Method of explosive substance disposal by combustion
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive substances (ES) disposal, namely, to ES disposal by combustion. Method of explosive substance disposal by combustion involves ES placing on combustion platform and its ignition initiation by means of electric igniter, located directly in disposed (burned) ES or on its surface. Electric igniter can be located in disposed EX or on its surface inside combustible material, and supply of electric current pulse is performed authorized from safe place.
EFFECT: invention enables ES ignition ease and reliability and aims at increasing safety when organizing and conducting works on ES disposal.
1 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for the thermal decomposition of polyvinylchloride polymer waste. The method of the thermal decomposition of the polyvinylchloride polymer waste involves the stages of grinding the utilisable polymer waste, feeding it into a dehalogenation reactor together with a heavy fraction of oil to produce a mixture of the ground polymer waste and the heavy oil with a mass ratio of 1:0.3-0.8, heating the reaction mixture to a temperature of 210-250°C, producing an acid solution of a halogenated hydrogen gas recovered from the substance, removing this solution, feeding the mixture left in a reactor chamber into a depolymerisation reactor, a temperature of which is increased to a temperature from 480°C to 600°C, extracting the mixed hydrocarbon gas, fractionating it, condensing and placing a portion of the heavy fraction of oil into the dehalogenation reactor back to produce a mixture of polymer chips and heavy oil.
EFFECT: invention enables implementing the cost effective method for preparing a product applicable for energy generation with no additional initial substances used.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for processing of the carbon containing materials. The method contains loading of the spent cathode baths for aluminium production in the shaft furnace (1), where they are heat treated at temperature exceeding temperature of carbon ignition and evaporation temperature of toxic substance containing in spent cathode baths. At first longitudinal section (8) of the shaft furnace (1) the reaction gases are directed at straight flow with carbon, and at second longitudinal section (9) of the shaft furnace at opposite flow with carbon. The reaction gases are removed (11) from the shaft furnace in area with increased cross-section (7) between the said longitudinal sections (8, 9).
EFFECT: invention ensures complete separation of the toxic substances, such as sodium and fluorine, and simultaneous production of slag enriched with calcium aluminate, prevention of alkali recirculation.
19 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to degassing toxic substances and disinfecting bacteriological agents, as well as the problem of neutralising consequences of use thereof while ensuring safety of facilities and equipment contaminated with toxic chemicals. The bifunctional aqueous thickened formulation contains, wt %: 5.70-10.0 inorganic oxidant - weakly alkaline calcium hypochloride, 2.00-3.00 high-molecular weight compound - sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose - as a thickener which increases the contact time of the formulation with the treated surface and has a film-forming effect, 0.15-0.20 SF-2U powder as a surfactant which improves wetting power of the formulation and water - the balance.
EFFECT: mixture has effective degassing and disinfection of surfaces of manufacturing facilities and equipment contaminated with toxic chemicals, including toxic substances such as Vx, soman and mustard gas, and biological agents and enables further safe use thereof without protection; the formulation can be used with most of the existing special processing equipment.
2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding biopreparations and sowing high sorption capacity plant seeds. Contaminated areas are irrigated with p-aminobenzoic acid in concentration of 0.1-0.2%. When dissolving p-aminobenzoic acid, stevia leaves are added to the hot solution in amount of 0.2%. After cooling the solution to 20-25°C, biopreparation Baikal - EM-1 is added in concentration of 1:100. Amaranth is then planted 2-3 weeks after irrigation. Repeated irrigation in the same concentration is carried out at the branching phase of the amaranth.
EFFECT: high efficiency of the method.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of neutralising chloropicrin via alkaline hydrolysis in an aqueous medium in interphase and micellar catalysis conditions using the composition: alkali metal hydroxide, trialkylarylammonium chloride, N,N-dichloroarylsulphamide (dichloramine). The phase-transfer catalyst used is N,N,N-trialkyl-N-benzylammonium chloride, the micelle-forming component is N,N-dichloroarylsulphamide (dichloramine) and alkaline decomposition products thereof. The method enables detoxification of chloropicrin in laboratory and field conditions, in emergency situations, and degassing of a container contaminated with chloropicrin.
EFFECT: neutralising chloropicrin to concentration of not more than 0,01 mg·ml-1 without using organic solvents and special equipment.
1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method consists in mixing cyano-containing solutions and pulps with hydrogen peroxide and a gas ozone-oxygen mixture with the ozone concentration of more than 160 g/m3, in the ozone/hydrogen peroxide ratio of 1.5:1, pH 11-12, temperature of 45-50°C in the presence of copper ions. The cyano-containing solutions and pulps are deactivated in the copper ion concentration of not less than 1:8 to the cyanide and rhodanide concentration.
