Method of integrated municipal sewage water treatment and sediment reworking in villages withunsewered areas
SUBSTANCE: method of integrated municipal sewage water treatment comprises equalization of consumption to hourly average consumption, mechanical sewage water treatment in sediment tanks, biological treatment in multistage bioreactors using biocenoses - microorganisms attached to the fiber brush nozzle, advanced sewage water treatment in the aerobic bioreactors and processing of precipitations excreted during sewage water treatment. Sedimentation is performed in the clarifier with flocculation chamber with natural aeration, precipitations of sewage water are fed from the clarifiers into anaerobic digester with a temperature of 15°C, while biological treatment is performed in nitri-denitrification bioreactors with biocenoses attached to the brush nozzle of polyamide super slim fibers with recirculation of treated water from the second nitrification stage to the denitrification stage, reclaimed water from the nitri-denitrification and advanced treatment bioreactors is fed into the consumptrion equalizing tank with supernatant water of digesters.
EFFECT: quaility improvement of the water treatment, process simplification.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of natural waters containing pollutants for drinking and processing purposes. This process comprises degassing-aeration processes, chemical and biological oxidation of organic and inorganic matters in aerobiofilter and contact filtration through floating bed in separate filter combined with aerobiofilter by hydro automatic flushing system. Aeration and degassing are performed by low-pressure vacuum-jet ejection or injection and jet spraying in water-air medium. Chemical-biological oxidation of organic matters is carried out in combined floating granular-fibrous bed in partially unsubmerged state and partially submerged state at initial stage of operation. Additionally, water is coagulated and flocculated by feed of reagents to different points of flushing water bellow, over its height. Clarification-sorption process of deep afterpurification is conducted as well as decontamination by filtration in upflow through granular bed and coal-silvered cartridges. These are fitted at floating bed top ply to double as purified water collection and discharge system to force water to clean water tank for uniform distribution of the filter area at bed flushing conditions.
EFFECT: deeper treatment of natural waters.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biological treatment of domestic and industrial effluents. Proposed device comprises tank divided by webs and partitions into separate sections and compartments, air feed system lines, effluents distribution and discharge lines and system of silt mixes distribution and biological filter. Said tank is composed of cylindrical outer wall 2 fitted coaxially at bed 1, mid cylindrical wall 3 and settler composed by lower conical part 4, lower cylindrical part 5, upper cylindrical part 6 and upper cylindrical part 7. Space between walls 2 and 3 is separated by different-height webs. Every compartment has separate web with bore at its bottom part. Space between mid wall 3 and settler is divided by vertical different-height webs with cutouts 51 into separate cascade-overflow sections. Settler bottom part has slotted valves and wastes trap 33 arranged at the bottom.
EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning, simplified process.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of household and industrial sewage water. The method of sewage water purification includes balancing a water flow and biological purification with active sludge. Initial sewage water is supplied through a self-cleaning filter device for straining, and mechanically purified sewage water is discharged into a balance tank and supplied into a tank of biological purification. Separation of purified water and active sludge is carried out by means of submergible membrane cassettes with membrane modules. Separation of permeate is realised by the action of a weak vacuum. Permeate is supplied into a pure water tank and further by a gravity flow to an installation of ultraviolet disinfection. Disinfected water is discharged into a water body. Continuous aeration of the membrane cassettes with membrane modules is realised by means of a group of membrane unit blast blowers. The membrane modules are periodically washed and alternated with relaxation modes. Also realised is the periodic prophylactic cleaning of the membrane cassettes and periodic restoring cleaning.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve the quality of purified water discharges and provide the relaxation of applied devices.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: waste water treatment device comprises a flotator 2 and a bioreactor 14 consisting of two intercommunicated sections where the section being the first one downstream the waste water flow is a biological waste water treatment section 21 and the second section is a waste water filtration section 22 with a set of membranes 20. Sludge airlift output 16 is communicated with the flotator input, the air inlet of the airlift is communicated with one of the compressor 9 outputs, the free sludge airlift input is communicated with the bioreactor sludge output, the flotatot bottom is inclined to the bioreactor and bottom sediment pocket 13 located in the lower part of the flotator bottom.
