Device for dispersing droplets or bubbles in liquid in micro-channels and method for operation thereof
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for dispersing droplets or bubbles in micro-channels and can be used in processes of dispersing gas in a liquid, one liquid in the other (emulsion), with accompanying reaction, heat- and mass-exchange processes, for example, for conducting heat-exchange, extraction, gas-liquid reactions, reactions in liquid-liquid systems, absorption in chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and other industries. In the device for dispersing droplets or bubbles in a liquid in micro-channels, the housing consists of a chamber and a micro-channel. The chamber is located at the point of feeding the medium into the device and has the shape of an oblong ellipsoid, which gradually narrows from the middle section to the ends of the chamber. One of the ends of the chamber is connected to a pipe for feeding a continuous liquid medium. The other end of the chamber is connected to the micro-channel, in which the main process occurs. The pipe for feeding the dispersion liquid or gaseous medium is the form of an extended thin-wall pipe, installed coaxially relative to the pipe for feeding the continuous liquid medium and the chamber. According to the method of using the device, the end of the extended thin-wall pipe is installed between the plane of maximum cross-section of the chamber and the plane of connection of the micro-channel to the chamber.
EFFECT: group of inventions, which enables to maintain stable hydrodynamic conditions of the process, achieving the given mixing intensity, which in turn provides high coefficients of heat and mass transfer, wider range of flow rate of the continuous and dispersion phases, which improves versatility of the device and allows use thereof for processes with different parameters.
3 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: reactor includes an external housing with a reactor reaction products removal device and at least with one device for supply of raw material or components of raw material to a catalyst sleeve arranged inside the reactor with a gap with the external housing, filled with a catalyst and including devices for removal of products from its lower part. The catalyst sleeve is provided with a jacket adjacent at least to some part of the cylindrical wall of the catalyst sleeve, which in the adjoining area of the jacket has through openings; the reactor is provided with a device for supply to the jacket of a cooling agent cooling down the catalyst sleeve and supplied to the catalyst sleeve through the openings in its cylindrical wall.
EFFECT: reduction of wall temperature of a catalyst sleeve; reduction of metal corrosion of the catalyst sleeve.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: reactor contains input branch pipe, evaporator of liquid initial reaction mixture, device, creating vortex gas flow, porous distribution membrane, monolithic multi-channel unit, additional porous membrane and output branch pipe. Multi-channel unit is made of material with high heat conductivity, is disc-shaped and has channels, directed perpendicular to disc plane, length of which is considerably smaller than disc diameter.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of input flow by channels, reduction of gradient of temperatures along flow direction, reduction of hydrodynamic resistance in case of immobile layer of catalyst and possibility of fast replacement of catalyst.
13 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transportation, distribution.
SUBSTANCE: invention presents a device of fluid medium flow distribution for connection with a pipeline or a gas duct for fluid medium with the purpose to improve distribution of polyphase mixture flowing downwards and including one gas phase and one liquid phase above a single layer of catalyst of granulated solid catalytic material. The fluid medium distribution device for production of liquid and gas phases has one or more holes in the upper and/or lower part, along which the gas phase may arrive, and a gas duct leading to a mixing chamber inside the device. The fluid medium distribution device comprises one or several side holes for liquid. A side hole or holes make it possible for liquid to arrive to a liquid pipeline, which enters the internal mixing chamber. The mixing chamber provides for tight contact between liquid and gas phases.
EFFECT: flow distribution device provides for improved resistance to plate off-levelling.
13 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method involves passing of one or more fluid media from a tray set above to a chamber, the chamber includes one or more side walls fitted by a hole and the above set tray is fitted by a drain, the method also implies creation of a channel leading out of the chamber and connecting the respective drain with the respective hole to increase time and area of contact inside the channel and the chamber.
EFFECT: efficient mixing of different phases.
10 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: annular space by the partitions is sectioned into odd number of paths so that all paths, except for the last one, are located on periphery of pipe lattice, and the last - at the centre, and the diameter of this path by the size coincides with the diameter of the reactionary zone, and the pipe ends are arranged uniformly along the cross section of this zone.
EFFECT: reactor has improved overall performance and decreased metal consumption.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system for treatment and/or decomposition of organic halide fluids comprises a dual reactor unit having a first reactor within a first heat sink vessel, a second reactor within a second heat sink vessel and a third heat sink balance vessel. The first reactor and the second reactor are hydraulically connected such that a product of a reaction that occurs in one reactor is fed into the other reactor. The dual reactor unit has a first heat sink vessel having a first reactor, a second heat sink vessel having a second reactor, a third heat sink balance vessel and a circulator. The first heat sink vessel is hydraulically connected to the second heat sink vessel, the third heat sink balance vessel and the circulator.
