Method of reliable detecting seismic process by space systems
SUBSTANCE: synchronous time-lapse photography of the underlying surface is performed on two independent channels in the ultraviolet and near-infrared spectrum areas. The synthesized image matrix is configured from the pixel relationships of the ultraviolet image shot to the infrared image shot. The gradient field of the synthesized matrix lineaments is calculated. The average weighted sum of the lineament azimuth is calculated on the successive passing turns of the space vehicle over the observation area. The characteristics of the seismic impact are predicted.
EFFECT: increasing reliability and efficiency of detecting the seismic process.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods of the remote study of the geologic environment. Essence of the invention is as follows: IR survey of the geologic environment is performed. The spectrozonal photos are made and processed in the range of visible spectrum and far-infrared range of wavelength. The 3D model of the block-stratigraphic densities of the flow in far spectrum of IR range of wavelength is made. The obtained data are interpreted, and resultative maps are made. At that the survey is performed with step-by-step linear approximation to the highlighted area of the geologic environment. At that after the first photo making it is analyzed for the presence of the dangerous areas. If the dangerous areas are identified they are detailed to zones, and equally spaced survey of each zone with further approximation is performed. Then approximation, detailing and survey of each zone are continued until photos with maximum resolution will be obtained. Based on the 3D model interpretation of the block-stratigraphic structures of the density flow the 3D image of the geologic environment is formed with identification of the geothermal signs. Dangerous artificial areas of the studied geologic environment and position of the underground waters are estimated.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of diagnostics of the geologic environment.
32 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method is intended for solution of a task of remote detection of precursors of emergency situations on underground main pipelines. The method is implemented by acquisition and analysis of images as per reflected and proper radiations of the underlying surface of the pipeline running route. Before the beginning of the route survey, there shaped are simulators of designated precursors with storage of their coordinates in a flight navigation device of a flying carrier. Images obtained during the flight are transformed to space of solutions by means of matched filters and by using as thresholds of taking decisions of output signals of filters from images of the corresponding simulators. At the same time, correlation functions of the received images are determined to calculate the number of false decisions and as per this number and the shaped space of solutions there determined is availability on the test route of precursors of emergency situations of the corresponding type.
EFFECT: improving reliability of detection, reducing the volume of information transmitted via a communication channel.
2 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: short constant-duration radio pulses are generated for vertical probing thereby of sea surface. Reflected radio pulses are recorded to define, by their shape, the characteristics of sea surface. Note here that, additionally, generated are longer radio pulses for vertical probing thereby of sea surface. Note here that duration of additionally generated radio pulses allows simultaneous reflection from the entire area of sea surface illuminated within the limits of antenna diagram. Amplitude of longer duration reflected pulses is defined to determine the wind velocity and characteristics of sea surface with allowance for wind velocity.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination owing to separation of reflected effects.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: short radio constant-duration pulses are generated to probe sea surface and to register reflected radio pulses. Changes in inclination angles at different sections of leading front of reflected pulse are used to define the asymmetry of truncated distribution of sea surface elevation. Note here that, additionally, straight wave graphic measurements of sea surface elevation are made to plot the graph of asymmetry of distribution of sea surface elevation obtained in wave graphic measurements versus said asymmetry of truncated distribution of sea surface elevation. Obtained dependence is allowed for in calculation of complete distribution of sea surface elevation.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of sea surface elevation distribution asymmetry.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: station has syntactic buoyancy (1), inside of which there are self-contained modules (2, 3) with sensors (4). The modules (2, 3) are enclosed in pressure-resistant housings. The pressure-resistant housings are made with transparent inserts (5) which withstand external pressure. Inside each insert (5), there is an optical signal emitter and receiver (6). The arrangement of the self-contained modules can provide optical communication of the emitters and receivers of all self-contained modules.
EFFECT: high operational reliability and easy operation.
