Method of making 3-d products and apparatus for realising said method

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the making of 3-D products from the powder in the form of closed shell with a bottom part. The bottom part is formed on the support, then the outer shell is formed at height from the groups of the layers, wherein each of said groups of layers is formed by means of powder filling layer by layer, its planarization and layered laser sintering of a specified area in the plane of each layer to obtain shells of the given height, after forming of each layer group, the inner cavity of the outer shell is filled with the powder to the height of this layer group and carry out laser sintering of the inside cavity powder of the of said shell to its full depth. The offered device is designed for manufacturing the 3-D product layer by layer from powder by the said method.

EFFECT: invention provides a reduction of time spent for 3-D product creation.

4 cl, 3 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises making the 3D model of article, its division to plies in cross-section, application of powder, application of model cross-section pattern on powder by liquid binder, ply-by-ply solidification of powder in 3D model unless cycle completion. Powder consists of the mix of fine and granular heat-resistant materials. Mixing is performed in mixing runners to homogeneous bulk. Said liquid binder represents the solutions of magnesium salts and/or organic binder and/or hydraulic binder. Obtained article is cured for at least 2 hours and, then, dried. Carbon component, a plasticiser, can be added to said powder. Produced article can be heat treated at, at least 180C.

EFFECT: complex shape refractory articles with isotropic properties.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to turbo machine flow section seals operated at higher temperatures and high-frequency oscillations. Proposed element comprises bearing part composed of cellular structure and conformable part composed of filler filling cellular structure cells and made up of powder material particles bonded together and with bearing part. Bearing part is made by sintering in vacuum or protective atmosphere of mechanical mix of powders with mean particle size of 15 mcm to 180 mcm and of the following composition, in wt %: Cr - 10.0-18.0, Mo - 0.8-3.7, Fe or Ti or Cu or brass or bronze or combination thereof making the rest. Conformable part is made of mechanical mix of powders with particle size varying from 10 mcm to 150 mcm an of following composition, in wt %: Cr - 14.0-18.0, Mo - 0.7-1.4, Si - 0.2-1.4, Mn - 0.1-0.5, Fe making the rest at the following contents of powder components: smaller than 40 mcm - 30-40%, 40 mcm-70 mcm - 40-50%, 70 mcm - 140 mcm - 10-20%, over 140 mcm making the rest but not over 6%.

EFFECT: better run-in properties, mechanical strength and wear resistance.

22 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to turbo machine flow section seals operated at higher temperatures and high-frequency oscillations. Proposed element consists of bearing and run-in parts made from adhesively bonded powder material particles. Bearing part is made from cellular material produced by sintering in vacuum or protective medium of powder material containing the following components in wt %: Cr - 10.0-18.0, Mo - 0.8-3.7, Fe or Ti or Cu or brass or bronze or combination thereof making the rest. Run-in part material is fitted into bearing part cells.

EFFECT: better run-in properties, mechanical strength and wear resistance.

24 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to turbo machine flow section seals operated at higher temperatures and high-frequency oscillations. Conformable material powder is used to make pellets for their surface to be sintered to produce shell at every pellet. Power particles are sintered in vacuum or protective medium in mould to make preset-shape-and-size sealing element. Sintering is performed unless solid metallic carcass of pellet shells is formed in pellets bonding. Conformable material powder represents a mechanical mix of the following components in wt %: Cr - 10.0-18.0, Mo - 0.8-3.7, Fe or Ti or Cu or brass or bronze or combination thereof making the rest, or two mechanical mixes: first mechanical mix containing in wt % Cr - 14.0-18.0, Mo - 0.7-1.4, Si - 0.2-1.4, Mn - 0.1-0.5, Fe making the rest, and second mechanical mix containing in wt %: Cr - 10.0-18.0, Mo - 0.8-3.7, Fe or Ti or Cu or brass or bronze or combination thereof making the rest. In using two mixes, prior to pellets reflow, they are formed from first mix and, then, coated with shell from second mix powder.