EFFECT: simplified maintenance, faster waste water treatment due to the decreased number or absence of pipelines between the device elements.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental conservation, particularly to detoxification of domestic waste water. Waste water that has passed through a primary settling tank, aeration tanks and a secondary settling tank is purified by iron (III) oxyhydrate nanoclusters from heavy metals for 60 minutes in a contact tank with FeS with particle size of 3 mm, mass of 55536.8 g with acidification of the water with commercial-grade sulphuric acid in amount of 0.1 l/s, after which the water is fed into a horizontal settling tank with an electrode system mounted across the entire volume of the tank and consisting of 7 flat carbon-graphite plates with length of 30 m, thickness of 2-3 mm with distance between the plates of 5 cm and copper lines between the plates, where the water is held for 5 hours under the action of nanocurrent of 25 nA.
EFFECT: low content of inorganic and organic toxicants and pathogenic microflora in waste water, which enables to discharge the waste water into natural reservoirs.
4 dwg, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device for purification of surface sewage waters includes filter or settling chamber 1, intended for preliminary purification from coarse dispersed pollutants, purification unit 2, which contains filtering charge 4 with vegetation 5. As filtering charge 4 used is mixture of soil with zeolite, with zeolite amount constituting 30-50% of the total charge weight. Reservoir 6 with bulk hollow deformation-resistant charge 7 for accumulation of purified sewage waters in form of gravel or crushed granite with hollowness up to 50% is placed under filtering charge 4.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to realise all-year-round purification of surface sewage waters, accumulate and use purified water under cold climate conditions.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for purifying waste water comprises hydraulically series-connected settling and balancing tank (C1), an anaerobic unit (C2.1), an anoxic unit (C2.2), an oxide unit (C3), a membrane filter unit (C4) and auxiliary equipment. The settling and balancing tank (C1) comprises a device for receiving starting waste water; an anaerobic unit (C2.1) adapted to feed therein activated return sludge together with waste water from the oxide unit (C3); the oxide unit (C3) is adapted to feed therein return sludge from the membrane unit (C4) is provided with an aerating device (C0); and the membrane filter unit (C4) is provided with an aerating device (C0) and a vacuum device for removing purified water (H2.1) for discharge.
EFFECT: high efficiency of purifying waste water, achieving maximum allowable concentration of contaminants on BOD5, COD, ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, phosphate phosphorus, while ensuring small dimensions, mobility and universality of the apparatus, high reliability of the apparatus in conditions of a non-uniform qualitative and quantitative composition of the starting waste water.
12 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to bio-energy and can be used as a universal digestion tank for processing of manure of animals, poultry, domestic and agricultural waste into methane and organic fertiliser. The reactor of anaerobic digestion of biomass comprises a housing 1 in the form of a sealed container, comprising four sections: preparatory (acidic) 2, neutral 3, alkali 4 and of methane digestion 5, separated by vertical partitions 6, 7, 8. The reactor is additionally equipped with a diaphragm electrolytic cell 12, one output 18 of which with the analyte solution is connected to the acid fermentation section 2, and its other output 21 with the catholyte solution is connected to the sections of neutral 3 and alkaline fermentation 4. In the reactor housing 1 along its length the additional fixing units 11 of vertical partitions 6, 7, 8 are made, made with the ability of replacement with the change in the volumes of sections of fermentation.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase efficiency of the reactor of anaerobic digestion of biomass.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: installation contains a device for mechanical processing of initial sewage water for the separation of a solid sediment from it, a primary settler, an aerotank, a secondary settler, a device for the output of precipitated return and excess active sludge from the secondary settler, supply of return active sludge into the aerotank and discharge of purified water, two mixing devices, the first of which is successively connected to the device of mechanical processing of initial sewage water for the separation of the solid sediment from it and with a primary settler, the second is successively connected to the aerotank and the secondary settler. Also additionally to the lower edge of the secondary settler via the main pipeline connected is a device of physical-mechanical processing of the active sludge, representing the main pipeline with placed in it 4-6 perforated rigid membranes, located successively one after another along the length at different distances from each other, with an external diameter of the perforated rigid membranes coinciding with the internal diameter of the device of physical-mechanical processing of the active sludge, and the internal diameter of the perforated rigid membranes relates to the internal diameter of the device for physical-mechanical processing of the active sludge as (0.09-0.1):1. The device for physical-mechanical processing of the active sludge is successively connected to an accumulation tank, which is connected in parallel way via the main pipeline to the primary settler and to the secondary settler.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of settling suspensions in the primary and secondary settlers, increased depth of biological purification in the aerotank, elimination of the necessity to output the excessive active sludge from the purification installations, its storage and utilisation.
