Method of formation of quays using ash waste pulp
SUBSTANCE: method for formation of quays using ash waste pulp includes preliminary formation of a ditch with the width greater than the width of geotube laying, while in areas with formed ditch the waterproofing material with the width greater than the width of the ditch is continuously laid, the first row of geotubes is filled with ash waste supplied in the form of liquid mixture, in the second row a part of geotubes are filled with a filtrate flowing down the formed slope sections of the ditch, and the other part of geotubes is filled with ash waste. Period of alternation of geotubes with filtrate and of geotubes with ash wastes depends on the amount of filtrate required to fill the geotubes without stopping the leachate pumping process.
EFFECT: formation of quays using slag waste and ash waste leachate with a possibility of denser packing of the materials used at the maximum extraction of fine particles of ash waste.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods for prevention of soil and groundwater pollution, in particular to the creation of concrete blankets on the landfills and storage of industrial, household and mainly liquid wastes. Subgrade 1 is prepared and protective layer 2 is arranged in it. Protective layer 2 is previously placed between two layers of geotextile 3 and 4. Mixture of sodium and calcium bentonitic clay 5 is used as the protective layer 2 in ratio of 75% Na-bentonite and 25% Ca-bentonite. Layer of mineral soil 6 with surface treated with fixing agent 7 is laid on top of the protective layer 2. Polymer liquid emulsion from wastes of polyisobutylene is used as a fixing agent at t=34-40°C.
EFFECT: high operational reliability, durability, as well as stability of coating on the slopes and in case of subsidences of the base are provided.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to hydraulic engineering, namely to the means for strengthening the surfaces of various objects of natural or synthetic origin, including the banks and beds of watercourses, surfaces of dams and dikes, as well as underwater lines of pipelines, bridge supports. Besides, the device may find application also in the field of construction. Unit of movable joint for web forming of concrete mats comprises the connecting element and fastenings. Fastenings are embedded into the concrete units of mats. According to the first option of the device, the units are asymmetric in plan and are designed with bevels, forming the cavity in the web. According to the second option of the device, the units are designed with recesses outside the plane of maximum size of the unit in plan, forming the cavity in the web. According to the third option of the device, the units are designed with bevels or recesses in its corner portion, forming the cavity in the web. Connecting element is disposed in the cavity indicated in options of the device, and is connected with fastenings with possibility of unit displacement.
EFFECT: protection of mat fastening against the mechanical damages and manufacturability of creation of movable joint of concrete mats are increased.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. For predicting the destruction of riverbanks, including the determining of adverse sites of the surveyed territories and ranking the sites, the coastal zone of the river is preliminary examined and the coastal areas with the square S equal to 1 m2 are selected. Then, on each of the selected sites the site square, covered with vegetation, is determined, they are summed and the square1 is obtained, m2. Then the rate of total projective covering soil with vegetation is calculated as the ratio S1:S,%, on the same sites the benchmarks are set at a distance of 2, 4, 6 meters from the shore horizon and the readings on the ground level on the benchmark are taken as the reference point of the condition monitoring of sites of riverbank. Then the wash height h, cm, is monthly measured at each benchmark, relative to the reference point, and then the average total index of wash height hav in three benchmarks is calculated, then a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the processes of soil losses from coastal areas of the river bank is performed, and on its basis the relationship is set between the value of the total index hav and the total projective cover, and then the degree of degradation of sites is evaluated, they are ranked to undisturbed and disturbed. Prediction of destruction of sites of the riverbank is made on the basis of the complex use of total index of wash height hav and total projective cover.
EFFECT: invention provides increase in reliability of prediction of destruction of river banks.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coast-protecting structures. The method to protect river coasts at foothills consists in the fact that at first they horizontally lay reinforced concrete beams 4, to the ends of which at the side of the river they fix tetrahedrons 5, the skeleton of which is represented only by structure ribs. After that, gabions 1 are laid, besides, stone laid into gabion boxes protrudes from net cells by 3-4 cm. The gabion structure is protected from abrasive at high speeds of the flow and increased concentration of abrasive.