SUBSTANCE: surface of an investigated water body is continuously irradiated with a laser and mirror reflection glitters from the surface are detected. Upon detecting mirror reflection glitters, the laser radiation power is increased to a level which enables to measure the Raman spectrum from the water column. The Raman spectrum from the water column is measured and then used to determine characteristics of the environment of the water body, e.g., chemical and biological parameters and temperature.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining vertical distribution of characteristics of an investigated water environment by eliminating the effect on measurement results of surface perturbations generated by wind waves and ripples.
SUBSTANCE: method involves installation of core on an object table, illumination of its surface with directed flow of visible light band; reception of some part of light reflected from core surface and processing of the received information. Besides, the light part reflected from core surface is directed to a detector for conversion of its wave length and light intensity to a digital format with further transfer of that information to a computer to perform further operation with colour index of core material as per the pre-set complex of programmes providing storage in RGB format (red, green and blue), averaging, conversion of RGB format to HSL format (hints, intensity and brightness), buildup of variation diagrams of parameters of RGB and HSL colours and distribution bar charts of the above colours.
EFFECT: invention allows improving survey accuracy.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing geologic and seismic survey, as well as remote optical gas analysis using remote lidar. During gas analysis, a spectral image of the set of chemical components in the surface layer of the atmosphere is formed. Spatial selection of the spectral image of the area on given tracer substances is performed. The detected gas components are compared with the composition of the reference mixture of hydrocarbon components which corresponds to the geographical position of the area and the deposit. The area is mapped with spatial differentiation on the relief of the obtained spectral image of the probed area. The spectral image of the region of the authentic hydrocarbon deposit is selected on the map. A family of points with the measured concentration of heavy hydrocarbons is determined.
EFFECT: high accuracy of searching for hydrocarbons, low cost of search operations.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves oil sampling, determination of optical properties of samples in visible part of spectrum at different wave lengths under laboratory conditions, statistical processing of obtained data and correlation of field and laboratory data. Based on laboratory investigations and considering the determined relationships, residual extracted oil reserves are calculated. Statistical processing and correlation of field and laboratory data consists in calculations of root-mean-square values, dispersion and variation coefficients of light absorption factor Kla as per a mathematical formula. At complex data interpretation there has been found out dependence of variation coefficient Kla on accumulated oil production in the form of linear regression presented by mathematical formula.
EFFECT: obtaining objective data on physical and chemical properties of produced oil, and namely optical properties for calculation of residual extracted oil reserves and determination of current properties of manifolds of the developed deposit, as well as data on flooding of well products under field conditions.
SUBSTANCE: methods of creating a numerical pseudocore model involving: a) obtaining logging data from a reservoir having depth-defined intervals of the reservoir, and processing the logging data into at least one interpretable borehole image data having unidentified borehole image data; b) examining one of the interpretable borehole image data, other processed logging data or both to generate the unidentified borehole image data, processing the generated unidentified borehole image data into the interpretable borehole image data to generate warped fullbore image data; c) collecting one of a core from the reservoir, the logging data or both and generating a digital core data from one of the collected core, the logging data or both such that generated digital core data represents features or structures of one or more depth-defined interval of the reservoir; and d) processing generated digital core data, interpretable borehole image data or the logging data to generate realisations of the numerical pseudocore model.
EFFECT: creation of three-dimensional numerical cores from computed X-ray tomography data and formation micro-image logs, and performing flow modelling in these numerical cores to understand fluid-flow paths and recovery factors in the selected reservoir.
32 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes calculating a Fourier spectrum from waveforms of external earthquakes detected by two seismic stations, wherein one of the stations, which is close to the earthquake hypocentre, is called the input station and the other, which is located at the point of estimating tension in the earth environment, is called the output station; calculating the quasi-amplitude-frequency characteristic of the earth environment at the location of the output station, as well as two criteria therefrom: integral and fractional-integral; deducing an imminent earthquake from observing a sharp decrease in the values of the integral criterion and a sharp increase in the values of the fractional-integral criterion; predicting the local magnitude of the imminent earthquake from the maximum value of the fractional-integral criterion, wherein the local magnitude is predicted using a calibration curve of local magnitudes of earthquakes plotted in advance for a specific pair of stations from values of the fractional-integral criterion.