SUBSTANCE: iron particles are fed into a metal receiver linked to a reservoir which is equipped with an electrode which is not in contact with said metal receiver, and an aqueous solution is fed into said reservoir so that it at least partially covers the iron particles and is in contact with the electrode; direct current is fed to the metal receiver and the electrode, wherein the metal receiver containing the iron particles is an anode and the electrode is a cathode. The aqueous solution fed into the reservoir is aqueous sodium hypochlorite solution, concentration of which is at least 1 g/l. The electrolysis product is extracted from the reservoir and fed into raw water to undergo pretreatment, after which said water undergoes aerobic and then anaerobic biological filtration.
EFFECT: pretreatment of raw water enables to obtain water which can then be easily treated to obtain drinking water or the so-called process water.
11 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; bio-engineering; methods of purification of the concentrated waste waters.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to bio-engineering, in particular, to purification of the concentrated waste waters and may be used in chemical and petrochemical industries. The method of purification of the concentrated waste water containing aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, peroxides and aldehydes, includes an aerobic treatment with strains of bacteria Pseudomonas sp. VCPV-3893 and Rhodococcus sp. VCLMV-3892. At that before the stage of the aerobic treatment carry out a preliminary purification of the waste waters by a consecutive stages of treatment of the waste waters with an alkaline solution up to the pH value of no less than 9.5. Then conduct the further distillation of the treated flow at the temperature of the bottom distillation residue of the column of no less than 98°C and the duration of presence of no less than 0.2 hour. At that the bottom distillation residue of the column is directed to the stage of the aerobic treatment and the upper product of the column is directed to utilization. The method allows to purify effectively the concentrated waste waters containing aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and also peroxides and aldehydes.
EFFECT: the invention ensures effective purification of the concentrated waste waters containing aromatic hydrocarbons, their derivatives, peroxides and aldehydes.
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatuses for treating household and compositionally related industrial waste waters as well as landscape waste waters and can be used in communal services of villages, urban settlements, tourist complexes, large recreation centers, when treating landscape sewages, e.g. from fur farming areas, aperies, food industry enterprises. Plant comprises filtering self-cleaning apparatus, consumption equalizer, reagent system, clarifier, post-treatment bioreactor, and cleaned water disinfection apparatus. Clarifier is constructed in the form of adhesion apparatus with ascending waste water flow and it is filled with brushing packing. Post-treatment bioreactor is provided with brushing packing and air lift recesses. Disinfection apparatus is constructed in the form of three filter steps filled with each step-specific grainy catalyst. First filter step has descending waste water flow and the second and third ones have ascending waste water flow and bubbler system.
EFFECT: increased impurities removal efficiency, simplified operation, reduced dimensions of equipment, and reduced operation expenses.
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is meant to be applied for removing petroleum products from industrial waste waters and can be used at enterprises of petroleum, petroleum processing, petrochemical, and has processing industries. Process comprises flotation, biological intensive aeration, biological aftertreatment, and fine aftertreatment. In biological intensive aeration and biological aftertreatment, biocenosis packing utilized is nonwoven polypropylene material with pore size 80-230 μm, cloth thickness 0.30-0.55 mm, and in amount 0.45 to 1.43 g per 1 L water to be treated. Excess biomass is subjected to anaerobic fermentation and 1/3 thereof is used in flotation stage, while the rest is sent to biological treatment of oil slime.