EFFECT: invention provides efficient treatment of fluids and reduces environmental pollution.
20 cl, 2 dwg, 6 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of machine-building and can be applied in the petrochemical production in creation of apparatuses for carrying out the process of light alkane dehydrogenation. A membrane reactor consists of a cylindrical casing, two covers and a membrane-catalytic module, placed between two gas-distributing grids. The membrane-catalytic module contains several sections for carrying out the dehydrogenation process. Each section contains a reaction chamber and a chamber for hydrogen collection, which are separated by a hydrogen-permeable membrane. A principle of the reactor operation consists in simultaneous parallel carrying out the dehydrogenation process in several reaction chambers with continuous discharge of hydrogen through the membrane from the reaction zone.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase an area of the specific surface of a membrane per unit of a catalyst volume and in this way to increase conversion of the raw material into the target products due to increase of hydrogen discharge from the reaction zone and shift of the dehydrogenation reaction balance towards the product formation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of sulfur from hydrogen sulphide bearing gases and to removing hydrogen sulphide from gases and can be used in oil processing and chemical industry. Proposed device comprises vertical cylindrical catalytic reactor, several catalyst units consisting of heat exchangers with heat carrier pathways filled with granulated catalyst, gaseous stock feed and gaseous product discharge pipes. Additionally, proposed device comprises hydrogen sulphide bearing gas steam heater, sulfur vapor condensation section and thermal siphon to withdraw reaction heat from catalyst units.
EFFECT: lower material and power input, selective oxidation.
SUBSTANCE: invention deals with method and device for ammonia synthesis from synthesis-gas, which contains nitrogen and hydrogen. Device with, at least, one reactor (1), includes first non-cooled unit of catalyst layers (2), at least, one heat exchanging device (3), at least, two cooled units of catalyst layers (3, 41, 42), and each of units (4, 41, 42) is provided with aggregate of cooling pipes (5), and circulation line (6), at least, with one supplying device (61) and, at least, one discharge device (62). Line (6), starting from supplying device (61), passes successively down on flow of aggregate of cooling pipes (5), first non-cooled unit (2), heat exchanging device (3) and, at least, two cooled units (4, 41, 42) up to discharge device (62). Aggregate of cooling pipes (5) from each of cooled units (4, 41, 42) on discharge side of cooling pipes in each case are connected with assembled discharge device (10). Line (6) has, at least, in each case one bypass line (7) for each cooled unit (4, 41, 42), which in each case is placed between supplying device (61) and assembled discharge device (10) of aggregate of cooling pipes (5) from each cooled unit (4, 41, 42). Invention also represents synthesis of ammonia from synthesis-gas with application of claimed device.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to effectively apply possibilities of catalyst with obtaining high discharge concentration of ammonia.
19 cl, 7 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is meant for the chemical industry. The method of producing chlorine involves catalytic gas-phase oxidation of hydrogen chloride 1 with oxygen 2 on at least two stacked layers of catalyst I, II, III in adiabatic conditions. The mixture of gaseous reaction products 4, 6, 8 is passed through at least one heat exchanger IV, V, VI. Temperature in the catalyst layers ranges from 150°C to 800°C and temperature of the gas mixture 3 at the inlet of the first catalyst layer I or in each of the catalyst layers I, II, III ranges from 150°C to 400°C. Catalytic oxidation is carried out at pressure of 1-30 bar, with 2-12 catalyst layers. Molar ratio of oxygen to hydrogen chloride is equal to (0.25-10):1. Catalyst layers I, II, III are thermally isolated. Reactors 31-33 for producing chlorine are connected into a system by lines 3, 5, 7 for feeding starting compounds and lines 4, 6, 8 for removing reaction products.
EFFECT: simple design of the reactor and control by maintaining heating conditions in the reactor, eliminating adverse effect on stability and service life of the catalyst.
18 cl, 4 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry, catalytic processes.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a reactor for catalytic processes and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and may be used for catalytic processes. The reactor contains: a body; units of input and output for a reaction mixture and products of reactions; units of loading and unloading of a catalyst; a catalyst layer with the groups of the parallel hollow gas-permeable chambers located on it in height in one or several horizontal planes and each of the chambers has a perforated gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt connected to the group collector and used for input of additional amount of the reaction mixture. Each of perforated gas-permeable chambers is supplied with the second gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt. At that the impenetrable butts of the pipes are located on the opposite sides. The given engineering solution provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.