EFFECT: better run-in properties, mechanical strength and wear resistance.

22 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to production of controlled-thickness strips from composite materials for cermet assemblies used in vacuum tubes and semiconductors. Initial powders are mixed and rolled to strips to be stacked. Obtained stack is welded by fusion and rolled. Note here that rolled powders feature two compositions, one with optimum copper content and another one with decreased copper content. Sintering and rolling are performed to ensure porosity in strips with decreased copper content of 10-20% absence of porosity in those with optimum copper content. Stack is assembled with alternation of porous and nonporous strips while deficient copper is fitted between strips of the stack. Note here that stack welding is carried out at temperature some 70-100C higher than that of copper melting point and exposure of 10-20 min.

EFFECT: increased relative density decreased anisotropy.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to turbo machine flow section seals operated at higher temperatures and high-frequency oscillations. Element comprises bearing part made up of solid cellular structure making a carcass and worn-in part composed of powder metal particles adhered to bearing part and to each other. Note here that said cellular part is composed by interconnected shells of granules filled with worn-in powder material. Granules shells are composed by powder material particles of aforesaid bearing part. Note here that adhesion strength of said particles makes 70-90% of bearing part powder material particle strength while that of worn-in material powder particles in a cell makes 10-30% of particle material strength.

EFFECT: better conformability, higher strength and wear resistance.

24 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly, to turbo machine flow section seals operated at higher temperatures and high-frequency oscillations. Proposed method comprises sintering preset size and shape rods from run-in material powders. Aforesaid run-in material represents a mechanical mix of allow powder containing the following components, in wt %: Cr - 10.0 to 18.0%, Mo - 0.8 to 3.7%, Fe or Ti or Cu or combination thereof making the rest, or allow containing: Cr - 18% to 34%; Al - 3% to 16%; Y - 0.2% to 0.7%; Ni making the rest, or alloy containing: Cr - 18% to 34%; Al - 3% to 16%; Y - 0.2% to 0.7%; Ni making the rest. With particle size varying from 15 mcm to 180 mcm, with powders of hexagonal boron nitride with particle size less than 1 mcm in amount of 1.0-1.5% of total mix amount and calcium fluoride CaF2 with particle size of 1 mcm to 25 mcm in amount of 6.0-8.0% of total amount of mix. Note here that sintering is carried out at 1100-1200C in vacuum or one of the following media ammonia, mix of argon with ammonia, mix of hydrogen with nitrogen, mix of hydrogen, argon and nitrogen.

EFFECT: higher run-in properties, mechanical strength and wear resistance.

11 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: run-in packing is made of adhesion interconnected particles of powder filler corresponding to base of packing material and additives. As filler material there is used material of composition: Cr - from 10.0 to 16.0 %, Mo - from 0.8 to 3.7%, Fe - the rest with dimension of particles of powder from 15 mcm to 180 mcm. As additive there is used hexagonal boron nitride at amount from 0.5% to 10.0% with dimension of particles below 1 mcm.

EFFECT: increased running-in ability, mechanical strength and wear resistance of packing.

11 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to ferrous metallurgy and can be applied in production of wire with silicon calcium-based filler for secondary processing and modification of steel. Pure calcium content in wire is 8-12% of the total filler weight, calcium is contained in granulated form of the following granulometric composition, %: 0.5-1.0 mm size - 20, 2.5-3.0 mm size - 25-30, the rest is 1.0-2.5 mm size. Additionally filler includes aluminium, carbon, phosphor, sulphur and iron in amount of 12 wt % or less. Additionally filler includes granulated magnesium in amount of 0.01-10 wt % and/or rare earth metals in amount of 0.1-5.0 wt %. Method involves measured filling of chute shell with filler by layer-wise laying of pure calcium and calcium-silicon alloy fed to the shell separately.

