotation to combustion products.

16 cl, 9 dwg

Reaction turbine // 2549001

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: reaction turbine comprises a turbine shaft and nozzle assembly units. The nozzle assembly units are set behind each other in axial direction and are fitted by an injection hole. Every nozzle unit comprises plates coupled to each other, and the injection hole is formed on the superposed surface of the plates. The nozzle assembly unit is located in a casing comprising inlet and outlet holes and a throughput channel connecting them. The nozzle assembly unit is installed in the casing's throughput channel and can rotate, the said channel in the casing and the injection hole of the nozzle assembly units are set alternately. The casing comprises the first housing with the inlet hole, the second housing with the outlet hole and a variety of third housings set along the axial direction between the first and the second housings. Spacing plates are installed between the adjacent housings and separate assembly units of nozzles from each other. One version of the turbine implies that a variety of impact walls is formed on the inner circle of the third housing. Another version implies that the nozzle assembly unit comprises a ring element mounted between the plates and forming an injection chamber which is fitted by the injection hole passing through the outer circle of the injection chamber. One more version implies that the cross section area of the injection hole in the nozzle assembly unit provided on the side of the outlet hole in the housing, is greater than that of the nozzle assembly unit provided on the side of the inlet hole in the housing. The next version implies that the number of injection holes in the nozzle assembly unit provided on the side of the outlet hole in the housing, is greater than that in the nozzle assembly unit provided on the side of the inlet hole in the housing. The other version implies that the inlet hole in the housing is formed in the centre of the nozzle assembly unit rotation, and the outlet hole in the housing is located where the outer circle of the nozzle assembly unit is located. Every nozzle assembly unit comprises the above ring element forming the injection chamber and comprising injection walls, each of which is fitted by an injection hole in it, and a supporting wall connecting the injection walls.

EFFECT: group of inventions allows for simplified assembly of a reaction turbine and for the reduction of its dimensions.

31 cl, 21 dwg

Radial expander // 2548998

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a radial expander. The radial expander comprises at least one section of the radial expander located in a common casing. The radial expander section includes impeller blades and a variety of diaphragms. The impeller blades are combined into two or more stages between the bearings on the same shaft. The diaphragms are coupled in axial direction. Every diaphragm comprises a knuckle bend to connect the adjacent stages. Each of the knuckle bends is fitted by a nozzle blade and a return blade. Every section has a gas input and a gas output. The gas input is communicated with the suction hole of the common casing. The gas output is communicated with the outlet hole of the common casing.

EFFECT: invention is aimed at the increase of expander reliability.

4 dwg

Energy recovery // 2548026

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method of controlled recovery of oxidation reaction energy, during which a gas flow is generated, and reaction is performed in oxidation reactor of continuous operation, to which gaseous oxidiser is delivered. Method includes: (a) heating of gas flow to temperature of at least 800°C; (b) direction of gas flow to the stage of internal combustion turbine with open cycle, which is provided with a turbine wheel connected to compressor, which compresses gaseous oxidiser delivered to reactor; (c) control of pressure at turbine stage; (d) support of pressure at turbine stage in the range over minimum value, corresponding to power demand of compressor for compression of gaseous oxidiser delivered to oxidation reactor, and below maximum value determined by the limits of gas turbine by power or pressure by means of gas addition to gas flow; (e) provision of expansion device or auxiliary compressor after gas turbine compressor along the process flow at inlet of gaseous oxidiser to oxidation reactor. Also this invention refers to precursor oxidation method thus obtaining aromatic carboxylic acid or its esters.

EFFECT: using this invention allows effective functioning of turbine.

8 cl, 10 dwg

Radial turbine // 2533602

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: water having potential energy of total head is delivered from a water reservoir to the unit for feeding of operating medium to branch pipe 10. The water having the maximal speed at this head comes from the nozzle 11 to the annular cavity 5 between the casing 1 and the impeller 3. Water having kinetic energy moves there in circle. Water coming to the annular cavity 5 from the nozzle 11 forces out the excess water having kinetic energy from the annular cavity 5 to the cavity of blades 4, where it transfers its kinetic energy to the impeller 3 providing for the rotation of the latter. Water is drained without resistance from the blades 4 of the impeller through its central part. All blades 4 of the impeller 3 are loaded simultaneously and equally, regardless of the distance to the nozzle.

EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and simultaneous simplification of turbine control.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to engines operated on compressed air and intended for replacement of motors driving various machines and mechanisms, as well as for replacement of ICE drives. Proposed engine comprises stator 8 with inner cylindrical surface, flanges arranged at its ends with at least one inlet communicated with compressor air source and at least one outlet, rotor 10 arranged eccentrically inside stator 8. Rotor 10 is composed of a cylinder with at least two axial bores 11 directed along its axis and extending over cylinder periphery. Every said axial bore 11 communicates with outer cylindrical surface of rotor 10 via lengthwise groove or at least one coupling hole intended for coupling with inlet and outlet of stator 8. Said axial bores 11 are blank on both sides.

EFFECT: higher torque and efficiency, compact design.

