Pyrolysis reactor for producing synthesis gas
SUBSTANCE: internal reactor cavity is charged with raw material with the fraction of up to 50 mm: biofuel, solid household or agricultural waste, coal slurry - by means of the charging unit 3. The reactor comprises a screw compactor 4 and the scraper 5 for removing slag. An odd number of magnetrons 2 creating the temperature of 1000-1500°C by means of microwave radiation is mounted on the reactor housing 1 in the same horizontal plane at the equal distance from each other. Synthesis gas and slags resulting from the raw material pyrolysis are removed from the reactor through the unloading port 9, separated and purified from admixtures. The housing 1 is made three-layered: the inner layer 6 made of ceramic tiles, the intermediate layer 8 is heat-insulating, the outer layer 7 is of stainless steel with the openings for the free passage of microwave radiation from the magnetrons 2.
EFFECT: expanding the functional capabilities of the reactor.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microwave equipment, to electric heating appliances for heat treatment of products, etc. A microwave oven has a two-unit design functionally combining ellipsoidal heating chamber (1, 3) and an electronic unit, in the housing (6) of which there installed are two independent generators of magnetron type (5, 9) and a control device of an oven operating mode. Excitation of an electromagnetic field in the chamber is performed by means of two short-circuited single-wire lines, the lengths of which differ from each other by λ/4, with that, along those lines there shaped are two standing waves shifted as to phase by π/2 and partially overlapping one another in the space, by means of the total field of which the treated product is uniformly heated.
EFFECT: due to possible unification of structures of elements and assemblies of an excitation system of an electromagnetic field and implementation of distribution of microwave heating sources, the invention provides high uniformity and efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for transmitting microwave energy from a generator to a microwave oven chamber is an assembly unit consisting of a magnetron generator and a double-element stripline antenna mounted inside the microwave oven chamber and which excites a circularly polarised electromagnetic field. The energy output of the magnetron is directly electrically connected to the antenna radiator, which considerably reduces (to 4%) loss of microwave energy in the magnetron-antenna-microwave oven chamber line. The design of the double-element stripline antenna with in-phase supply, matched with the microwave oven chamber to a voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR) of about 1.5 using three short-circuit bars with diameter of 10 mm and length of 26 mm, enables to excite, inside the microwave oven chamber, a circularly polarised electromagnetic field whose energy distribution uniformity coefficient in an equivalent load is equal to 94%.
EFFECT: high efficiency of operation and uniform distribution of microwave sources.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for producing thermally expanded graphite includes a feeding device 1, a circular waveguide 6, a storage hopper 19, a device for feeding blow-down carbon dioxide gas or air, magnetron generators, a belt conveyor with lower 2 and upper 3 belts formers 4 and 5. The circular waveguide 6 is provided with gas valves 15, longitudinal slits 14, communication windows 11 with insulating quartz inserts 12, insulating quartz rings 7 and 16 and is divided into sections having horn radiators 9 and 10. A layer of oxidised graphite undergoes microwave treatment for 0.1-0.5 s with power which provides temperature of 1500-1800°C, which is then lowered to provide temperature of 500-1000°C for 3-10 s.
EFFECT: high chemical purity and specific surface area and low packed density of thermally expanded graphite.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining biologically active silicon-modified hydroxyapatite powder with application of SHF-radiation. Method includes preparation and mixing water solutions of calcium nitrate, ammonium hydrophosphate and ammonia and tetraethoxysilane solution in ethanol with further exposure to SHF-radiation, precipitation, drying at temperature 90°C for 3 hours and calcinations at 800°C for 1 hour. Additional SHF-processing is performed after mixture precipitation. SHF-heating is carried out for 25-30 minutes, with power 120 W. Ratio of component is the following, wt %: calcium nitrate - 5.5, ammonium hydrophosphate - 1.66, tetraethoxysilane - 0.27, ethanol - 0.27, ammonia - in amount , required for supporting mixture pH at the level 10-11, water - the remaining part.
EFFECT: reduction of average calculated crystallite size and dispersion, which in its turn has positive effect on powder solubility.
4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: domestic drying microwave oven includes a magnetron with an electric power supply and control system, a housing with a waveguide, a working chamber with raw material flanges, at least one of the walls of which has air passage perforation, an exhaust fan with a diffuser and an individual circuit breaker. Larger base of the diffuser is connected to the perforated wall of the working chamber, and surface area of perforated wall surface, which is enveloped with the diffuser, is 0.5-1.0 of the cross sectional area of the working chamber; according to the invention, at least two electrodes from non-magnetic metal are installed into the working chamber and attached by means of dielectric insulators to the working chamber. One electrode is a cathode, made from a metal mesh with small cells and located parallel to upper wall of the working chamber under a dissector, and the second electrode being an anode is made from a metal perforated plate and parallel to the working chamber lower wall.
