Method of shot production from cast iron by processing steel chip
SUBSTANCE: steel chip is mixed with graphite, the mixture is placed in the holes of the die and heated in the oven upto the temperature of 1150-1200°C, providing carburization of steel to convert it into the cast iron, melting the cast iron, and then perform its cooling in water to obtain the shot.
EFFECT: it is provided the processing of steel chips to produce the shot with the structure of white cast iron.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of martensite steel production. To improve mechanical properties and to reduce their scattering in steel containing other metals ensuring its hardening upon allocation of intermetallic joints and carbides, as well as Al from 0.4% to 3%; this steel is subjected to heat treatment including steel heating above its austenisation temperature, steel cooling to about ambient temperature, steel location in the cryogenic environment at temperature T1, at that temperature T1 is lower than temperature Mf of the martensite transformation, and steel holding in the cryogenic environment for time period at least equal to non-zero time t1 of holding until the hottest part of steel achieves temperature below temperature Mf of the martensite transformation, at that temperature T1 (in °C) and holding time t1 (in hours) are determined by equation T1= ƒ (t1), at that first derivative of function ƒ' (t), is positive, and second derivative of function ƒ” (t) is negative.
EFFECT: improved mechanical properties and reduced values scattering in steel.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy. Steel plate is manufactured containing the following in wt %: 0.6 ≤ C ≤ 0.9, 17 ≤ Mn ≤ 22, 0.2 ≤ Al ≤ 0.9%, 0.2 ≤ Si ≤ 1.1, provided 0.85 ≤ Al+Si ≤ 1.9, 1.2 ≤ Cu≤ 1.9, S ≤ 0.030, P ≤ 0.080, N ≤ 0.1, if necessary: Nb ≤ 0.25, preferably 0.070-0.25, V ≤ 0.5, preferably 0.050-0.5, Ti ≤ 0.5, preferably 0.040-0.5, Ni ≤ 2, traces ≤ Cr ≤ 2, preferable ≤ 1, B ≤ 0.010, preferably 0.0005-0.010, iron and inevitable admixture - rest, its casting in form of the slab, slab heating to 1100-1300°C, slab hot rolling with temperature of rolling end at least 890°C, quick cooling of hot rolled plate with rate at least 40°C/s with holding between end of rolling and start of cooling performed such that points specified by the mentioned holding and temperature of rolling end will be inside the area determined by ABCD'E'F'A diagram, preferably ABCDEFA, see Fig. 1, at that during holding time the plate is naturally cooled in air, plate is coiled at temperature below or equal to 580°C. Roll of the hot rolled plate is uncoiled, and at least one cycle of cold rolling is performed with annealing to produce the cold rolled plate. Hot rolled or cold rolled plate is used in automotive industry.
EFFECT: assurance of high mechanical properties, well plastic deformation and high corrosion resistance.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy, particularly to oil-field schedule pipes. To ensure low anisotropy of yield strength of the pipe upon various stresses application to it depending on the application the austenite alloy pipe is produced with tension yield strength YSLT at least 689.1 MPa. Tension yield strength during tension YSLT and compression yield strength YSLC in pipe axial direction, tension yield strength YSCT in pipe peripheral direction, and compression yield strength YSCC in pipe peripheral direction comply with equations (1)-(4): 0.90≤YSLC/YSLT≤1.11 (1), 0.90≤YSCC/YSCT≤1.11 (2), 0.90≤YSCC/YSLT≤1.11 (3), 0.90≤YSCT/YSLT≤1.11 (4).
EFFECT: assurance of low anisotropy of pipe yield strength.
9 cl, 10 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a manufacturing method of items from light austenitic structural steel with variable material properties in the item wall thickness direction with the following composition, wt %: C 0.2 to ≤1.0, Al 0.05 to<15.0, Si 0.05 to ≤6.0, Mn 9.0 to<30.0, iron and inevitable impurities are the rest with addition, when necessary, of Cr≤6.5, Cu≤4.0, Ti+Zr≤0.7, Nb+V≤0.5, B≤0.1.
EFFECT: item is subject to decarburising annealing in an oxidising atmosphere, which provides for formation of a ferrite or metastable austenitic structure in near-surface areas of the specified thickness of the layer and properties.
18 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of tubes and may be used in production of tubes for nuclear power stations and electric power production. Proposed method of production of metal articles from alloyed steels, for example, stainless and alloys, comprises steel smelting and hot forming. Heat treatment is performed at 450 to 950°C with subsequent cooling in water or air. Heat treatment and cold forming are performed at 750 to 950°C with subsequent cooling in water or air.
EFFECT: improved mechanism properties, in particular, increase in ductility point at 350°C.