EFFECT: increased reliability of coast-protecting structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a protective system, in particular to the protective system intended for preservation and restoration of the shoreline. The protective system (1) comprises a gabion having opposite side walls (13, 15) interconnected at regular intervals along the length of the gabion by several separating walls (7, 9), and the gaps between neighbouring pairs of partition walls (7, 9) bound together with the side walls at least one separate compartment (7) of the gabion. At least one separate compartment of the gabion is bounded by respective opposite side walls or opposite parts of the side walls in the respective opposite side walls. The partition walls are hingedly connected to the side walls, and the separate compartment of the gabion extends from it outwardly with at least partial converging of panels of the open frame (21), forming in whole or in part the protruding compartment (5) of the gabion. The method of preservation or restoration the shoreline comprises the following steps, including creation of the above-mentioned protective system; at least partial filling at least one compartment with the filling material, preferably sand, stones and/or vegetation; at least partial filling the protruding compartment with oyster shells, and performing at least partial facing the shoreline with the protective system.
EFFECT: protective system is used for changing the direction of the wave energy, especially sea wave energy, to preserve the shoreline, as well as for restoration the shoreline.
36 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a landslide protection structure on the basis of a collapsed slope there is a bed of flexible mats, which are made of tight rows of light fascines laid normally to the line of slope inclination. On top of flexible mats there is a fixture of gabion mats with drainage devices made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid by alternating rows and wrapped into a gabion net. Flexible mats in the base and gabion mats on top of them are connected to each other by a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. A drainage prism from rock filling is arranged along the foot of the collapsed slope. Above the slope fixture from flexible and gabion mats there is an additional fixture with low inclination from similar gabion mats with drainage devices. Gabion mats of slope and additional fixtures are tightly tied with the help of reinforcement wire and are fixed to reinforced concrete anchors arranged at a certain distance from each other in stable soil behind collapsed massif of the slope.
EFFECT: reliable protection of different objects located under slopes, where landslides and collapses of soil massifs are possible.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used when creating the impervious protection of water entities, canals and reservoirs of industrial wastes made on subsiding soils. Ground base is prepared. Bentomate mattress is laid. Revetment from concrete or reinforced concrete slabs is performed. In this case, strip of bentomate mattress is placed on mattress under the joints of concrete slabs. Width of additional strip of bentomate mattress depends on geological and subsiding soil properties.
EFFECT: high production manufacturability and simplification of works on creation of impervious coating is provided.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes orientation of a flexible concrete mat (FCM) in respect to a bottom surface by its one or another side depending on type of soil. The method to install the FCM according to the first version includes orientation of FCM to the bottom surface with the side having higher penetration power as water flow in a water course exceeds the value of non-washing speed for this section of the water course and/or if characteristics of bottom surface soil are sufficient for FCM self-submersion into soil under gravity. Otherwise the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with the side having the lower penetration power. The method of FCM installation according to the second version in case, if the bottom surface is formed mainly by rock, half-rock or clayey soils includes FCM orientation to the bottom surface with a side, on which blocks have bases of flat shape and larger area in plan compared to the opposite side. If the bottom surface is formed mainly by sandy or macrofragmental soils, then orientation of FCM to the bottom surface is carried out with a side, on which blocks have bases of smaller area in plan or are made without bases. If the bottom surface of the water course mainly contains sludges, sapropels, peated soils or peats, then the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with its any side. The flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks, connected to each other row by row and in rows with at least one connection element. Surfaces in these blocks at the upper and lower side of the FCM are made mainly narrowing in direction from the central part of the blocks. The bases of the blocks have flat shape at one or both sides of the FCM. Ratios of average values of the base area, height of blocks and angles of inclination of the side surface of blocks must correspond to the laws given in the patent claim. The coefficient of asymmetry between FCM sides exceeds or its equal to 1.05.
EFFECT: higher reliability of FCM adhesion to protected bottom surfaces of any type.
