Control system of sites breaching permafrost in arctic zone
SUBSTANCE: system includes means of remote sensing the underlying surface, placed on the high-latitude space vehicle (1), a center (10) of thematic processing, autonomous measuring devices (14) of the surface methane concentration, a central control station (17). The said means of remote sensing include a digital video camera (2) and a scanning camera (3) of the infrared range. The center (10) of thematic processing includes software and hardware of isolating the soil digression zones. The autonomous measuring devices (14) of the surface methane concentration is set in the isolated digression zones. Herewith information from the autonomous measuring devices (14) of the surface methane concentrations is sent to the central control station (17).
EFFECT: high measurement accuracy.
SUBSTANCE: method includes calculating a Fourier spectrum from waveforms of external earthquakes detected by two seismic stations, wherein one of the stations, which is close to the earthquake hypocentre, is called the input station and the other, which is located at the point of estimating tension in the earth environment, is called the output station; calculating the quasi-amplitude-frequency characteristic of the earth environment at the location of the output station, as well as two criteria therefrom: integral and fractional-integral; deducing an imminent earthquake from observing a sharp decrease in the values of the integral criterion and a sharp increase in the values of the fractional-integral criterion; predicting the local magnitude of the imminent earthquake from the maximum value of the fractional-integral criterion, wherein the local magnitude is predicted using a calibration curve of local magnitudes of earthquakes plotted in advance for a specific pair of stations from values of the fractional-integral criterion.
EFFECT: short-term prediction of the local magnitude of an earthquake.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: acoustic signal is emitted toward sea bottom. Signal of sound reradiation from water column is received. Gas flares are isolated from receive signal. Gas flare inclination is used to evaluate the stream velocity profile and direction. Density of gas flare sources on sea bottom and methane flow direction in water for every flare are calculated. Obtained data allows the determination of methane concentration in water column in the area of methane discharge.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and accuracy of evaluation.
SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting sedimentary rock samples and extracting insoluble organic matter therefrom; measuring the intensity of infrared spectral bands at 2930, 2850, 1710 and 630 cm-1 of the infrared spectrum of the insoluble organic matter. The obtained values are used to calculate standardised parameters, from which the catagenesis substage and the corresponding maturity of the sapropel organic matter are determined.
EFFECT: high reliability and level of detail of determining maturity of organic matter.
5 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: emitter and receiver of acoustic waves are placed on opposite surfaces of a porous medium sample, first radiation is carried out over at least one part of the porous medium sample by acoustic waves, and speed of longitudinal acoustic waves propagation is measured, on the basis of porosity and nature of sample saturation they select empirical interconnection between speed of the longitudinal acoustic wave and porosity for this type of the porous medium, they perform a filtration experiment to pump pollutant solution via the porous medium sample, they perform the second radiation of the same part of the sample by acoustic waves and measure speed of propagation of longitudinal acoustic waves, and using selected empirical interconnection, they determine variation of porosity in this part of the porous medium sample, based on speeds of the longitudinal acoustic wave measured before and after pumping of the pollutant.
EFFECT: provision of possibility to determine variation of porous medium properties arising as a result of pollutant impact.
18 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: geoinformational analysis of the studied territory is carried out. 2-3 samples of bottom sediments on small-inflow areas with a relatively sharp reduction of water exchange intensity are collected. The chemical composition of the collected samples is carried out and an average concentration of the substance is calculated. Regions with increased vales of the concentration are studied in more detail, carrying out more frequent sampling of the bottom sediments of rivers and other components of the environment. In the period with water runoff, close to mean long-term values, detailed specialised geological-chemical mapping of a prospective area is carried out.
EFFECT: detection of geochemical anomalies basing on the analysis of the chemical composition of the bottom sediments of rivers.
FIELD: mining operations.
SUBSTANCE: core-sample is taken from the borehole wall, and at least one part is split from the core-sample. The split parts of the core-sample are irradiated with the longitudinal acoustic waves and the speed of wave propagation in each of the split parts is measured. The empirical relationship is chosen between the speed of the longitudinal acoustic wave and the porosity for a given lithology type of the rock, and porosity is determined of each irradiated split part of the core-sample, using the measured speeds of acoustic longitudinal wave and the selected relationship between the speed of the longitudinal wave and porosity for a given lithology type of the rock. The value of change in porosity is determined by comparing the obtained values of the irradiated split parts of the core-sample and value of reference porosity, typical for this lithology type of the rock.
EFFECT: provision of opportunity to determine changes in rock properties of borehole area of bed created as a result of exposure to the pollutant.
32 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method (versions) of determining representative elements of areas and volumes in a porous medium. A representative element of area (REA) is the smallest area that can be modelled to yield consistent results, within acceptable limits of variance of the modelled property. Porosity and permeability are examples of such properties. In 3D, the corresponding term is representative element of volume (REV). A REV is the smallest volume of a porous medium that is representative of the measured parameter.