EFFECT: higher rate and effectiveness of deactivating the cyano-containing solutions and pulps, lower consumption of agents and power costs, improved economical efficiency of the process.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safe operation of chemically hazardous facilities, i.e. development of a formulation for the decontamination of toxic chemicals (TC) during emergency response operations at chemically hazardous facilities. Development of a foaming aqueous composition comprising the following components: foaming composition - 0.3-1.7 wt %, Na-salt of dichloroisocyanuric acid - 2.5-6.5 wt %, water - the rest. The foaming composition comprises a mixture of primary fatty alcohols and functional additives, as well as butyldiglycol, propylene glycol and water at the ratio: mixture of 3-ethanolaminoalkylsulphate of C8-C12 primary fatty alcohols, C12-C14 primary fatty alcohols, sodium sulphoethoxylate and carbamide - 40.0 wt %, butyldiglycol - 5.0 wt %, propylene glycol - 3.0 wt %, water - the rest.
EFFECT: invention provides the degasation of TC during emergency response operations at chemically hazardous facilities.
SUBSTANCE: liquid bromide is neutralised by influencing on it with water solution of reagent. First, 1-4 wt % of laundry soap are dissolved in water with temperature 40-50°C, then, 5-15 wt % of alkali are added into solution, obtained solution is cooled to room temperature, solution is transferred into foam-like condition by air-mechanical method, foam is immediately applied on bromine-damaged surfaces or into volumes, foam is kept above bromine without external influence for not less than time of half-decay of foam or until foam is converted into clot, obtained products of neutralisation are utilised. Invention makes it possible to efficiently isolate damaged surface or volume by covering damaged surface with a layer of stable foam and protect the environment from bromine vapours with simultaneous conversion of elementary bromine into water-soluble compounds, with reduction of its danger class.
EFFECT: foam stability ensures sufficient time duration, which makes it possible to remove neutralisation products more rationally.
3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of chemical technology of energy-saturated materials, namely to methods of utilisation of formed wastes of production of defective and expired products, and is intended for laboratory methods of trinitrotoluene decomposition. Method of trinitrotoluene destruction consists in influencing trinitrotoluene in water medium with alkaline chemical reagents - water solutions of sodium sulphite and sodium hydroxide with concentration 5-20%, with weight ratio trinitrotoluene: chemical reagent, equal 1:3-30, and simultaneous impact with ultrasonic fluctuations with frequency not lower than 20 kHz and intensity not lower than 2,5 W/cm2; and at initial temperature 40-50°C heating is realised due to absorption of energy of ultrasonic fluctuations to temperature 80-85°C.
EFFECT: invention provides complete decomposition of explosive substance, absence of toxic organic products and high rate of the process.
9 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: toxic waste is mixed with water solution of phosphoric acid, which has concentration 20-40% and supplied to mixing calculated as content of 100% acid in processed mixture 5.0-6.1% of the weight of processed waste product at temperature 20-40°C. Obtained emulsion is mixed for 20-30 min, and then mixture is layered for 1.5-2.5 hours with supply of formed organic layer into burning furnace and with supply of water-salt layer for long and safe storage.
EFFECT: avoiding destruction burning furnace liner by removal of potassium contained in toxic waste in form of organic and mineral compounds from mixture, supplied to thermal deactivation.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: means for protecting against harmful chemical agents.
SUBSTANCE: method for degassing army outfit materials polluted with organophosphorus physiologically active substance, namely O-(3,3-dimethylfluorobutyl)- methylfluorophosphonate involves treating outfit within 30 min. in electrochemically activated water-salt solution of sodium chloride - soda catholyte with pH value of 12.0 - 12.5 under temperature of 50oC, with liquid value of 8.0 l/kg under the action of ultrasonic field with frequency of 18.6 kHz and intensity of 0.76 W/sm2; drying thereof in hot air under temperature of 80oC within 15 min.
EFFECT: reduced treatment time, increased output, simplified system of army provision with degassing solutions and components for preparation thereof.
FIELD: detoxification and disinfection.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to detoxification of chemical weapons and disinfection of bacteriologic weapons as well as elimination of chemical weapon application consequences. Bifunctional formulation according to invention contains aqueous solution potassium fluoride peroxosolvate as inorganic oxidant, organic solvent, and (additionally) high-molecular weight compounds of cellulose ethers, preferably hydroxyethylcellulose, with surfactant additives. Following proportions of components are used, wt %: potassium fluoride peroxosolvate 20-21, hydroxyethylcellulose 2.5-3.5, surfactant 0.0085-0.01, organic solvent 5-8, and water - the rest. Upon evaporation of water from formulation on treated surface, not permeable for poisons and bacteriologic substances strong film is formed considerably decreasing harmful effects.
EFFECT: increased protection effect.
1 dwg, 12 tbl
FIELD: chemical composition against chemical toxic agents.
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention includes addition of water-absorbing polymer in form of fine dispersed dust in 7 mass % aqueous foam-forming agent solution in amount of 0.050-0.075 mass %. It causes to improved foam stability by 18.0-18.2 times due to forming in aqueous solution structure of fine dispersed polymer particles. Said particles in process of foam formation transfer into foam films and prevent dehydration thereof. Increased foam stability is also caused by dissolution of acrylamide polymer in small amount in water followed by forming of mixed adsorption layer on phase interface with increased structural characteristics.