EFFECT: short-term prediction of the local magnitude of an earthquake.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: electromagnetic waves are radiated and the signals reflected from boundaries of interface of layers of the probed medium then the results of measurements are processed. The structural maps of a dome, and also temporary seismic sections of the reflected boundaries of the top part of the sedimentary cover are pre constructed, the materials of geophysical surveys of wells, core materials are studied. The lines of profiles are marked on the surface taking into account the structural maps of the dome and temporary seismic sections of the reflected boundaries of the top part of the sedimentary cover. Lines of profiles are drawn in mutually perpendicular directions through the drilled wells with passing outside the dome contour no less than by 500 m. The coordinates of extreme and critical points of lines of profiles are added into the database. The possible external disturbance are considered, the necessary corrections of coordinates of lines of profiles are added. The lines of profiles are located, the altitude and coordinate points of study are determined. Test studies are conducted in one line of profiles. The duration of record of the reflected wave of measurement of set of the electromagnetic signals registered in a reception point during the pre-set time after the radiation of electromagnetic wave as exceeding a double transit time of an electromagnetic wave to the deepest object of studies is assigned experimentally. On the basis of data on depths and supposed or in advance known values speeds of propagation of electromagnetic waves in the medium received during the analysis of geophysical surveys and core materials the fixed time during which the receiver receives the reflected signals is selected. The sampling step is selected sufficient for the detailed description of the electromagnetic reflected signal in a quantity from 10 to 20 points for the central frequency period. During field observations the radiation of electromagnetic waves from the 10 MW transmitter and reception of the reflected signal is performed consistently by three antennas at three frequencies: 50 MHz, 25 MHz and 10 MHz in the linear and logarithmic modes of record and registration with a step 4-6 m. The impulse received at the highest frequency is considered as reflecting the detailed nature of studies and high resolution, and at the lowest frequency - as the maximum depth of sounding. In the linear mode of impulse registration the reflected signal of the lower part of the section is separated and digitised. In the logarithmic mode the registration of "desensitisation" of high amplitude of a signal and amplification of low amplitude record of the top part of the section is performed. As a result of processing of field materials the temporary sections are constructed on which the wave picture displays the features of the geological structure and composition of rocks. By change of properties of dielectric permeability the boundaries of the interface of layers and the diffracting objects in the fields of electromagnetic waves pre-determined by an axis of phase synchronism of the reflected waves are separated. For visualisation the separation of the return reflection field from the set of the obtained data using the frequency and spatial filtration is used. The summation-subtraction function for radargrams, recorded in the linear and logarithmic modes by means of which the detailed partition of the lower part of a radarogram is achieved. For lithologic- stratigraphical binding of boundaries of the reflected waves the correction of high-speed characteristics of electromagnetic impulse and materials of geophysical surveys of wells and coring data is performed. From this the regularities in nature and distribution of an electromagnetic signal are identified. The objects with weak and transitional reflecting characteristics are separated. The search indicator of the deposit boundary on the temporary section is a reduction of time of passing of the boundary of the separated oil layer and increase of the signal amplitude with respect to indications out of the deposit. The maps of time electromagnetic impulse reflections are constructed, on the basis of which the stratigraphical surfaces of the reflecting horizons of the top part of the sedimentary cover are mapped. By changes of amplitude and sign of electromagnetic signal in various mediums over a deposit, at transition and outside the deposit the maps of oil saturated depths are constructed.
EFFECT: forecasting of deposits of superviscous oils.
FIELD: physics, computer engineering.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to designing systems and methods of processing seismic data. The disclosed group of inventions includes computer-implemented methods of processing seismic data, systems for processing seismic data and computer-readable data media storing commands which, upon execution by a processor, carry out steps in any one of the methods. Methods and means of preprocessing data before interpreting seismic data include converting voxel connectivity, reducing seismic reflections, suppressing voxels and determining voxel density. Voxel connectivity is used to facilitate removal of insignificant data.