EFFECT: intensifying a drying method of capillary-porous raw material of plant origin in microwave ovens due to electrokinetic phenomena occurring at superimposition of a DC electric field onto the drying object.
SUBSTANCE: device of energy input into a microwave oven is proposed, which comprises a wave guide, supplying microwave energy from a magnetron to a heating chamber, a radiator installed in the end of the wave guide and made in the form of a window in the wall of the working chamber, a radiolucent safety screen that closes the window of the radiator at the side of the working chamber, differing by the fact that the radiolucent safety screen is made in the form of M double-face wedges with parallel ribs and the angle at the top equal to; Δ=180-2×arctg√ε, where 6 - dielectric permeability of wall material, M=1,2…, installed tightly to each other, and relative to the radiator so that the electric vector of the radiator's field is perpendicular to ribs of the wedges.
EFFECT: increased efficiency factor and safety of a microwave oven by reduction of reflected electromagnetic energy from a safety screen.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a working chamber connected to a microwave generator, a loading and an unloading devices arranged diametrically oppositely on the upper and lower sides of the working chamber, a transporting device made of a radiolucent device and installed horizontally with the possibility to change the angle of inclination. The working chamber is equipped with another microwave generator and is rigidly fixed on the frame. On the frame there are units of its connection with a fixed base installed at two opposite sides in the horizontal plane. At the same time the units of connection are arranged as movable for provision of the possibility to swing a frame together with the working chamber relative to their horizontal axis. Swinging is carried out with the help of a drive system connected with the frame in its turn. At the same time the transporting device of the working chamber is arranged in the form of trays, which are rigidly fixed on the front and rear walls of the working chamber in three tiers relative to each other along the vertical axis. The upper and lower trays are installed with an inclination at the angle that is different from the angle of inclination of the middle tray relative to the horizontal axis of rotation. The width of each tray in the horizontal plane across the axis of rotation is equal to the width of the working chamber.
EFFECT: simplified design of a plant and provision of its easy maintenance with preservation of device operation reliability.
SUBSTANCE: plant for microwave heating of moving items of round cross section comprises volume resonators of a microwave generator, via each of them there is a radiolucent pipeline pulled, onto which rings of ferromagnetic material are placed, with the width that is more than the distance between rings. A water hose is wound onto the pipeline, and on top of it there is a screening pipeline placed, therefore it serves as a cooler and a screen. The radiolucent pipeline located in the first volume resonator comprises an inlet nozzle for sending the product into the pipeline. Downstream the last volume resonator there is a drum installed, which is assembled from bushings and discs and rotating with the help of a gear motor via a chain gear. A dielectric thread is hooked to a drum, and its end is connected to an item, for its pulling via the pipeline.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of boiling sausages and small sausages.
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: inventions group relates to food industry. The microwave device contains a body wherein food product slices are continuously introduced for microwave energy treatment. The said body contains a device for turning food product slices in the form of a link-belt or a rotary drum in the body; the body is motionless. The device may contain a rotary body. The method is implemented as follows. The food product slices are introduced through a microwave choke, then - into the body. One applies microwave energy during the slices presence in the body. The slices are turned and new slices of the food product are simultaneously introduced. The food product slices may be represented by potato slices for chips production. The slices may be blanched; one may add a controllable quantity of oil to them for intensification of the end organoleptic properties.
EFFECT: inventions group allows to manufacture a product with a usual texture and taste, analogous to usual fried light snack products, having a low fat content and ready for consumption.
12 cl, 7 dwg, 3 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: microwave oven comprising a body, forming a chamber for food cooking, a magnetron with a yoke, a wave guide and an antenna, is equipped with a sealing circular gasket with a dispersion ring. The sealing circular gasket is arranged as meshy and is mounted between the yoke and the antenna. The dispersion ring represents an orifice with at least one dispersion element arranged in the form of a strip located radially relative to the orifice. The dispersion ring is mounted on the sealing circular gasket so that the orifice is arranged coaxially between the sealing circular gasket and the magnetron, and each dispersion element is bent as capable of covering the sealing circular gasket at the side of the chamber. Dispersion elements are arranged pairwise and diametrically relative to each other and are arranged as selected from the following row of materials: gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminium, tin, zinc or their combinations or combinations with other metals.