EFFECT: the invention provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: initiating ammonia conversion reaction.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is performed on reticular platinoid catalyst by passing the ammonia-containing gas mixture and oxygen-containing gas through it; local sections of catalyst surfaces are periodically heated to reaction initiating temperature by means of linear electric heating elements located directly on catalyst surface. Equivalent diameters of local sections of catalyst surface are selected between 1-5 of magnitude of external equivalent diameter of separate electric heating element; linear electric heating elements are connected to electric power source at duty factor from 20 to 1 s. Used as material for reticular platinoid catalyst are the following alloys: Pt-81, Pd-15, Rh-3.5 and Ru-0.5 mass-%; Pt-92,5, Pd -4.0 and Rh -3.5 mass-%; Pt-95 and Rh-5 mass-%; Pt-92.5 and Rh-7.5 mass-%. Initiating the ammonia conversion reaction by this method is performed in reactors for production of nitric and hydrocyanic acids and hydroxylamine sulfate.
EFFECT: reduction of time required for reaction over entire surface of catalyst; reduction of explosion danger.
2 cl, 10 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; a method of modernization of a completely detectable reactor.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of modernization of a completely detectable reactor. The method provides for modernization of an in-situ reactor of a heterogeneous exothermic synthesis having an external body with several located in it one over another and at some space from each other layers of a catalyst, at realization of which on the initial stage in the upper part of the body form at least the first layer of the catalyst filled in with the first catalyst having the activity picked beforehand; also form several layers of the catalyst located in the lower part of the body in parallel to each other. The layers located in the lower part of the body are filled in with the second catalyst, activity of which exceeds the activity of the first catalyst with which at least the first layer is filled in. The method of an exothermic heterogeneous synthesis with high yield is realized by feeding of the gaseous reagents in the reactor of a synthesis, which has a body with several catalyst layers resting on it, which are placed one over another at some space from each other and in which a reaction of interaction between the gaseous reagents runs. A reaction mixture also is fed at least from the first layer of the catalyst located in the upper part of the body into several layers of the catalyst located in parallel to each other in the lower part of the body. Let the reaction mixture run through the catalyst layers located in the lower part of the body and filled in with the catalyst the reaction activity of which exceeds activity of the catalyst, with which at least the first layer of the catalyst is filled in and the products of the reaction of the synthesis are taken out from the reactor catalyst layers located in the lower part of the body. The technical result is an increased conversion yield and productivity of the reactor at low operational costs and a low power consumption.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased conversion yield and productivity of the reactor at low operational costs and a lower power consumption.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering, transport, chemical mechanical engineering, and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for recombining hydrogen and oxygen in gas medium meant to ensure hydrogen safety includes bringing of gas mixture in contact with heated catalyst body disposed along heat-conducting channel to ensure heat transfer between them. Temperature of heat-conducting channel hot end at point of its contact with catalyst body is maintained between 150 and 350 °C and temperature of its cold end at point of its contact with catalyst body is maintained below that of hot end. Gas mixture is passed through catalyst body from cold end of heat-conducting channel to its hot end. Hydrogen-and-oxygen recombiner has case with inlet and outlet sections, as well as heat-conducting channel disposed in-between and catalyst body placed on the path of gas mixture flow along heat-conducting channel. The latter is equipped on conducting end with cooling device and on outlet end, with heater. Hydrogen concentration working range is extended to 0.5 - 25% of gas mixture.
EFFECT: enlarged hydrogen concentration range, enhanced operating reliability under different operating conditions.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; equipment for synthesis of hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to chemical industry, in particular, to the horizontal reactor for synthesis of hydrocarbons according to Fisher-Tropsh method. The offered reactor consists of the single-type design coaxial horizontal reactive sections. Each section is mounted on a wheeled trolley with adjustable supports and incorporates a casing, a fixed in it through adapters catalytic box with a built-in heat exchanger, through which the heat transfer medium is compulsorily pumped over. The catalytic box is made in the form of a package assembly of the same type catalytic modules is sectional with usage of the fastening strainers and tightening gaskets. The catalytic module is assembled with usage of welding from longitudinal or transversal in respect to the longitudinal axis sections, the square-type flat soldered on corrugations or ribs double walled panels with the general depth of 5-15 mm, at the thickness of walls of 1 - 2 mm, at the height of corrugations or ribs of 3-9 mm at their depth of 0.3-2.0 mm with the shanks welded to them. The catalytic area is formed due to selection of the depth of the shanks greater, than the depth of the panels, owing to what at their assembly in compliance with shanks by means of welding between the panels are left the vertical slits of 5...20 mm width where fragments-granules of the catalytic agent are placed. The given engineering solution ensures conditions close to isothermal requirements of the synthesis through the whole volume of the reaction zone, ease of assembly and maintenance of the reactor in all climatic zones, and also in provision of its reliability, transportability and repairability.