EFFECT: reduced number of treatment stages, investment and operation expenses, and speeded up treatment process.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: petroleum chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: method involves carrying out the preparing synthesis gas by the gaseous oxidative conversion of natural gas with air oxygen, catalytic conversion of synthesis gas to a catalyzate followed by its cooling and separating and feeding a liquid phase into reactor for synthesis of gasoline. For aim reducing the cost of manufacturing catalytic preparing methanol is carried out in the synthesis reactor wherein methanol is fed into reactor for preparing high-octane components of gasoline that are stabilized and separated for liquid components and fatty gas that is fed into reactor for preparing oligomer-gasoline. Then liquid components from reactors wherein high-octane components of gasoline and oligomer-gasoline are prepared and then combined, and the mixture is stabilized. Water formed in all synthesis reactions after separating is removed separately, combined and fed to the fresh water preparing block and formed nitrogen is fed for storage with partial using in technological cycle and in storage of synthetic fuel. The unreacted depleted synthesis gas from block wherein methanol is prepared is used for feeding methanol into reactor sprayers for preparing high-octane component of gasoline, and unreacted gases from reactor for preparing oligomer-gasoline are fed into generator for synthesis gas. Also, invention claims the device for realization of the method. The device consists of blocks for preparing synthesis gas, catalytic conversion of synthesis gas to catalyzate and preparing gasoline and made of two separate reactors for preparing high-octane additive of gasoline and oligomer-gasoline. The device is fitted additionally by block for preparing fresh water and nitrogen collector. The reactor sprayers are connected with intermediate capacity for collection of methanol and with reactor for synthesis of methanol and block for preparing methanol, and reactor for preparing oligomer-gasoline is connected pneumatically with block for preparing synthesis gas. Invention provides the development of method for the combined preparing the fuel and fresh water.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: purification of domestic sewage water by combined biochemical process.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding sewage water to receiving reservoir; pumping sewage water into aeration tank and further into secondary settler; providing flowing of sewage water from secondary settler into outlet reservoir. In receiving reservoir sewage water is circulated while being exposed to active silt and small-sized bubble aeration of variable intensity. In aeration tank mixture of sewage water and active silt is caused to circulate in vertical-circular path around secondary settler immersed into water. Particles which come to water surface in upper part of secondary settler are caught and water and silt are separated. Method further involves filtering sewage water through mechanical filter comprising long bristles and subjecting water to purification followed by urging water to flow into receiving reservoir wherein water is exposed to additional ozone purification and disinfection; thereafter washing main air lifts and mechanical filter and simultaneously feeding ozonized water into receiving reservoir and aeration tank; providing discharge of clear water under pressure; automatically removing floating particles in upper part of secondary settler into receiving reservoir and excessive active silt from aeration tank zone maximally remote from aeration member into reservoir of active silt aerobic stabilizer from which water containing active silt flows back into aeration tank; removing settled silt after additional oxidation through lower slot of secondary settler and directing it back into active zone of aeration tank. Disinfection and pumping out processes are controlled using level controlling sensor in output reservoir and controller which is started by means of signal delivered from this sensor.
EFFECT: improved quality, reliable and intensified purification process due to employment of immersed secondary settler in aeration tank, provision for additional steps such as additional oxidation and disinfection, automatic washing of basic components, and also due to employment of control sensor in outlet reservoir.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatuses for deep biological purification of household waste waters with active sludge in suspended state, which apparatuses would be suitable for use both in separately situated cottages, farm-adjoining houses and in hotel complexes, schools, sport clubs, settlements, public catering establishments, etc. Waste water treatment comprises two operation phases of apparatus. Waste water is fed to compensative tank with activated sludge, wherefrom it flows through slot filter into first compensative air tank, then, through aerated biofilter, into second compensative air tank, and finally overflows into bottom zone of air tank-settler. First phase includes: aeration of the first and second compensative air tanks and pumping-out with main pump of preliminarily settled treated water from tube well of the air tank-settler into bottom zone of secondary settler; aeration of tube well; automatic stopping of main pump; overflow of displaced treated water from upper layers of secondary settler into chamber with porous filter and then into pump chamber; periodic pumping-out from pump chamber with the aid of drainage pump provided with float level sensor and withdrawal of completely purified water beyond the plant; pumping of sludge by sludge pump from bottom zone of air tank-settler into sludge stabilization chamber and overflow of displaced water with sludge from sludge stabilization chamber into compensative tank. All this process is accompanied by constant circulation motion of water being treated and sludge through all vessels by means of circulation channels. After timer signal, plant is switched over to its second operation phase. Feeding of air into aerators of compensative tank and air tank-settler is effected. Further, water is pumped out consecutively with biological film from secondary settler mirror and then with settled activated sludge from bottom zone of secondary settler. Activated sludge from air tank-settler is pumped into compensative tank. Are turned on: coarse-bubble aerators-mixers in sludge stabilization chamber, porous filter regeneration aerator in porous-filter chamber, and pump pumping out filtrate formed therein into sludge stabilization chamber. Periodically, pulsing turning-on of the first and second compensative air tanks is performed. After that, following signal of timer, apparatus is switched over back into first operation phase.