EFFECT: composition against chemical toxic agents of improved properties.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: environmental pollution control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial process of detoxifying sea and lagoon sediments or grounds polluted by stable organic trace pollutants (e.g., dioxins and furans, polychlorobiphenyls, aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons) and inorganic trace pollutants (e.g., Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, etc.). Detoxification process comprises following stages: (i) thermal desorption of organic pollutants in trace amounts from mud or ground and removal of volatile metals from furnace operated at 300 to 700єC to form first gaseous stream containing removed organic pollutants and volatile metals and stream consisting of remaining solids; and (ii) extracting heavy metals from the stream of remaining solids with the aid of inorganic acids or chelating compounds, in one or more steps, to produce chemically dissolved above-indicated heavy metals and essentially detoxified mud or ground having characteristics allowing thus treated mud or ground to be returned to their original place.
EFFECT: achieved complete detoxification with minimum environmental harm.
16 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: decontamination of technological spillage of liquids containing highly toxic component of rocket propellant-1,1 dimethyl hydrozine.
SUBSTANCE: layer of schungite material is poured on floor or site where spillage is expected to occur. Used as schungite material is material obtained from schungite rock of III kind at mass content of carbon of 25-35% and dispersity of 0.5-5.0 mm; schungite material is poured in layer of 10-25 cm.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of decontamination; facilitated procedure.
2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: detoxification methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to detoxifying polychlorinated organic wastes containing toxic high-boiling substances. For this aim, wastes are hydrogenised on supported palladium catalyst at 60-130°C and pressure 10-50 atm in presence of 10-20% sodium hydroxide solution in biphasic water/hydrocarbon system. According to invention, hydrocarbon solution of waste, prior to be subjected to hydrogenation, is filtered at 70-100°C through filter of nonwoven polymeric material allowing waste particles at least 1 μm in size to be retained, after which reaction mixture is charged with lower aliphatic alcohol in amount 1 to 20 wt %.
EFFECT: essentially increased waste processing productivity with minimum formation of secondary toxic substances.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: isolation and neutralization of burial of hazardous matters on the bottom of water basins.
SUBSTANCE: method is based upon limiting contact of hazardous matters with water by means of covering them with loose material. Accumulations of hazardous matters washed out at bottom ground from metal tanks are neutralized by means of covering with crushed shale. Preferably the hazardous matters on the bottom which matters accumulate in metal vessels, missiles, bombs and in cases of sunken vessels should be covered with crushed aluminosilicate before being covered with crushed shale.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of neutralization.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: continuous operation ejection installations.
SUBSTANCE: ejection installation can be used for destroying arms provided with chemical poisoning matters, namely poisoning gases. Installation has system for storing and feeding neutralizing solutions, system for supplying matter to be processed, ejector provided with mixing chamber, diffuser and branches for supplying main working stream and matter to be processed, flow-through reactor connected in series with diffuser, container for storing products of reaction and gas cleaning system. Installation is provided with system for supplying matters under pressure to reactor, namely, neutral gas, and system for checking seal-proof of connections. System for supplying neutral gas to flow-through reactor has at least one nozzle apparatus and lock-adjusting and control equipment which are connected together and with source of neutral gas under pressure. Systems for supplying and storing neutralizing solutions and feeding processed matter are connected with branches for supplying main working flow and processed matter of ejector. Flow-through reactor is made in form of pipeline with at least one axial turbine mixer, disposed inside reactor, for activating chemical reactions. Nozzle apparatus of system for supplying neutral gas into flow-through reactor is mounted in front of axial turbine mixer. System of checking connections for seal-tightness is made in form of at least one ring-shaped chamber embracing item to be inspected, aids for creating excess pressure of inert medium and test equipment. All the units of system are connected together and are filled with inert medium. Conditions of processes of chemical conversion of poisoning matters in ejector are improved and level of inspection of parameters of operation is increased.
EFFECT: improved ecological cleanness; improved safety of detoxication process.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of treatment of halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products of a fume gas clearing process.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to a method of treatment of halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products of a process of clearing of a fume gas. The solid or semisolid wastes are comminuted. Then they are exposed to the first stage of extraction by preparation of a water suspension having pH at least equal to 10. The solid and liquid materials separate from each other. The process is conducted one or more times. The produced halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products dry. The solution produced at the stage of separation regenerate and treat with acid composition to obtain pH between 7 and 10, preferably between 9.25 and 9.75. The method allows to transform the halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products into one or more useful products, for example, a road salt free of heavy metals. The method is simple and cost-saving.
EFFECT: the method allows to transform the halogen-containing solid or semisolid waste products into useful products and the process is simple and cost-saving.
26 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex, 7 tbl
FIELD: methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of treatment of fluocarbon raw. The method of treatment of fluocarbon raw provides for heating by means of high frequency induction of a heating zone of a reaction chamber up to the temperature of no more than 950°C, heating in the heating zone of fluocarbon raw, which contains at least one fluocarbon compound, so, that the fluocarbon compound dissociates with production of at least one predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds; and refrigerating of the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds, in the result of which from the predecessor of fluocarbon or its reactive kinds forms at least one more desirable fluocarbon compound. The technical result is conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.
EFFECT: the invention ensures conversion of the fluocarbon raw into the useful products by the low-cost reliable non-polluting environment universal and easily controlled method.
12 cl, 10 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex