SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrochemistry, particularly, to power plants with electrochemical generators (ECG). Electrochemical generator includes a battery of fuel elements and its cooling system with liquid heat carrier circulation circuit, including a cooling heat exchanger, installed at output of said system, and electric pump. Electric pump is installed at its inlet and is electrically connected with battery of fuel cells. Liquid heat carrier circulation circuit additionally includes a gas turbine with electric generator, as well as gas-liquid ejector and connected to its output gas-liquid separator, installed at inlet of cooling heat exchanger. Fluid chamber of separator is connected to input of said heat exchanger, and gas chamber of separator - to input of gas turbine, output of which is connected to gas input of ejector.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of ECG, especially if its power is significant.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to submarine containing device for electric energy generation. Device for electric energy generation includes fuel element, oxygen gas feeding facilities, hydrocarbon fuel feeding facilities and exhaust gas extraction facilities. The device has following features: fuel element is internal reforming element working at high temperature and high pressure (P), where working pressure is higher than or equal to submarine submersion pressure (P0); oxygen gas feeding facilities and hydrocarbon fuel feeding facilities are capable to deliver oxygen gas and hydrocarbon fuel at pressure corresponding to working pressure; and exhaust gas extraction facilities are capable to feed exhaust gases out from submerged submarine.
EFFECT: increased compactness while optimising coefficient of efficiency.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to gas-generator for fuel conversion to oxygen-depleted gas and/or to hydrogen-enriched gas, which may be used in any process which requires oxygen-depleted gas and/or hydrogen-enriched gas. Preferably it is used for generation of protective gas or reducing gas for start-up, shutdown or emergency shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). According to the invention, proposed is a method of fuel conversion to oxygen-depleted gas and/or to hydrogen-enriched gas, which provides for catalytically assisted combustion of fuel in the first catalytic burner, fume incineration in the second catalytic burner, and reduction of quantity of oxygen and carbon monoxide.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing operability of solid oxide fuel cells and providing safety of their operation.
13 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sources of energy, in particular, to air-aluminium fuel batteries. The technical result of the invention is an increased specific capacity of a fuel battery due to reduction of its dimensions. The specified technical result is achieved by the fact that electrodes are made in the form of an elastically joined set of plates, forming a flat compression spring, which, being released by a triggering mechanism, compresses and disturbs tightness of an elastic reservoir with electrolyte, which, while leaking from the reservoir, fills an electrode-to-electrode space, at the same time the elastic reservoir with electrolyte is pierced by pins installed inside it, which in the process of activation enter the holes made in the electrodes, and the pins are made in the form of perforated tubes.
EFFECT: method to activate a fuel battery makes it possible to increase the specific capacity of a fuel battery as a result of reduction of its dimensions due to the fact that before activation of the battery an elastic reservoir with electrolyte occupies the working volume of the battery, which is free from electrodes by means of their compression.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises autothermal fuel processing subsystem with carbon oxide neutralisation, power generation subsystem with thermal stabilisation circuit and a battery of fuel cells, air supply subsystem, water supply subsystem with a tank for regenerated water, exhaust gas neutralisation subsystem and launch processing system. Units of reagents mixing, heating and reforming in fuel processor are made as separate independent units; thermal stabilisation circuit is isolated from water regeneration system; air humidifier is inserted into output air flow and launch processing system is equipped with additional fuel and air feed channels to exhaust gas disposal system switchable by three-way valves. The plant is equipped with automatic control system.
EFFECT: improvement in efficiency of fuel consumption rate and reliability of the power supply plant due to independence of its subsystems and minimisation of cross-linkage between units, which is the technical result of this invention.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to solid oxide fuel cells made using a method comprising the following steps: depositing a fuel electrode layer; an electrolyte layer containing stabilised zirconium on the fuel electrode layer to obtain a system consisting of a fuel electrode base and an electrolyte; sintering the system of the fuel electrode base and the electrolyte with each other to obtain a half cell; depositing, on the electrolyte layer of a pre-sintered half-cell, one or more oxygen electrode layers, wherein at least one of the layers contains a composite of lanthanum-strontium-manganite and stabilised zirconium to obtain a full solid oxide cell; sintering the one or more oxygen electrode layers with the pre-sintered half-cell; and saturating the one or more oxygen electrode layers of the full solid oxide cell with manganese to obtain a manganese-saturated fuel cell. Also disclosed is a battery containing one or more solid oxide cells made using the disclosed method.
EFFECT: longer life of said fuel cell.
13 cl, 7 dwg, 20 ex
SUBSTANCE: regenerative electrochemical power supply system of a manned space vehicle with water-closed work cycle includes a water electrolyser and an oxygen-hydrogen generator interconnected hydraulically through a water collection tank and interconnected pneumatically with hydrogen and oxygen storage cylinders, the latter of which is connected to the space vehicle life support system by an air-pressure line with a gate, a metal-hydrogen accumulator having a union for hydrogen through which it is connected to the hydrogen storage cylinder by an air-pressure line with a gate. The operating method of the above system includes a closed cycle of water decomposition by current into hydrogen and oxygen, stoichiometric compounding of these gases with production of electricity and water and off-take of oxygen from this cycle, excess of hydrogen is used as a reagent in the metal-hydrogen accumulator which is charged preliminary with removal of hydrogen formed in it during charging.