93 cl, 3 dwg

Steam turbine // 2520255

FIELD: energy.

SUBSTANCE: steam turbine comprises a rotor with working blades, a cylinder with the end seal mounted on it and the collector of supplying the steam to the seal. The collector is connected through the pipeline to the turbine end seal. In the space between the rotor, the cylinder and the end seal the guiding unit is mounted, which input is connected by the pipeline to the collector of supplying the steam to the seals, and the output is connected to the exhaust pipe of the turbine.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the reliability of the turbine.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed machine comprises stator, rotor and working chamber formed there between. Working chamber is communicated with working medium feed and discharge channels. Working chamber cross-section width equals the difference between maximum and minimum radii of working chamber defined as the distance from machine axis to working chamber outermost point and the distance from the axis to innermost point. Working chamber houses blades and separator engaged with stator and rotor, respectively. Every blade comprises leading edge facing the rotor and arranged at β=5÷20° to meridian plane extending through leading edge centre. Blade cross-section mid line passed through leading edge centre is inclined to said meridian plane at α=5÷60°. Flat leading edge makes a sharp edge between edge plane and blade surface facing the rotor. Edge plane is parallel with the stator cross-section.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of operation.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine comprises rotary shaft, set of rotor blades, set of nozzles and connection channel. Rotor blades are fitted on the shaft and spaced apart thereat to direct working fluid flow in, in fact, lengthwise direction. Nozzles are arranged at top upstream part of every rotor blade to accelerate working fluid flow. Connection section has curved U-like section, blade section and inverse bend section. Said curved U-like section deflects working fluid flow from rotor blade radially outward in lengthwise direction. Blade section comprises a set of blades deflecting working fluid flow in direction of blades rotation, from said curved U-like section radially outward. Said inverse bend section deflects the flow radially inward, flow flowing from blade section radially outward. Said curved U-like section features cross-section area nearby blade section, downstream of section end, not exceeding 0.8-0.9 of its across-section area nearby the end proximate to radial turbine rotor blade, at its upper side.

EFFECT: decreased leaks via turbine shaft support bearings.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: multi-stage turbine and axial-flow turbine stage comprise working wheels that rotate in the opposite directions, are arranged on individual shafts, and have blade cascades on the intermediate diameter, which terns the fluid flow at the angle ΔβCA = 180° - (β1I + β2EFF), where β1I is the blade cascade inlet angle, β2EFF is the effective angle of the blade cascade output. The blade cascade of the first upstream working wheel turns the fluid not more than by 15°. Between the wheels, power is transmitted via a reduction gear. Between the shafts and the common shaft, power is transmitted through a conical reduction gear.

EFFECT: reduced losses.

4 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; steam turbines.

SUBSTANCE: according to invention, rotor blade is modified to contribute to change of rotor blade natural vibration frequency. Proposed rotor blade has leading edge, trailing edge, first side wall and second side wall. First and second side walls are connected in axial direction to leading and trailing edges, and side walls pass in radial direction between rotor blade and head. Method includes determination of conditions of rotor blade vibration resonance and forming of blade extension between rotor blade root and head which changes resonance conditions.

EFFECT: improved operation of steam turbine rotor.

4 cl, 2 dwg

Turbojet engine // 2264553

FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbojet engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed turbojet engine contains the following devices successively installed in housing: air intake, axial-flow compressor and gas turbine, and combustion chamber and reaction nozzle. Rotors of axial-flow compressor and gas turbine are secured on shafts interconnected by gear-type reverser made in form of planetary reduction gear. Drive gear wheel of planetary reduction gear secured on turbine shaft is meshed through skew gearing with planet pinions installed separately of fixed supports. End face stage of planet pinions is mechanically closed with driven internal gear wheel secured on compressor shaft holder, thus forming skew drive of rotation opposite to rotation of above-indicated skew drive gear wheel-planet pinion gearing.

EFFECT: increased service life of turbojet engine.

2 dwg

FIELD: devices for forming thrust in flying vehicles, land and surface transport facilities.

SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine may be used for generation of electric power at power plants. Jet propulsor has working chamber, supply pipe for delivery of working medium or hot mixture and many nozzles available in one of walls of chamber. Working chamber is made in form of single space with many nozzles in one of its walls. Chamber wall opposite to nozzles is located at distance exceeding size of nozzle orifice by 40 and more times. Nozzles are provided at distance from each other exceeding size of their orifice by at least 5 times. Total area of all nozzles is lesser than sectional area of supply pipe. Turbine is provided with primary rotor made in form of Segner's wheel mounted on shaft, supply pipe for delivery of working medium, secondary rotor mounted concentrically relative to primary rotor embracing it. Mounted over circle of Segner' s wheel are two or more jet engines. Secondary rotor is made in form of impeller. Shafts of primary and secondary rotors are mounted coaxially for independent rotation. Turbine may be mounted inside low-pressure condenser.

EFFECT: increased reactive force; enhanced efficiency due to complete utilization of internal energy of working medium.