EFFECT: possibility to change structure and shape of ultrahigh frequency field, which increases heating.
SUBSTANCE: method includes crushing and mixing organic components of urban and industrial rubbish with addition of peat or wooden wastes; heating charge in screw heater through wall with flue gases, supplied from thermal reactor jacket, as a result charge obtains form of paste, in which unmelted solid particles and gas bubbles are distributed; degassing of charge in degadding device with separation of primary gas, dispersion of degassed charge in extruder with formation of granules and their cooling in cooler-granulator by means of outer air; continuous supply of granulated charge by screw feeder into shelltube reactor for carrying out continuous pyrolysis process, with simultaneous supply for combustion into reactor combustion chamber burner of purified pyrolysis gas, primary gas and hot air, combustion of which results in obtaining hot flue gases, flowing about thermal reactor jacket, after which they are supplied into waste heat boiler, with column of granulated charge in pyrolysis tube of reactor slowly moving from top to bottom, being subjected to destruction, which results in formation of pyrolysis gas and semicoke, which are discharged from pyrolysis tube at the bottom into collector of pyrolysis products, from where pyrolysis gas is supplied to cooling and purification, with semicoke being removed through discharge and cooling screw, cooled by network water; cooling and purification of hot pyrolysis gas in vertical refrigerator and rotation adsorber, filled with adsorbent - granules of metallurgical slag, after which purified and cooled pyrolysis gas is supplied for combustion into combustion chamber, its excess is supplied to consumer or into gasholder, from conic tray of rotation adsorber and settling tank water, containing water-soluble admixtures and resin, is supplied for further recycling, and flue gases from screw heater are supplied to heater of network water.
EFFECT: increased reliability, economical and ecological efficiency of utilisation of organic components of urban and industrial wastes.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to disposal of, particularly, municipal waste. Waste processing process for production of synthesis-gas comprises the step of pyrolysis. This step includes processing of wastes in pyrolysis unit to get the offgas and solid coal material not suspended in said offgas. This process comprises plasma processing step consisting in plasma processing of off gas and solid coal material at plasma processing unit in the presence of oxygen and, if required, steam. Note here that said plasmas processing unit is separated from pyrolysis plant.
EFFECT: decreased amount of solid wastes and harmful materials in processed gases.
15 cl, 5 dwg, 6 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes method of processing of the condensed organic fuel by means of gasification and its further conversion to high-B.T.U. gas, providing loading of the said fuel in gas generator, gasifying agent supply to zone of solid products of fuel processing accumulation and removal. At that the gasification is performed by assurance of the successive fuel presence in the heating and drying zone, pyrolysis, combustion and cooling zones. To the gas generator additionally electroconductive inert is injected, and combustion in the dense layer is stabilized by means of two gas permeable screw feeds and simultaneous action on the electroconductive inert and combustion products by crossing magnetic and electric fields with production at the gas generator output of the syngas and further its conversion to high-B.T.U. gas. Invention also describes the gas generating unit for the said processing of the condensed organic fuel.
EFFECT: assurance through section of the gas generator of the stable, homogeneous front of combustion by the combustion products control in the high performance process of the fuel gasification with further conversion in high-BTU gas.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to disposal of solid domestic wastes, organic domestic and industrial wastes, low-grade solid fuels, in particular, peat and coal stock. Proposed method comprises grinding and separation of wastes, their decomposition at combined effects of thermal and electromagnetic fields with ingress of oxygen, production of carbon substance and hydrocarbon fraction as furnace fuel and cleaning of exit flue gases. This process and device allow the increase in yield of target products and 95-98% increase in degree of disposal.
EFFECT: production of 35-45 wt % of carbon substance and up to 10 wt % of black oil fraction.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: for collection, temporary storage and recycling, class B medical waste are collected at sites of waste production into a storage container and transported to a recycling site. The waste is collected in a storage bin and conveyed to a waste combustor. In the storage container, the waste is cooled down and exposed to ultraviolet light. After the transportation the waste is reduced in size, whereas the reduced waste is conveyed into the storage bin and combustor in air flow.