EFFECT: achieved production of high-quality purified waste waters suitable for reuse, reduced power consumption, increased operation reliability, and reduced labor-intensiveness.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: biological purification of water by means of periphyton filtration making it possible to remove nutrients from inlet flow of water.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method enhances efficiency of filtration due to introduction of strong oxidant-ozone into inlet water flow and sometimes into outlet water flow, thus ensuring removal of organic nutrients which are likely to affect periphyton cultures and algae, reduction of population of undesirable microinvertebrates, forming of organic nutrients suitable for use by periphyton, as well as reduction of level of toxic components. Use is made of pesticide for control of insect population. Proposed method enhances efficiency of cleaning water from toxins, microorganisms and other contaminants due to combined treatment of water flow with ozone and periphyton.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
28 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: purification of water from toxic compounds, microorganisms and other contaminants of water nature with the aid of ozone.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes deep reservoir for water to be treated; ozonized water is delivered to bottom of this reservoir. Ozone present in ozonized water acts on water being treated. Water thus treated is discharged from upper part of reservoir and is delivered to water plant system in form of attached algae colony where undesirable components such as pesticides are evacuated from water.
EFFECT: improved quality of water purification from undesirable microorganisms and toxins.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: purification of town waste water; final treatment of waste water according to technical Specifications.
SUBSTANCE: proposed water purification complex includes intake chamber 1, grates 2, sand traps 3, primary settlers 4, aerotank 5, secondary settlers 6, aerated bioreactors 7, system of ponds: 1st stage purification pond 8, 2nd stage purification pond 9 and 3rd stage purification pond 10, mechanical cleaning unit 11, ultraviolet radiation station 12 and pump station 13. Waste water from intake chamber 1 flow to pump station 13 by gravity. Water purification complex includes also reservoir-sludge compactor 16 and mechanical sediment dehydration shop 15 connected with sand traps by means of pipe line 14; complex is also provided with pipe line 18 for delivery of excessive sludge from 1st stage purification pond 8 and 2nd stage purification pond 9 to intake chamber 1; pipe line 17 for delivery of return activated sludge from secondary settlers 6 to aerotank 5 and pipe line 19 for delivery of excessive sludge from secondary settlers 6 to intake chamber 1. Air from compressor 21 is supplied to aerotank 5 through main 20.
EFFECT: improved quality of purification; possibility of reusing cleaned water in industries.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering and community facilities.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has reservoir 1, basic sewage water feeding system 2 and purified sewage water discharge system 3. Reservoir 1 is partly open and comprises closed receptacle chamber, methane tank chamber, clarification chamber 6, and biofilter chamber 7, said chambers being hydraulically communicated with one another. Biofilter chamber 7 has at least two sections hydraulically communicated with one another. Longitudinal separating partition 10 positioned between sections is equipped with drainage strip 11 provided in its upper part. Biofilter chamber 7 is equipped with throat communicating with atmosphere. Biofilter is positioned within both sections of chamber 7. One of sections of biofilter is used as inlet and is hydraulically communicating with methane tank chamber. Other section 33 of biofilter is used as outlet and is hydraulically communicating with clarification chamber 6.
EFFECT: compact construction, simplified manufacture and maintenance of single unit apparatus for purification of sewage water and bringing sewage purification quality to required level envisaged by sanitary regulations and norms of protecting surface water from contamination.
9 cl, 6 dwg