17 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The anti-landslide system comprises a stepped arrangement of gabions and heavy fascines at the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first stage made of three rows of heavy fascines 4, there is a pile grid 13. The pile grid 13 is made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line, and a metal lathing 15. The lathing 15 is arranged on top of piles at the height of the first step. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that create sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into a collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the retaining walls. On top of the last step the gabion mat 6 of the site is arranged further than the line of possible massif collapse, to its stable soils.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-slide structure.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses. The method includes laying of gabions onto the collapsed slope. At first on the base of the collapsed slope they arrange a preparation from flexible mats 2, made from tight rows of light fascines, laid normally to the line of the slope inclination. Then on top of the flexible mats 2 they arrange a fixture from gabion mats 3 with drainage devices, made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. Flexible mats 2 in the base and gabion mats 3 on top of them are connected to each other with a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. Along the foot of the collapsed slope they arrange a drainage prism 6 from drop-fill rock. Reliable protection is provided for different facilities located under slopes, where there are landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method may be most effectively used, when the height of the possible collapse of the soil massif does not exceed 10-12 m.
EFFECT: protection of coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the shore facilities, ensuring the use of wave energy with its subsequent conversion, for example into electric energy. Ramp wave energy storage unit comprises a storage pool that has fences against the wave forming water area. Part of the fence from the wave forming water area is designed in the form of optimal height of water storage barrier, which has the upper edge integrated with ramp, bevelled to the pool. The ramp is submerged into the wave forming water area by the bottom part and has horizontally placed channels from the front side with respect to the water area, providing the opportunity to take water from waves in case of wave setup on the ramp. Horizontally disposed channels have tubular outlets, through which water flows into the storage pool. Ramp wave energy storage unit provides the water flow into the storage pool not only in stormy weather, but also at moderate wave setups and back drafts at coasts of seas, lakes and other wave forming water areas.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to ensure protection of onshore facilities and at the same time to accumulate the wave energy.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for the performance of works in hydraulic engineering construction and can be used for erection of bridge pile foundations, platforms, transhipping complexes and berthing facilities in water areas. A technological complex for the erection of a hydraulic engineering work (HEW) comprises a working platform 1, a set of tools for its erection. The HEW includes the pile piers 2 with a grillage 3 mounted on them, made of slabs. The service platform 1 is designed in the form of a longitudinal horizontal building slipway, equipped with equipment and assembly elements for the installation of HEW. The set of tools for the erection of the HEW includes a lifting device, a device for mounting the pile supports of the HEW foundation with the section buildup of the HEW grillage openings and a module of final assembly works. The lifting device is designed as a crane for heavy loads 5. The device for mounting the pile supports includes an aligning frame 6, aligned by the crane 5 to the horizon on a design axis by length and width of the span, with an external conductor 7 mounted on it. One end of the aligning frame 6 is installed on a transverse metal girder 8 of the HEW span already mounted, and the second external end is installed on two pairs of support columns 9 and 10 provided with hydraulic actuators. The first pair of the support columns 9 is installed on the ground of bottom vertically, and the columns of the second pair 10 are installed at an angle of 15-20° to the vertical columns 9. The conductor 7 is provided with apertures 11 designed in the form of sleeves to arrange the pile piers 2 in the design position by means of the crane 5 with subsequent their immersion with precast shell to the desired depth into the ground of the bottom and by fixing with retainers disposed in the apertures of the conductor 7. At the upper ends of the pile piers 2 there is a transverse metal girder 8, mounted by the crane 5 and fixed by a weld joint. Metal orthotropic plates 4 are installed and fixed by weld joints on the transverse girders 8 of the HEW sections already mounted and remounted. At the ends of the transverse metal girder 8 of the HEW span already mounted, a pair of temporary support jacks for supporting the additional support pairs of columns 13 and fixed by a weld joint, is provided. The additional support pairs of columns 13 are designed integrally with the conductor frame 6 and arranged in pairs on its bottom side along the longitudinal beams 12 with a step in accordance with formula: l = L / (n + 1), where l - distance between the pairs of additional support columns, L - length of the conductor frame, n - number of pairs of additional support columns.