EFFECT: enhanced homogeneity and stability of chemical compositing of filler along the wire length, increased portion of active calcium not passivised by air humidity in filler, increased degree of calcium recovery during steel processing by wire.

12 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas production.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions related to rock cutting tools, particularly to boring bit with static cutting tools manufacturing methods. Case of boring bit with static cutting tools made of sintered material of metallurgical dust. The metallurgical dust includes hard particles, containing at least one of the following materials: carbide, nitride, boride, silicide, oxide, and their solid solutions and bundle consisting up to 35% of metallurgic dust weight and including at least on of the following metals: cobalt, nickel, iron and their alloys. Method of bit with static cutting tools case manufacturing, includes the following stages: packing of metallurgical dust, for forming raw not sintered blank of packed dust and forming bit case with static cutting tools, actually consisting of composition material of the sintered blank.

EFFECT: equipment production life time increase, because of increase in endurance, strength and bit case viscosity.

50 cl, 18 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to layer-by-layer production of parts from metal powders. This nozzle is produced by copper powder sintering by laser focused beam. Copper powder is preheated to 150C and fed from batching bin. During layer-by-layer sintering of copper powder temperature in batching bin is kept constant. After sintering of every layer, nozzle surface is cleaned by focused laser beam of power making 25% of laser beam power at sintering.

EFFECT: production of precise complex shape parts of required strength.

2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of 3D body by application of powder plies and fusion of their selected zones corresponding to cross-sections of 3D body. For at least one of plies, at least one powder ply is applied on working zone and fused by feed of power from irradiation gun to selected zone. Note here that beam preset path is set for fusion of selected zone for at least one powder ply. Temperature in at least one powder play in imaginary beam path is calculated as the function of beam specific power along preset beam path. Acton of imaginary beam power specific power along preset beam path subject to calculated temperature and conditions set for fusion of selected zone. Said calculations and adjustments are used to plot actual beam power action working diagram for preset beam path at fusion of selected zone of at least one ply.

EFFECT: control over temperature, accelerated construction of 3D body.

10 cl, 8 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy, and namely to cathode materials based on nanocrystalline Fe-Ni particles. A cathode for electrochemical hydrogen generation is made in the form of a steel substrate with a nanocomposite Fe-Ni coating applied onto its surface. The Fe-Ni coating with Ni content of 3-10 wt % has thickness of 0.5-0.9 mm and average grain size of up to 40 nm. A manufacturing method of a cathode for electrochemical hydrogen generation is characterised by the fact that a mechano-activated Fe-Ni powder nanocomposition with Ni content of 3-10 wt % is prepared and applied layer-by-layer onto the steel substrate, and layer-by-layer laser sintering is performed. Laser sintering is performed in vacuum with a fibre-optic pulse ytterbium laser at pulse generation frequency of 20000-100000 Hz and one-pulse time of 100 ns.

EFFECT: produced cathode is characterised by reduced hydrogen overvoltage.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of metal articles from powder by ply-by-ply selective laser sintering. This method comprises making of shell of the article by application of the ply of first powder and its sintering over the entire working surface. Application of ply of second powder and its selective sintering is repeated unless complete forming of the article. Second powder represents metal or alloy powder. After every sintering of metal or alloy powder, it is fused to make ply in depth of 10-300 mcm. Article formed, plies are subjected to gas-static compaction and, them, to induction remelting with crystallisation of all plies. Now, the shell is removed. Invention covers also the unit for production of metal article by above described process. Plant for production of metal article of powder material.

EFFECT: higher strength.

10 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: device to manufacture items by layer-by-layer laser agglomeration of powders contains tanks for powder and powder surpluses, located between them module for item forming including table with drive of its vertical movement, device for powder supply to the table from powder tank, and powder discharge to power surpluses tank, optical laser system for agglomeration of the powder nozzles installed above the table for air or inert gas supply on the powder layer, and gas intake installed under the table with possibility of connection with vacuum system. The table is made gas permeable and is equipped with installed on its top surface of the refractory gas permeable plate intended for powder layer arrangement on its surface and agglomeration.