EFFECT: maintenance of energy intensity, disposal of excess hydrogen, increase of the system safety.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a fuel element using a gaseous reagent, a reagent storage system and a system of its supply to the fuel element, which includes a reagent circulation system comprising a group of jet devices, cross section controls, shutoff valves; with that, the group of jet devices includes at least two jet devices with different flow sections and flow characteristics, which are connected parallel so that they have a common pressure header, a common receiving chamber and a common outlet header. Before the pressure header there installed is an electromagnetic shutoff valve, a standby electromagnetic shutoff valve and a cross section control, which are connected by means of cables to an electric controller. Besides, if required, before nozzles of the jet devices there can be installed cross section controls that are connected by means of cables to the electric controller.
EFFECT: control of flow characteristics of a reagent circulation system is provided depending on the reagent amount required for operation of the fuel element.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fuel cell comprises: a polymer membrane, a hydrogen gas-diffusion collector, a air gas-diffusion collector, a polymer frame, a bipolar plate, a hydrogen current collector, a corrugated air current collector and an adhesive-carrying film. The fuel cell battery comprises multiple fuel cells, sealing rings and end plates tied by fastening elements.
EFFECT: weight of the fuel cell battery is reduced 2,5-fold compared to a prototype of the same power and emf owing to lighter weight of the fuel cells; the fuel cell battery is repairable.
7 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: aerodrome power module operating on fuel elements includes a generator on fuel elements, an inverter, an automatic control, monitoring and protection unit, N units of sensors of fuel elements, and a commutator.
EFFECT: possible supply of energy to consumers at failure of one or more fuel elements in the generator, and optimisation of operation of fuel elements; reduction of fuel consumption of fuel elements, increase in operating life of fuel elements, and improvement of the power plant efficiency.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: electrochemical generator based on hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells contains a heat discharge circuit with a temperature sensor and a pump (the pimp output connected to the irradiator input), a battery of fuel cells with pipelines for delivery of hydrogen and oxygen, with electricity output buses and a water discharge valve), the electrochemical generator control system, a hydrogen bleeding circuit including a blower, a hydrogen input and a hydrogen-water mixture output from the fuel cells battery, a temperature sensor. Additionally proposed is a method for water and heat removal from the fuel cells battery reaction zone.
EFFECT: reduction of energy expenditures due to supply of hydrogen into the fuel cells battery heat to the water vapour condensation temperature; increase of the electrochemical generator reliability and service life due to the assemblies continuously operating under conditions without sharp temperature gradients, ensuring continuous removal of current-generating reaction end products.
FIELD: electrical engineering; fuel-cell systems using direct methanol supply.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel-cell system has base 14 built as integral body mounting at least one electrode-membrane assembly 16. Base has internal supply channel 32 incorporating mixing chamber and communicating with electrode-membrane assembly of fuel cell for feeding fuel-containing fluid medium 34 to electrode-membrane assembly. Outlet channel 38 incorporating water entrapping and recirculation system 56 is also provided in base and communicates with electrode-membrane assembly. This electrode-membrane assembly communicating with supply and outlet channels organizes integral fuel-cell assembly.
EFFECT: provision for miniaturizing fuel-cell system incorporating microchannels and cavities and for developing its manufacturing technique.
12 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; fuel cells and their operation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel cell 10 has plurality of single cells 30 as well as current collector plates 12, 12 provided on two ends of fuel cell 10, end plates 16, 16 installed, respectively, outside of those of current collector 12, 12 with insulating plates 14, 14 inserted between them, and also fastenings 18 for attaching end plates 16, 16 so as to apply desired compressive force to cell 10. Bar code 41 corresponding to specific information related to single cell 30 is applied to open side surface of separator 38 of single cell 30. In this way bar code 41 of this fuel cell 10 can be easily read out without disassembling cell 10. Moreover, information about fuel cell found from bar code 41 is more comprehensive compared with that obtained from analyses of its appearance which facilitates its maintenance in operation.
EFFECT: facilitated maintenance of fuel cell.
12 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: thermal engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fuel is supplied to fuel cell that has anode, cathode, and ion-exchange membrane over anode path. Fuel path has recirculating pipeline for gas return to mixing point whereto fuel is supplied at regulated flowrate and for its mixing. Any remaining amount of oxidant is burned in fuel path thereby affording combustion process monitoring and preventing damage to membrane-electrode assembly of fuel cell. Small amount of oxidant can be purposefully introduced in fuel path for producing water vapor and heat so as to obtained desired parameters of fuel supplied to anode in advance. Such presetting of desired parameters aids in controlling membrane hydration and membrane-electrode assembly temperature.