3 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy. To up the fatigue resistance, ingot ESR step is implemented followed by cooling. Before ESR ingot shell temperature falls beyond steel martensitic transformation temperature MS said ingot is placed in the furnace with initial temperature T0 higher than that of perlite conversion at steel cooling Ar1. Ingot is subjected to annealing treatment in said furnace for at least during hold interval t after which the temperature of the ingot coldest point reaches blending temperature T Note here that said time t equals at least 1 hour while blending temperature T varies from about 900°C to steel burn-out temperature.
EFFECT: higher fatigue strength.
8 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: normalising is carried out at 900-920°C as well as pendulum annealing of three to five cycles. Threes include accelerated heating to 600-620°C, curing for 2-3 min and subsequent cooling in to 150-200°C, normalising at 1040-1060°C, curing at 600-620°C with air cooling, tempering from 950-1050°C in oil, drawback at 290-310°C with air cooling.
EFFECT: ruled out chemical and structural homogeneity, stable properties.
1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises plastic straining by rolling. Note here steel billet is subjected to homogenising annealing at 1273-1373 K for 30 minutes and cooled down in water. Rolling is performed in two steps: first step is carried out at 673-973 K to true straining of 0.5-1 with subsequent annealing at 673-873 K and holding time of 1-2 hours accompanied bi cooling in air. Second step is executed ay 673-773 K to true straining over 2 with subsequent cooling in air.
EFFECT: higher strength of steel at relative low straining temperature with preservation of homogeneous austenite structure.
1 tbl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of actuators, transducers and dampers. Proposed method comprises homogenising annealing of Fe-Ni-Co-Al-Ti ferromagnetic alloy monocrystals including the following components, in wt %: Fe - 42.8, Ni - 30.7, Co - 18.4, Al - 5.8, Ti - 2.3 in atmosphere of inert gas He at 1250°C 10 hours, heating and holding at 1280°C for 1 h with subsequent quenching in water of room temperature and ageing in atmosphere of inert gas He at 600-700°C for 1-7 hours with subsequent cooling in water.
EFFECT: shape memory effect and superelasticity.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: billet of alloy "Х65НВФТ" is quenched by heating to 1270±10°C, held thereat for 20 minutes cooled in oil.
EFFECT: higher heat resistance, coarse-grain single-phase structure.
1 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in machine building and automotive industry for productions of casts of high-strength cast iron with spherical and vermicular shape of graphite. Proposed process comprises draining the iron melt from furnace into ladle, measurement of melt temperature therein, filling the first mould with iron melt simultaneously with graphitising modification. Modification degree is defined by the width of semi-chilled iron zone at the fracture of wedge sample. Note here that in case said sample complies with standard for particular casting, said iron melt is further poured from ladle to moulds with feed of preset modifying agent weight to the jet with allowance for interruption of its feed before filling of riser and pouring cup of every mould. In case semi-chilled iron zone does not comply with said standard, the first mould is isolated and disposed. Then, iron temperature in ladle is measured again and in case semi-chilled iron zone does not comply with said standard, melt is drained from ladle to be refilled from the furnace. Consumption of said modifying agent is corrected to fill the next mould and to define the modification degree another time.
EFFECT: decreased consumption of graphitising modifying agent.
SUBSTANCE: addition alloy contains the following components, wt %: copper 45.0-65.0, tin 5.5-15.0, silicon 15.0-20.0, calcium 0.5-3.0, aluminium 0.1-1.0, barium 0.5-2.0, rare earth metals 1.0-3.0, iron - the rest.
EFFECT: invention allows for refining of grey cast iron from non-metal inclusions and harmful impurities, high homogeneity of addition alloy composition.
2 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises smelting of iron initial melt in the furnace, injecting carboniser and discharge of metal melt. Note here that iron initial melt is smelt in arc induction furnaces. Besides, gas cupola furnaces with fore hearth are used to overheat said melt at the temperature higher than that of liquidus by 10-400°C as well as carbonizer with nano-structured graphite particles sized to 0.00001…0.01 mcm in amount of 0.0001 - 0.01% for formation of preset concentration of graphite phase formation centers.
EFFECT: iron-carbon alloy with high mechanical properties and carbonisation, no pyro-effects, better environmental conditions of ironmaking.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cast-iron melting in melting unit, or charging of liquid cast-iron to melting unit, heating of cast-iron to 1460-1560°C. To the melt heel there supplied are granules of carbonic acid diamide (carbamide) in quantity of 0.1-0.5% of the melt weight at simultaneous melt mixing. Diadime decomposition products are dissolved in cast-iron melt. As original cast-iron for such processing in melting unit there can be used liquid cupola iron the carbon content in which is usually 2.9-3.3 wt %. In addition, carbonisation of cast-iron melt supplied to the melting unit from cupola furnace is performed prior to processing. Melt is carbonided till carbon content in cast-iron is 3.4-4.2 wt %.