EFFECT: improved quality of obtained items.

1 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to production of 3D powder articles by selective laser sintering. Ply of various powder materials is applied to perform sintering or melting of preset area of every ply. Selective laser sintering or melting is performed by synchronous scanning of powder ply surface by laser source with small focusing spot and several other sources of concentrated energy flow with radiation spot of larger sizes. Laser scans the surface in the boundaries of radiation spots of the other sources. Device comprises working chamber, laser optically communicated with telescope and laser scanning and focusing system composed by galvanic scanner with lens, working bin with piston displacing powder ply and article in vertical direction, feed bin, powder filling and laying carriage. Gimbal mounts support two scanning sources of electron beam or bulb heating sources, or microwave radiation sources to make laser radiation scanning area aligned with area of electron beam action on the surface.

EFFECT: higher quality of articles and process efficiency.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making a grid for selective transmission of electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-ray radiation. The grid comprises a structural element having walls containing a plurality of particles which contain a first radiation-absorbing material. The particles are sintered together to form pores between adjacent particles. Said pores are at least partially filled with a second solid material which contains a radiation-absorbing material. The pores are filled by adding the second material in a liquid, preferably molten state.

EFFECT: improved mechanical stability of the grid and improved radiation absorption properties thereof.

10 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: layer of ceramic powder is applied to make selective sintering at layer preset sections and to remove said material from unsintered sections. Metal or alloy powder layer, of identical depth, is applied between sintered sections of ceramic layer to make selective sintering thereat. Cycle is reiterated unless a complete forming of the article. Note here that ceramics makes the shell of formed article at sintering. After every sintering of metal or alloy layer, fused is either said layer or the entire volume of said metal or alloy. Article formed and fused metal or alloy crystallised, ceramics is removed.

EFFECT: perfected method.

16 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to powder metallurgy, particularly, to production of nano-structured materials. It can be used for production of complex shape parts from fine powders in various machine building branches. Powder composition components are laid layer-by-layer in reaction chamber to required topology. Preheating is made to prophase temperatures of composition or less refractory component of said composition by source that ensures heating of the entire volume of said powder composition. Thereafter, laser processing is performed for 3D sandwiched article under conditions that allow phase conversions. Now, produced model is withdrawn from the chamber with removal of powder composition not involved in forming of said 3D articles.

EFFECT: lower temperature gradient in processing area.

6 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal surface processing. Method of obtaining corrosion-stable covering on the surface of non-alloy steel includes preparation of powder in form of nanocomposite particles of Fe-Ni, which contain 3-10 wt % of nickel, and its layer-by-layer application on surface of non-alloy steel with laser sintering. Layer-by-layer application of coating on is carried out with formation of sintered coating up to 0.8 mcm thick, which consists of iron particles in nickel envelope with size 20-40 nm. Laser sintering is carried out by irradiation with wave length 1-1.1 mcm, impulse generation frequency 20-100 kHz, power 8-60 Wt and scanning rate 30-500 mm/s.

EFFECT: increase of corrosion stability of steel is ensured.

2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: machine engineering, namely manufacture of three-dimensional cermet articles, possibly in stomatology for making dentures.

SUBSTANCE: process comprises steps of applying ceramic mass with thickness more than 50 micrometers onto surface of stainless steel or alloy; performing sintering in air in quasi-homogenous electromagnetic field at presence of electric and magnetic components of SHF electromagnetic irradiation. Frequency range 1 -30 GHz; amplitude of electric field E0 is in range 400 -1600 V/cm. Amplitude of magnetic field H0 is in range 0.8 - 3.5 A/cm. Maximum temperature of sintering is in range 800 - 1100° C.

EFFECT: enhanced adhesion of materials, possibility for joining materials in atmosphere at standard pressure.

5 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex

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