EFFECT: optimized characteristics of fuel cell.
25 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: service and rechargeable fuel bottles for fuel cells and relevant connecting valves.
SUBSTANCE: proposed shutoff or connecting valve 10 is inserted between fuel supply 16 and fuel cell 18. Valve has first component 12 and second component 14. Each valve component 12 and 14 has external body 20 and offset sliding member 22 disposed inside body 20 to form internal packing. In the course of connection two valve components 12 and 14 form component-to-component packing. Sliding member 20 in one of acceptable design alternates moves inward and opens inner packing in valve component 12, 14 to organize flow paths. Dimensions of at least one valve component in other design alternates are chosen to limit access to inner packing.
EFFECT: ability of fuel storage for various fuel cells and for fuel feed from fuel supply to fuel cell.
62 cl, 31 dwg
FIELD: fuel element systems.
SUBSTANCE: fuel and air, supplied into the unit of a fuel element, are heated by means of hydrogen usage; at that hydrogen is generated on anode as a result of reaction; therefore no additional energy is required for heating fuel and air, and besides hydrogen generated on the anode can be utilized as an additional fuel in the fuel element unit.
EFFECT: increase of energy efficiency of a fuel element and decrease of exhaust danger of hydrogen, generated in a fuel element unit.
13 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to fuel elements system and particularly to the unit for fuel element system operation control and method of control. According to the invention, the unit includes control unit for energy output control to generate user model of heat consumption and power consumption and to display control signal of generated energy output to control energy output generated by fuel element by means of choosing user model of heat consumption or power consumption based on efficiency factor priority with regard to generated user model of heat consumption or power consumption. Command generation unit is also included. It generates commands of energy output in compliance with energy output control signal generated from energy output control unit to fuel element.
EFFECT: improvement of fuel element system efficiency factor.
20 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel element system, and particularly to fuel element system suitable for air and hydrogen supply with proper temperature in cell box. Fuel element system includes cell box for electricity production by means of electric and chemical reaction between hydrogen and air, fuel unit to supply hydrogen to cell box, air supply unit to provide air to cell box and module. Module is provided with pipeline for exhaust gas to discharge gas from fuel supply unit, fuel supply pipeline for hydrogen from fuel supply unit to cell box and air supply pipeline to provide air from air supply unit to cell unit. In addition, exhaust air pipeline, fuel supply pipeline and air supply pipeline are installed in sequence and arranged as a whole system based on module principle.
EFFECT: improvement of thermal efficiency factor of fuel element system; reduced volume of fuel element system; increased large-scale output.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to a fuel element and a fuel-cell battery with a polymer electrolytic membrane, using hydrogen as fuel and oxygen (in pure form or from the air) as an oxidising agent. According to the invention, in the fuel element there is an electrolytic membrane, electrodes, gas-diffusion collectors joined to a single construction - integrated membrane-electrode assembly with a frame made from polymer material. The membrane is sealed and the gas-diffusion collectors are strongly fixed to the frame. The membrane is protected from mechanical damages by the gas-diffusion collectors. Through putting an intermediate non-metallic netting in the current net collectors (between nets), allowing for formation of film flow, there is provision for conditions of removal of the water of reaction. A bipolar cooling fin, made in the form of a thin plate heat exchanger, provides for supplying reagents to the gas chambers of the fuel element and their outlet through several small channels in the frame of the bipolar cooling fin and openings in the side walls of the cooling fin, uniformly distributed on the width of the gas chambers. The channels at the input of the reagents are throttled. Sealing of component parts of the fuel element and the fuel elements in the battery is done using a glue bearing film, serving as an adhesive, without use of an elastomer lining and special glue.
EFFECT: simplification of the structure and better manufacturability of the fuel element; improved electrical characteristics and long-term performance of the battery; lowering of small-scale characteristics.
11 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: electricity, heating.
SUBSTANCE: according to invention by-product in fuel-element aggregate in the form of water and water steam is supplied to water coolant loop and from there - to thermal energy storage tank from where it can be returned to fuel-cell battery as direct delivery to diaphragm-electrode blocks in order to use them for preheating of fuel/oxidant or for direct input into diaphragm-electrode block. Thermal energy storage tank is intended for separation of electrical and thermal loads of fuel-cell battery in integrated thermoelectric plant. At low external electrical loads the fuel-cell battery and cooling loop can be used for high-efficiency production of hot water.
EFFECT: water cleanness in cooling loop.
19 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: information technologies; heating.
SUBSTANCE: home network system using a fuel cell, consists of the variety of home electrical appliances for reception of remote control data, analysis of the received remote control data, and, accordingly, executions of each control operation; and a communications server for reception of remote control data from the outside through the Internet, and transmissions of the received remote control data to numerous home electrical appliances.
EFFECT: increased usage convenience of home system due to installation of network connection point for connection with an external network in fuel cell system.
16 cl, 7 dwg