EFFECT: high accuracy of obtained data.
30 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method is proposed to direct drilling of a drill well in a target underground bed, including stages of preparation of drilling equipment, having a layout of a bottom of a drilling string, which includes a controlled subsystem of directional drilling and a directional measurement logging instrument during drilling with the possibility of circular viewing and anticipatory viewing; determination of availability of the specified type of bed feature in a target bed; and navigation of a drilling trajectory in a target bed by drilling equipment, which includes reception of measurement signals from the directional measurement instrument, production of bed parameter indices on the basis of received measurement signals in respect to a bed feature in the target bed and control of a subsystem of directional drilling for drilling in the direction determined depending on produced indices of bed parameters.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities and increased information value of tests.
23 cl, 56 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physical-chemical analysis methods and can be used in diamond analysis. Disclosed is a method of restoring temperature-time conditions for genesis of diamonds of the type IaAB or mixed type Ib-IaA, based on calculation, from local concentrations of impurity nitrogen in forms C, A and B in a crystal, measured for example by infrared microspectroscopy, of local values of an integral parameter Knt of aggregation kinetics of the n-th order of corresponding nitrogen centres. The method further includes recording the change in values of the integral aggregation parameter of corresponding nitrogen centres Δ(Knt) on crystal growth layers, for example in any region of the thin diamond plate crossing the growth layers. The temperature T and time Δt of genesis are determined using the equation Arexp(-Ea/kBT)×Δt=Δ(Knt), where: kB is Boltzmann constant, Ar and Ea denote Arrhenius constant and activation energy of the process of aggregation of C- or A-centres, corresponding to the aggregation kinetics order n.
EFFECT: high reliability of recovering the history of genesis of a diamond crystal.
5 cl, 8 tbl, 26 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geochemical prospecting and can be used to determine the erosional truncation level of ore occurrences and endogenic geochemical anomalies. The method comprises collecting samples from the surface and from wells of an endogenic envelope or potential ore formation; analysing the samples for indicator elements using a quantitative precision method; based on the analysis results, calculating pair correlation coefficients and constructing ranked series of zoning elements. The erosional truncation level is determined by comparing the pair correlation coefficients and the ranked series with a reference summary table.
EFFECT: faster and more efficient determination of erosional truncation level.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods of the remote study of the geologic environment. Essence of the invention is as follows: IR survey of the geologic environment is performed. The spectrozonal photos are made and processed in the range of visible spectrum and far-infrared range of wavelength. The 3D model of the block-stratigraphic densities of the flow in far spectrum of IR range of wavelength is made. The obtained data are interpreted, and resultative maps are made. At that the survey is performed with step-by-step linear approximation to the highlighted area of the geologic environment. At that after the first photo making it is analyzed for the presence of the dangerous areas. If the dangerous areas are identified they are detailed to zones, and equally spaced survey of each zone with further approximation is performed. Then approximation, detailing and survey of each zone are continued until photos with maximum resolution will be obtained. Based on the 3D model interpretation of the block-stratigraphic structures of the density flow the 3D image of the geologic environment is formed with identification of the geothermal signs. Dangerous artificial areas of the studied geologic environment and position of the underground waters are estimated.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of diagnostics of the geologic environment.
32 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method is intended for solution of a task of remote detection of precursors of emergency situations on underground main pipelines. The method is implemented by acquisition and analysis of images as per reflected and proper radiations of the underlying surface of the pipeline running route. Before the beginning of the route survey, there shaped are simulators of designated precursors with storage of their coordinates in a flight navigation device of a flying carrier. Images obtained during the flight are transformed to space of solutions by means of matched filters and by using as thresholds of taking decisions of output signals of filters from images of the corresponding simulators. At the same time, correlation functions of the received images are determined to calculate the number of false decisions and as per this number and the shaped space of solutions there determined is availability on the test route of precursors of emergency situations of the corresponding type.
EFFECT: improving reliability of detection, reducing the volume of information transmitted via a communication channel.
2 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: short constant-duration radio pulses are generated for vertical probing thereby of sea surface. Reflected radio pulses are recorded to define, by their shape, the characteristics of sea surface. Note here that, additionally, generated are longer radio pulses for vertical probing thereby of sea surface. Note here that duration of additionally generated radio pulses allows simultaneous reflection from the entire area of sea surface illuminated within the limits of antenna diagram. Amplitude of longer duration reflected pulses is defined to determine the wind velocity and characteristics of sea surface with allowance for wind velocity.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination owing to separation of reflected effects.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: short radio constant-duration pulses are generated to probe sea surface and to register reflected radio pulses. Changes in inclination angles at different sections of leading front of reflected pulse are used to define the asymmetry of truncated distribution of sea surface elevation. Note here that, additionally, straight wave graphic measurements of sea surface elevation are made to plot the graph of asymmetry of distribution of sea surface elevation obtained in wave graphic measurements versus said asymmetry of truncated distribution of sea surface elevation. Obtained dependence is allowed for in calculation of complete distribution of sea surface elevation.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination of sea surface elevation distribution asymmetry.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: station has syntactic buoyancy (1), inside of which there are self-contained modules (2, 3) with sensors (4). The modules (2, 3) are enclosed in pressure-resistant housings. The pressure-resistant housings are made with transparent inserts (5) which withstand external pressure. Inside each insert (5), there is an optical signal emitter and receiver (6). The arrangement of the self-contained modules can provide optical communication of the emitters and receivers of all self-contained modules.