7 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of producing mechanical energy in turbine containing Segner's wheel comes to delivery of working medium into holes made in Segner's wheel and acceleration of working medium flowing out of holes to provide rotation of turbine shaft. Working medium is accelerated at least once to supersonic speed with provision of shock wave in closed space after Segner's wheel, accelerated working medium being fed into closed space after Segner's wheel at right angle to wheel radius and acute angle to axis of rotation. Turbine has working medium inlet and outlet, shell and Segner's wheel installed inside cylinder coaxially with shaft for rotation, and at least one additional Segner's wheel and end face fixed members. Segner's wheels are made in form of rings, and holes in them are made in form of de Laval nozzles at right angle to radius of ring and acute angle to axis of its rotation. Segner's wheels are installed between cylinder and shell to form closed ring space in between.

EFFECT: increased mechanical used for rotation of shaft.

25 cl, 5 dwg

Reaction turbine // 2287695

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to turbine plants and it can be used in ship and other power systems. Proposed reaction turbine contains rotor, devices to supply fluid medium with inlet and exit reaction nozzles, axis of exit nozzle is square to turbine radius. Rotor of turbine contains at least four devices to supply fluid medium to exit reaction nozzles and at least one fluid medium ionization device. Each device to supply fluid medium to reaction nozzle consists of at least two nozzles on one axle, at least one nozzle being rigidly or with possibility of axial displacement, engaged coaxially into nozzle following in direction of fluid medium flow forming space between nozzles. At least one space communicates with devices to feed and suck out fluid medium. Ionization devices are arranged in space of one of fluid medium supply device. Pressure sensors are installed in all space, and jet velocity sensors are installed in inlet and exit reaction nozzles. Jet of fluid medium from exit reaction nozzle of fluid medium supply device is directed to inlet nozzle of preceding fluid medium supply device. Rotor has cylindrical housing provided with slots near inlet nozzle of each fluid medium supply device.

EFFECT: simplified design of turbine, reduced specific mass, dimensional and cost characteristics.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stationary and transport turbine plants and it can be used in ship and other power systems. Proposed reaction air turbine consists of rotor, reaction nozzles in plane of turbine rotation whose axes are square to radius of turbine, and devices to supply air to reaction nozzles. At least two coaxial converging nozzles and air ionization devices are arranged in housing of device to supply air to reaction nozzles. At least one nozzle is rigidly or, with possibility of axial displacement of space in between. At least one space communicates with air feed and suck out devices, intake valves are arranged on wall in at least one space and also air ionization devices. Pressure sensors are arranged in spaces. Jet velocity sensors are arranged on inlet and exit nozzles with delivery of information from sensors to plant operation control unit. Inlet sections of inlet nozzle and reaction nozzle are made in form of rectangular slot orientated along rotor shaft, lower side of slot coincides with cylindrical shell of rotor.

EFFECT: improved efficiency, simplified design, reduced mass, overall dimension, flow rate and fuel stores of vehicles.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed internal combustion turbine engine has body, shaft, turbine with radial blades, compressor, combustion chamber, fuel mixture supply and ignition system and exhaust system. At least one row of additional blades is found at least on one side surface of turbine. Channels-nozzles are made on surface of body adjoining said side surface of turbine. Channels-nozzles direct working gases, when registering with combustion chamber, from space formed by radial blades into space formed by additional blades.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

17 cl, 8 dwg

Gas turbine // 2303136

FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas turbine.

SUBSTANCE: proposed gas turbine has casing closed by covers, shaft installed in bearings of covers whose free end gets out through hole of one of covers, wheels secured on shaft, and intake outlet and middle spaces. Turbine wheels of similar designed are installed on shaft at distance from each other being made in form of disks, each provided with through channel arranged over concentric circles. Inlet hole of each channel opens to end face side of disk coupled with intake space. Outlet hole of each through channel opens to opposite end face. Each through channel is made in form of de Laval nozzle longitudinal axis of each of which in each concentric circle is tilted to side opposite to direction of rotation of disk and is arranged at angle to end face surface of disk to which intake holes of through channels open. Diameter of each through channel decreases in direction to center of rotation. Front, rear and middle shells are installed inside casing and provided with round slots on end face sides into which round sealing rings are fitted being pressed to end face sides of turbine wheels by springs.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

15 dwg

Reaction turbine // 2303137

FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed reaction turbine contains rotor with channels to supply working medium to nozzles. Each channel is connected to unit space of spheroidal shape arranged on turbine shaft coaxially with shaft. Central axis of channel is located in plane of turbine rotation and its consists of straight line section at angle to radius of rotor perpendicular to axis of nozzle and butt joint curvilinear section whose end changes into nozzle. At least one aero-or hydrodynamic body with element of mechanization or without such elements is arranged inside channel in area of mating of two sections of channel perpendicular to plane of turbine rotation at angle to central axis of channel. Shape of inner surface of channel in place of location of aero-or hydrodynamic body and also in both sides from this place lengthwise the channel coincides in maximum possible degree with lines of flow of real liquid (working medium) passing over aero-or hydrodynamic body.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of reaction turbine in operation.

2 dwg