EFFECT: reduced seismic response of a given reflecting horizon in a beam lobe, such as a main lobe, by reducing seismic reflections, as well as highlighting and amplifying lithologic boundaries to facilitate interpretation by a person and a computer through voxel suppression.
55 cl, 30 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes successive operations for acquiring and preparing data by a common-depth-point method, seismic logging, vertical seismic profiling, acoustic logging, gamma-ray density logging and verifying the quality of said data, and obtaining reference values of interval velocities; obtaining an initial hodograph and calculating a synthetic seismogram; performing quality control and inputting a constant time adjustment for landing on the upper reference horizon of the lithologic and stratigraphic system; recalculating the synthetic seismogram and performing quality control again; calculating and inputting an adjustment for landing on the lower reference horizon of the lithologic and stratigraphic system; recalculating the synthetic seismogram and performing quality control; transferring the point of the obtained hodograph to the nearest acoustically weak boundaries; recalculating the synthetic seismogram, followed by quality control and obtaining an apriori hodograph.
EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy of alignment of horizons of a time section and geologic marks of a well.
11 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, hydrophysics.
SUBSTANCE: method for parametric reception of hydrophysical and geophysical waves in a marine environment is characterised by that, in addition to scanning the environment with low frequency hydroacoustic signals, it also includes infra-low frequency pumping of the sea bottom along the direction of parametric antennae which radiate from the centre of the investigated water area; furthermore, a receiving hydroacoustic transducer is formed from two vertically spaced apart receivers, mounted on a mobile carrier which moves on the boundary of the investigated water area, wherein the low frequency hydroacoustic signals are generated by two vertically spaced apart forward-scattering parametric antennae, wherein during movement on the perimeter of the water body, the direction of the maximum manifestation of the measured information waves is determined; further, the receiving unit is moved in the said directions towards the location of the radiating transducers with a constant velocity minimally possible for the carrier or with given stoppage intervals, wherein the method also includes measuring and specifying the location of sources of the maximum manifestation of information waves, the length thereof and space-time characteristics thereof, and based thereon, identifying the measured waves, identification thereof as water hydrophysical or bottom geophysical, e.g., hydrocarbon or seismic ones; furthermore, upon detecting geophysical waves and selection of spectral characteristics thereof, the latter are compared with generalised reference spectra and the identity of the measured information waves to specific types of hydrocarbon accumulations is determined or are identified as earthquake precursors.
EFFECT: invention reduces the time and equipment costs on investigating a water area with search purposes for hydrocarbon deposits and enabling detection of seismic disturbances of the medium of earthquake precursors.
7 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with claimed process, several pairs of "amplifier-time selector" circuits are additionally used for received acoustic signal. Said circuits are controlled by generated control signals, their magnitude for further circuits depending upon duration of previous "amplifier-time selector" circuit power surges. Quantity of circuits is selected proceeding from preset SNR defined by analytical relationship. The latter comprises such parameters as useful signal, input noise signal, signal of noise from time selector power surges, amplifier gain factor, time selector circuit rejection factor and quantity of pairs of "amplifier-time selector" circuits.
EFFECT: higher validity of control.
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geology and can be used to predict development zones of secondary fracture-type reservoirs in a sedimentary section. The method involves detecting reflected seismic waves associated with a selected system of deposits; performing lithologic-petrophysical investigation of rock samples to determine the most probable genesis of secondary reservoirs; selecting lithotypes on which secondary fracture-type reservoirs are formed; drilling a well in anticline structures and determining the depth of occurrence of fold hinges, morphologic parameters of the structures, including maximum seam contortion, width, length, area and intensity of folding; using downhole logging results to determine secondary porosity; measuring formation pressure in test intervals; establishing a critical value of secondary porosity Kpvtcr; establishing a multidimensional correlation relationship of the secondary porosity Kpvt=f(i, gradp, J, Kpob, H), where i is the maximum seam contortion; gradp is the gradient of formation pressure; J=i/S is folding intensity; S is the surface area of the structure; Kpob is the overall porosity; H is the depth of occurrence of fold hinge; performing detailed field seismic survey on unstudied areas of the territory with a dense seismic grid through not more than 100 m; processing field seismic materials; detecting presence of anticline structures and deep faults; constructing seismic-geologic profiles along and across the detected structures; determining the depth of occurrence of vfold hinges and morphologic parameters of the structures; using the established relationship Kpob=f(H) to determine overall porosity at the depth of occurrence of the bedrock on newly detected structures; determining the predicted gradient of formation pressure; using the established multidimensional correlation relationship of secondary porosity Kpvt=f(i, gradp, J, Kpob, H) to predict the value of Kpvt; comparing Kpvt with the lower limit of Kpvtcr for the "reservoir-nonreservoir" boundary, which is then used to predict the probability of development of secondary fracture-type reservoirs, the expediency of drilling on said structures and the well drilling procedure. If Kpvt/Kpvtcr>1.2, it is expedient to drill on a profile of three dependent wells; if Kpvt/Kpvtcr=(0.7-1.2), drilling only one well in the crest of the structure is expedient.