EFFECT: the invention ensures conditions close to isothermal requirements of the synthesis through the whole volume of the reaction zone, ease of assembly and maintenance of the reactor in all climatic zones, its reliability, transportability and repairability.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: chemical engineering; production of reactors for catalytic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical engineering, predominantly to reactors of catalytic synthesis. The horizontal multi-shelved catalytic reactor consists of a load-bearing plate, a high-pressure cylindrical body with a cover, which may be transported along the axis of the catalytic unit. The reactor has the typical component and the design of components of the catalytic unit, which consists of the sealed cylindrical catalytic containers, the load-bearing support frame and the module-type heat-exchange devices. The load-bearing support frame represents a crosswise section beam cantileverly fixed on the load-bearing support plate. The vertical plane of symmetry of the frame coincides with the longitudinal axis of the high-pressure body, and on the shelves there are catalytic containers installed in two parallel rows. The frame is cantileverly fixed to the load-bearing plate, through which all inlets and outlets are carried out. The plate is upright mounted on the horizontal foundation and the high-pressure body is joined with it. In the module heat-exchange devices there are tracts for passage of the reactionary gases and the heat-transfer medium. The invention ensures improved conditions of the reactor operation, reduction of its overall dimensions and the mass, simplification of the process of manufacture.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved conditions of the reactor operation, reduction of its overall dimensions and the mass, simplification of the process of manufacture.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; methods and installations for treatment of the discharge gases in the processes of desulphurization.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the method and the installation intended for treatment of the discharge gases in the processes of desulphurization. The method provides for: production in the technological section of the discharge gas having the concentration of sulfur dioxide at least of 1.5 %; communication of the hydrogenation reactor through by the fluid medium with the technological section; provision of the hydrogenation reactor with the mixed feeding gas containing at least a part of the discharge gas and at least a part of the spent gas depleted by hydrogen sulfide; integration at least of a part the spent gas depleted by hydrogen sulfide from the contactor with the discharge gas from the technological section for formation of the mixed feeding gas having the concentration of the sulfur dioxide of no more than 2.5 %. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the output of the hydrogen sulfide and-or the sulfur dioxide.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the output of the hydrogen sulfide and-or the sulfur dioxide.
23 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for hydrocarbons processing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, to the devices used for hydrocarbons processing, in particular, to the reactor containing the vertically elongated reaction chamber, having, at least, one reaction layer and the reactor internal device. At that the reactor internal device contains the essentially horizontal lower supporting grating and, at least, one distributor made in the form of the distribution plate and the means for distribution of the cooling liquid medium. The distribution device is arranged above and at a distance from the lower supporting grating and is connected with it by means of the vertical elongated supports. The lower supporting grating rests on the upper surface of the reaction layer. Besides, the invention is pertaining to the usage of such reactor in the method of the hydrocarbons processing. The technical result of the invention is arrangement of the reactor internal device at the desirable vertical level of the reaction chamber.
EFFECT: the invention ensures arrangement of the reactor internal device at the desirable vertical level of the reaction chamber.
12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; devices for production of the synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the radial type device for realization of oxidation of the gaseous hydrocarbon fuels with the help of the catalytic agent and may be used for production of the synthesis gas. The radial type device for production synthesis gas contains the gas-distribution perforated tube 3 and the catalytic agent 4. The catalytic agent is made in the form of the annular heat-conducting dispensing catalytic plates and the heat-conducting separators with the grooves alternating among themselves with formation of channels for the gaseous streams running and connected among themselves. On the both sides of the separator 6 there are grooves 7 made in the form of the evolvent from the center to the periphery. The annular plates of the catalytic agent are mounted perpendicularly to the axis of the shafts of the gas-distribution perforated tube 3. Inside of the gas-distribution perforated tube 3 there is the starting system, which consists of the mixer 1 with the ignition plug 2 or the electric heating component. The invention presents the compact and effective device.
EFFECT: the invention presents the compact and effective radial type device used for realization of oxidation of the gaseous hydrocarbon fuels with the help of the catalytic agent and for production of the synthesis gas.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns reactor with fluidized bed of fine catalyst, which reactor contains upright cylindrical body, sectioning grids with their free area increasing along the height of reactor, connecting pipes for supplying feedstock and evacuating contact gas, and receiving and withdrawing recycled catalyst, and cyclones with dust-removing risers. More specifically, upper grid has free area larger than 60 and lesser than 90% of the body section, ends of connecting pipes receiving recycled catalyst and ends of dust-removing risers are disposed above upper grid and below fluidized bed.
EFFECT: increased output of reactor, improved performance of dehydrogenation (increased yield of olefins and reduced consumption of catalyst), and improved environmental condition.