EFFECT: expansion of arsenal of hardware and trouble-free operation when changing the length of spans, reduction of construction terms and reduction of the work complexity.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of coast protection against tsunami. The method to protect the coast against tsunami consists in the fact that sea surface in front of the protected coast is coated with a film having the property of meniscal buoyancy. A hydrophobic anti-wetted coating is applied onto the surface of the film with the edge wetting angle of more than 120°. The device of coast protection against tsunami comprises a film having a property of meniscal buoyancy, which by sections is rolled into a roll on a spool. One short side of the film is fixed to the spool fixed on the fixed axis installed on supports, strongly attached to the bottom of the sea, and the other short side of the film is fixed to a hollow rod having buoyancy.
EFFECT: group of inventions provides for protection of a sea coast against tsunami waves.
13 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device includes one or more wave absorbing bodies (1, 1a), installed under water in a relatively shallow section of a coastal zone. Side surfaces of wave absorbing cylindrical bodies are partially distant in longitudinal direction and form inlet side surfaces (2) of a C-shaped section. Inlet side surfaces (2) face in the direction of wave propagation and are inclined relative to it. Wave absorbing body (1, 1a) is made in the form of a longer wave absorbing body or a shorter wave absorbing body. The longer wave absorbing body (1) is provided with rectangular unloading openings (4) at the corresponding intervals. Shorter wave absorbing bodies (1a) are located in a straight line with gap (5), and their adjacent open ends face to each other in close proximity.
EFFECT: effective wave absorption and accretion of sand beaches.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises stands, a base of stands, a body, a control unit, a combustion chamber, a discharge chamber, two exhaust pipes, two shock absorption stops with curves in the front, a mobile plate with two ledges. Stands are rigidly connected to the specified units, the base of the stands and the surface of the bottom. The body is rigidly connected to the combustion chamber. The hydraulic outlet of the control unit is connected with the hydraulic inlet of the combustion chamber. Two cone-shaped refractory stops with shock-absorption stops inside are arranged in the end of the combustion chamber and behind the movable plate with two ledges. Ledges of the plate have a place inside appropriate stops. The discharge chamber is arranged in front of the combustion chamber and has inside a mobile plate with two ledges. The discharge chamber is rigidly connected to the combustion chamber, two exhaust pipes, two shock absorption stops arranged at the end of the chamber. The discharge chamber is located below the water surface and at the angle to it.
EFFECT: increased value of shaped waves.
SUBSTANCE: invention is aimed for use in provision of ecological safety of public and territories in emergencies of natural and anthropogenic nature, as an engineering barrier, and also as a composite part of engineering equipment during construction and operation of oil terminals, oil storage tanks, during arrangement of landfills for temporary and permanent storage of solid wastes and other potentially dangerous objects. A prefabricated flexible barrier is proposed, comprising collapsible multi-section gabion modules of necessary length, rigidly connected to each other with the help of locks mounted into any configuration, tightness of which is provided by soft aprons on end sections of modules, on top the gabion modules are trimmed with fabric or polymer coating, and as a filler between the adjacent gabion modules they use natural sorbent - glauconite or its mixture with another suitable natural sorbent, the structure is installed on the previously filled layer of sorbent and along the external perimeter is lined with absorbing mats. The structure is additionally equipped with mounted diagnostic and measurement equipment, the suitable natural sorbent is schungite, bentonite, clay, zeolyte, perlite, vermiculite or their mixture.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs and time for installation of a barrier, reduced material intensity, exclusion of filtration of oil, oil products, poisonous and toxic substances via a barrier.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: pier is a linear gravitational hydraulic structure located on the coast of the Arctic seas, mainly in lower reaches of navigable rivers. The pier is designed in the form of an ice platform 1 of a rectangular section, placed on the sea bottom. The pier is equipped with wind-capture electric power plants 10 of a tower type located on the shore, liquid cooling and air cooling systems in the form of pass channels 2. The pier is additionally equipped with a thermo-fluid insulating screen 7, placed on the platform surface 1, and a solid floor covering 8 in the form of flat elements of a rectangular shape in plan, arranged at an angle of 45°C to the longitudinal axis of the platform. The platform 1 is designed with slopes at side edges, located at the level of calved ice. The liquid cooling system is designed of interconnected atmospheric cold storage batteries 3, 4 of cooling pipelines 5, 6 and consumers of a coolant 9. The cooling pipelines are arranged along the slopes and under the thermo-fluid insulating screen 7.