EFFECT: high efficiency of prediction.
1 dwg, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to method and device for control and correction of time settings used in a distributed nodal seismic receiving system. So a wireless seismic data recording unit is fitted by a wireless receiver providing access to the common external time standard shared by the variety of seismic data recording units in a seismic system. The receiver is made able of replicating the local version of the external time reference point with which an analog-to-digital converter of a seismic sensor is synchronised. The receiver is made able of replicating the local version of the common external time standard to put time marks on local events of the node. The receiver can be switched into nonoperating mode with low power consumption for the time periods when the seismic data recording unit continues to record the seismic data, thus battery supplied power is preserved. The system implements the method for local clock correction basing on the intermittent access to the common external time standard. The method provides for the correction of local time at the clock with the help of a voltage controlled clock generator to consider the time errors caused by the environment conditions. Additionally the invention provides for more reliable method to correct drift of the local clock.
EFFECT: minimisation of power consumption, improved accuracy of data acquisition.
33 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for seismic exploration of hydrocarbon deposits on the water area of the arctic shelf. The mobile self-contained underwater seismic-hydroacoustic station for exploration of hydrocarbons on the water area of the arctic shelf has a hard, streamlined housing, a power plant, a motor, a gyroscope, a distance measuring device, an echo sounder, a depth sensor, a hydroacoustic beacon signal locator, buoyancy control means and an on-board computer with a program device for controlling movement of the station from one point on the sea to another, hovering, sinking to the bottom, raising from the bottom to a given depth and onto the sea surface.
EFFECT: designing a mobile underwater self-contained seismic-hydroacoustic station for exploration of hydrocarbons, capable of independently moving according to a given program to investigated points on the sea, hovering over said points, sinking to the bottom and raising from the bottom to a given depth while simultaneously reducing self-generated seismic-hydroacoustic noise.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excitation of elastic vibrations by a vibration source in a well crossing hydraulic fracturing cracks, recording at receiving points at least in one neighbouring well of resonant vibrations emitted with a hydraulic fracturing crack system at excitation in drilling fluid of elastic vibrations, and determination of parameters of the crack system as per resonant vibrations occurring in the cracks. Excitation of vibrations in the well and their recording is performed before and after hydraulic fracturing. Besides, for each fixed source-receiver pair there formed is a difference seismic record of the records received before and after hydraulic fracturing; signals emitted by the crack system are separated on the difference seismic record, and parameters of cracks are determined as per the above signals.
EFFECT: improving reliable determination of spatial orientation of a hydraulic fracturing crack system and its dimensions.
FIELD: seismic prospecting.
SUBSTANCE: method can be applied at prospecting of oil and gas pools as in sedimentary and in metamorphic and crystal rocks. Seismic waves induced by seismic standard source close to surface are registered. Wave fields are formed from expected objects of reflection, diffraction and dissipation and parameters of processing are chosen in such a manner to provide better selection of modeled objects on the error background. Received parameters are used for processing real data and selecting real objects. Shapes of objects of dissipation are presented in form of maps and sectional views.
EFFECT: increased level of valid signal.