EFFECT: higher hardness, ultimate strength, impact strength and relative wear resistance of cast-iron.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in treatment of iron with initialiser corresponding to ferrosilicon alloy containing effective amount of barium sufficient for inactivation of oxygen activity of liquid iron, in processing liquid iron with magnesium containing spheroidiser at certain time upon preceding stage, in treatment of liquid iron with modifier facilitating eutectic formation of graphite inclusions and in iron casting. Ferrosilicon alloy has the following composition, wt %: 40-55 Si, 5-15 Ba, also the rest basically corresponds to iron with not necessary inconsiderable amounts, not more, than 10 % in sum, Al, Ca, Mn and/or Zr and unavoidable impurities.
EFFECT: processing base iron with changing content of oxygen; also, mechanical properties of parts, cast out of processed iron do not depend on initial contents of oxygen in base iron.
9 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for production of abrasion-proof parts, e.g. ball mill grinding ball, wear-resistant lining, detachable parts of oil-and-gas production equipment. White iron of the following chemical composition is fused in the furnace, in the following ration of components, in wt %: carbon- 3.4-4; silicon 1.0-1.2; manganese - 0.3-0.8; chromium - 0.8-1.0; nickel - 0.05-0.15; copper - 0.8-1.5; vanadium - 0.05-0.10; brimstone - 0.01-0.20; phosphorus -0.10-0.20, iron making the rest. Cast iron is poured into teeming ladle wherein cast iron is modified by boron-containing and cerium-containing rich alloys, magnesium in amount of 0.03-0.06 % and carbon nano-modifying agent in amount of 0.001-0.002% of melt weight. Produced castings are subjected to bainite hardening at the rate of 2°C/s to 45°C/s to 250°C to 350°C with subsequent cooling in air.
EFFECT: higher wear and resistance and impact strength, reduced costs, simplified process.
4 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in charging fuel and materials into cupola and in supplying blast heated to 450-550 °C. As fuel there is used mixture out of 40 % of birch wood and 60 % of hard coal with height of charge 4.0-4.5 m into fuel furnace charge.
EFFECT: stability of melting and reduced cost of melting process.
SUBSTANCE: modifying agent contains the following, wt %: silicone 50.0-60.0; calcium 1.5-2.5; strontium 0.2-0.3; rare-earth metals 1.5-2.5; and iron is the rest.
EFFECT: reducing the consumption of modifying agent, increasing strength of alloy processed with modifying agent.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to metallurgy and is designed for desulphurisation and modifying iron-carbon melt for production of items out of grey cast iron and also for iron with graphite of ball and vermicular shapes. According to the first version of the invention powder wire consists of a metal shell and filler in form of powders mixture of metallic magnesium and additive, corresponding to ferro-silicate-calcium, at the following ratio of elements in the filler, wt %: magnesium 20-55, calcium 12-25, silicon 28-50, iron - the rest. According to the second version mixture of ferro-silicate-calcium with ferro-silicate-magnesium and/or magnesium silicide is used as an additive at the following ratio of elements in the filler, wt %: magnesium 15-40, calcium 8-17, silicon 42-64, iron - the rest.
EFFECT: upgraded degree of efficiency of elements in composition of powder wire filler.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: carburiser contains, wt %: silicon carbide 5-20, heat-treated coke is the rest. High and stable recovery rate of carbon by liquid metal is achieved owing to heat evolution from interaction of silicon carbide and high free surface energy of dispersed components of proposed carburiser. Carburiser corresponds to carbon-bearing materials, manufactured at high temperatures.
EFFECT: extra low content of nitrogen.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dosing, loading of work and washing portions of the charge materials, their distribution on the throat using the bell-less top, charge melting and production of melting products. As the washing portion of the charge materials a mixture of agglomerate, pellets, pieces of iron ore and converter slag with SiO2 content 2.4-4.4 of SiO2 content in work iron ore portion, MnO content is 0.3-2.0 of MnO content in work iron ore portion, and basicity (CaO/SiO2) is 0.12-0.5 of basicity of charge materials in the work iron ore portion is loaded. Prior to loading weight of the washing portion of the charge materials is determined based on weight ratio of work iron ore portion, numerical factor considering distribution of the washing portions, maximum number of angular positions of the tray of the bell-less top to distribute the work and washing portions of the charge materials.
EFFECT: improved capacity of the blast furnace and reduced specific consumption of coke due to effective cleaning of the coke nozzle and zone of non-mobile materials in the blast furnace of the coke destruction products.
2 tbl, 1 ex