EFFECT: increased strength, stability, reliability and durability of the ice structure.
SUBSTANCE: in a bay formed by two parallel dams there are two stands 2, 4 installed. A base 6 of stands 2, 4 is rigidly connected to the bottom 7 and to the stands 2, 4. Stands 2, 4 are rigidly connected to a rod 5 placed inside the bushing 3. The bushing 3 is rigidly connected to a unit from two blades 1 arranged on a single plane.
EFFECT: efficient protection against impact of waves under storm conditions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and is designed to protect coastal line, as well as objects of port and transport infrastructure from damage. The damper of sea waves comprises a receiving plate 1, a protective grid 2, a hopper 3, a pipeline 4, a nozzle 5 and a guiding plate 6. The receiving plate 1 is made as capable of lifting wind waves up. The wind wave rolls into the receiving plate 1, rises up and having lost its speed, via the grid 2 arrives to the hopper 3. Along the pipeline 4 via the nozzle 5 under pressure the water moves towards a new wave weakening its energy. The plate 6 serves to direct return water from the plate 1 at the required angle to a new rolling-in wave and protects the base of the device from erosion.
EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation under conditions of impact of wind waves.
SUBSTANCE: method for protection against wave action of a single hydraulic structure consists in the fact that arriving waves of the hydraulic structure are separated on both sides around the structure by creating horizontal near-surface streams diverging to both sides across the direction of waves, which are formed by a flat symmetrical floating-up gas-liquid flow that is created in water environment under arriving waves. Symmetry plane is located in a diametrical plane of the structure and perpendicular to wave movement. Flow rate of gas, mainly air is chosen so that horizontal velocity of near-surface streams of a gas-liquid flow is at least 0.2 of velocity of arriving waves. A zone where a gas-liquid flow is formed is located in the above symmetry plane at the distance before the hydraulic structure of not closer than (0.3-0.5) of the width and not farther than (1.5-2.0) of the length of the hydraulic structure. Length means the structure size along diametrical plane in the wave direction, and width means the size along the wave front. Gas-liquid flow is created at the depth of not less than 0.6 of amplitude of an arriving wave by supplying the air under pressure to water environment so that bubbles are formed. A device for the method's implementation includes a discharge device on both sides around the hydraulic structure of arriving waves based on the use of a gaseous substance, mainly air. The above device is made in the form of a deaerator of water environment with bubble air inclusions, which consists of perforated tube 1 located along the diametrical plane of the structure along the movement direction of arriving waves and increased air pressure source 3 connected to it via main line 2. Length of tube 1 is (1-1.5) of length of the hydraulic structure, and location of the tube end that is the closest to the above structure is (0.3-0.5) of width of the structure. The tube is located so that it is submerged under water to the depth equal to at least 0.6 of an amplitude of an arriving wave starting from still water surface.
EFFECT: providing effective protection of a single hydraulic structure against power action of waves arriving at it.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: static, dynamic or vibration sensing is carried out preliminary at the selected points to the depth from 1 m with respect to the top of the earth fill. At the same time the samples of compacted soil of undisturbed structure are selected in order to determine the moisture and density of skeleton of the specified soil from several drilled wells at points at a distance of not more than 1 metre in plan from sensing points. Laboratory researches of standard compaction with definition of compacting factor depending on the density of soil skeleton, are carried out on the selected samples of soils from the body of compacted fill. Construction of correlation dependence is performed between the specified values of compaction factor and values of the resistance to penetration of standard cone into the soil during sensing, taking into account determinations previously performed in the laboratory followed by evaluation of compaction quality of the earth fill.
EFFECT: improving the accuracy of definition and identifying the areas of non-compacted soil for its subsequent local postcompaction.