EFFECT: higher ecological compatibility and economical efficiency of the waste recycling process.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: this process comprises detailed analysis of the bed material composition, detection of valuable chemical element to be extracted in parallel, extraction of combustible shale, its dressing to valuable chemical element concentrate, preparation of the latter for combustion, conversion of valuable element into its chemical compounds by concentrate combustion in boiler fire-box for extraction of said components and recovery of valuable element. In case increased magnesium content in shale oil is revealed dressing of produced shale oil to magnesium-bearing concentrate is executed by pyrolysis with production of fuel gas and liquid hydrocarbons as commercial products. Said magnesium-bearing concentrate is fired in industrial boiler fluidized bed and magnesium oxide, a stock for recovery of magnesium. At recovery of magnesium produced are construction materials and minerals as commercial products Note here that a portion of heat power produced as hot combustible gases is directed for shale pyrolysis.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: reactor includes cylindrical shaft with fireproof lining, loading device of solid product output unit, gas duct for flue gas, conical diaphragms with shutoff funnels capable of vertical movement and equipped with rods opening and closing holes in the conical diaphragms, where conical diaphragms with shutoff funnels are perforated and mounted in the cylindrical reactor shaft in drying zone and in pyrolysis zone. Output hopper in the reactor bottom is conical and features a shutoff device for periodical output of finished product.
EFFECT: improved operation parameters due to optimized treatment scheme for organic-containing waste, including sludge waste, more regular heating at lower work temperature in the burning zone, and waste processing time control, and higher output of valuable processing products.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: unit includes a loading device, a gasification chamber with pyrolysis gas outlet holes, and afterburner, combustion chambers, gaseous processing product removal device, baffles located in the afterburner and made in the form of flat bands enveloping the gasification chamber along the screw line, which is installed in the housing with formation of a pyrolysis gas extraction zone; combustion chambers are of an ejector type, two of which are installed with an inclination to the screw line of baffles, and four other are located in the lower part of the housing tangentially with regard to the housing pocket; additionally, the unit includes a steam boiler equipped with combustion chambers of an ejector type.
EFFECT: improvement of reliable and efficient operation of the unit.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gasifier of solid domestic waste and soild fuel is made as a vertical shaft furnace inside which the following units are set sequentially from top to bottom: zones of drying, pyrolysis and combustion of solid domestic waste and solid fuel. The upper furnace part is equipped by a loading device and a branch pipe to take off product-gas, the lower part is equipped by a branch pipe to supply gasifying agent and a device to accumulate and remove solid processing products - ash. Sections being the component parts of the furnace are installed between its lower and upper parts. Thermal accumulating elements are set in the inner through cavities of the sections, one or more sections can rotate in respect to the upper and lower parts of the shaft furnace around its vertical axis. On the outer side there provided is a housing around the shaft furnace in the zone of the rotating sections, together with the casing it forms an annular closed cavity into which the gasifying agent is pumped and from which the gasifying agent is fed into the gasifier inside through annular gaps between the rotating sections and channels in the lower part of the gasifier.
EFFECT: provision for combustion uniformity.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for processing combustible carbon- and/or hydrocarbon-containing products involves sequential layered furnace-charge processing in a reactor in the presence of a catalyst. In the reactor, the furnace charge drives top down through heating zones of refinement (9), pyrolysis (8), carbonisation (7), burning (6) products to generate a solid residue unloaded from a solid residue unload zone (2) with an unload window (3) from a working chamber of the reactor in cycles paying attention to keep it sealed. The sealed working chamber (1) of the reactor comprises a supply zone of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel including pyrolysis and carbonisation (14) integrated with oxygen agent supply (4) and heating (5) zones. An oxygen agent supply channel (15) is coupled with a dosage tank (16) of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel, which are used to generate a fluid flow in the zone (14) of the reactor. An additional amount of the oxygen agent is additionally supply into the reactor as a part of the basic flow; the amount is expected to be adequate to make fine particles of waste solid fuel burn in the following after the pyrolysis (8) and carbonisation (7) zones and transform their moisture into overheated vapour.
EFFECT: inventions provide the complete recycling of fine fractions of processing products, enable producing high-calorie gas and increasing yield and quality of the finished products.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical engineering and equipment, particularly for processing solid household and industrial wastes, as well as other carbon-containing feed stocks into fuel gas by gasification and to methods for pyrolysis and downdraft gasification process. The gasification apparatus includes an elongated external reservoir, an elongated internal reservoir, said internal reservoir located inside said external reservoir to form a cavity between said internal reservoir and said external reservoir, a loading mechanism which includes an elongated housing of the loading mechanism and a feed stock feeding device for moving said feed stock along said elongated housing of the loading mechanism, a gas generator housing with an external surface and an internal surface, a combustion chamber, a gas outlet and a slag offloading mechanism.
EFFECT: invention enables to process feed stock with various morphological structures, fractional composition and high moisture content.
27 cl, 34 tbl, 3 dwg