EFFECT: high operational reliability and easy operation.
SUBSTANCE: surface of an investigated water body is continuously irradiated with a laser and mirror reflection glitters from the surface are detected. Upon detecting mirror reflection glitters, the laser radiation power is increased to a level which enables to measure the Raman spectrum from the water column. The Raman spectrum from the water column is measured and then used to determine characteristics of the environment of the water body, e.g., chemical and biological parameters and temperature.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining vertical distribution of characteristics of an investigated water environment by eliminating the effect on measurement results of surface perturbations generated by wind waves and ripples.
SUBSTANCE: method involves installation of core on an object table, illumination of its surface with directed flow of visible light band; reception of some part of light reflected from core surface and processing of the received information. Besides, the light part reflected from core surface is directed to a detector for conversion of its wave length and light intensity to a digital format with further transfer of that information to a computer to perform further operation with colour index of core material as per the pre-set complex of programmes providing storage in RGB format (red, green and blue), averaging, conversion of RGB format to HSL format (hints, intensity and brightness), buildup of variation diagrams of parameters of RGB and HSL colours and distribution bar charts of the above colours.
EFFECT: invention allows improving survey accuracy.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing geologic and seismic survey, as well as remote optical gas analysis using remote lidar. During gas analysis, a spectral image of the set of chemical components in the surface layer of the atmosphere is formed. Spatial selection of the spectral image of the area on given tracer substances is performed. The detected gas components are compared with the composition of the reference mixture of hydrocarbon components which corresponds to the geographical position of the area and the deposit. The area is mapped with spatial differentiation on the relief of the obtained spectral image of the probed area. The spectral image of the region of the authentic hydrocarbon deposit is selected on the map. A family of points with the measured concentration of heavy hydrocarbons is determined.
EFFECT: high accuracy of searching for hydrocarbons, low cost of search operations.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves oil sampling, determination of optical properties of samples in visible part of spectrum at different wave lengths under laboratory conditions, statistical processing of obtained data and correlation of field and laboratory data. Based on laboratory investigations and considering the determined relationships, residual extracted oil reserves are calculated. Statistical processing and correlation of field and laboratory data consists in calculations of root-mean-square values, dispersion and variation coefficients of light absorption factor Kla as per a mathematical formula. At complex data interpretation there has been found out dependence of variation coefficient Kla on accumulated oil production in the form of linear regression presented by mathematical formula.
EFFECT: obtaining objective data on physical and chemical properties of produced oil, and namely optical properties for calculation of residual extracted oil reserves and determination of current properties of manifolds of the developed deposit, as well as data on flooding of well products under field conditions.
SUBSTANCE: methods of creating a numerical pseudocore model involving: a) obtaining logging data from a reservoir having depth-defined intervals of the reservoir, and processing the logging data into at least one interpretable borehole image data having unidentified borehole image data; b) examining one of the interpretable borehole image data, other processed logging data or both to generate the unidentified borehole image data, processing the generated unidentified borehole image data into the interpretable borehole image data to generate warped fullbore image data; c) collecting one of a core from the reservoir, the logging data or both and generating a digital core data from one of the collected core, the logging data or both such that generated digital core data represents features or structures of one or more depth-defined interval of the reservoir; and d) processing generated digital core data, interpretable borehole image data or the logging data to generate realisations of the numerical pseudocore model.
EFFECT: creation of three-dimensional numerical cores from computed X-ray tomography data and formation micro-image logs, and performing flow modelling in these numerical cores to understand fluid-flow paths and recovery factors in the selected reservoir.
32 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining a position of mechanisms in a working face in underground mining is provided, comprising the following steps: a video camera is mounted in a roof timber area of a roof support with the viewing direction mainly in the direction of an air flow, or opposite it, the camera is oriented so that the vanishing point of the image from the camera is in the area of the right or the left upper corner of the image from the camera, illuminated markings are provided on the mechanisms along the working face in the area of the image from the camera and they are operated, as well as the positions of the mechanisms are determined by means of electronic processing of the markings located on the camera image. Also a system and a video camera for implementing the method are proposed.
EFFECT: providing the opportunity of simultaneous monitoring of the straightness of the working face, recording of a vertical and horizontal deflection of roof supports and the conveyors, controlling automatically the stroke of the roof supports, or to monitor the mining machine.
10 cl, 5 dwg