Method for production of iron-potassium catalyst for dehydrogenation of methylbutenes, catalyst produced by this method and method for methylbutene dehydrogenation using this catalyst
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for production of iron-potassium catalysts for methylbutene dehydrogenation to isoprene. A method for production of iron-potassium catalyst for methybutene dehydrogenation is carried out as follows: catalyst components are mixed in the following ratio, wt.%: magnesium oxide 0.5÷10, potassium compounds 5÷30, calcium carbonate 1÷10, cerium compounds with reference to dioxide 5÷20 and molybdenum compounds with reference to trioxide 0.5-5, iron (3) oxide being the rest, the obtained catalyst mass with moisture content of 10-16% is formed, dried at a temperature of 100÷120°C and ignited at a temperature of 650÷850°C. The method is characterized by the fact that waste catalyst for methybutene dehydrogenation ground and fractioned to 0.2 mm is taken as a component of the catalyst mass; before production of the catalyst mass the composition of waste catalyst is determined preliminary, determination includes assessment of the quantity of lacking components of above mentioned ones which are added to the catalyst mass at mixing stage, then forming is carried out, while taking waste catalyst in the quantity of 5÷70 wt% of total catalyst weight. An iron-potassium catalyst and method for methylbutene dehydrogenation are also claimed.
EFFECT: catalyst regeneration in the production cycle for methylbutene dehydrogenation with increased or preserved catalyst activity, selectivity and with lower consumption of initial components.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining olefin, which includes the following stages: supply of flow of raw material, which contains paraffin hydrocarbon, into distillation section; supply of flow, discharged from distillation section, into reactor and interaction of flow, discharged from distillation section, in reactor with formation of olefin-containing flow, discharged from reactor; supply of raw material flow of distillation column, which communicated with and is downstream flow, discharged from reactor, into olefin distillation column; supply of flow, discharged from distillation column, into heat pump compressor; and supply of flow, discharged from heat pump compressor, into distillation section and application of heat from flow, discharged from heat pump compressor, for heating flow of distillation section, which contains paraffin hydrocarbon that has not reacted.
EFFECT: heat saving.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention suggests method of ethylene oxide production, including: a. cracking ethane-containing initial material in cracking zone under conditions of cracking for obtaining olefins, including, at least, ethylene and hydrogen, b. conversion of initial oxygenate in zone of conversion of oxygenates into olefins (OTO) to obtain olefins, including, at least, ethylene; c. supply of, at least, part of ethylene, obtained at stage (a) and/or (b), into zone of ethylene oxidation together with initial oxygen-containing material, and oxidation of ethylene to obtain, at least, ethylene oxide and carbon dioxide; and in which, at least, part of initial oxygenate is obtained by supply of carbon dioxide, obtained at stage (c), and initial hydrogen-containing material, into zone for synthesis of oxygenates and synthesis of oxygenates, where initial hydrogen-containing material includes hydrogen, obtained at stage (a). In other aspect claimed invention suggests integrated system for ethylene oxide production.
EFFECT: elaboration of process for obtaining ethylene oxide and optionally monoethylene oxide by integration of processes of cracking ethane and OTO, making it possible to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and quantity of synthesis-gas, required for synthesis of oxygenates.
15 cl, 1 dwg, 6 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysis. Described is a catalyst for dehydrogenating alkylaromatic compounds, which contains oxides or iron, potassium, caesium and/or rubidium, magnesium and/or calcium, molybdenum compounds which can be decomposed to oxides, portland cement and samarium oxide, with the following content of components (with respect to oxides), wt %: potassium oxide - 8-22; magnesium oxide and/or calcium oxide - 0.5-10; molybdenum oxide - 0.5-5; portland cement - 5-10; samarium oxide - 1-5; caesium oxide and/or rubidium oxide - 0.05-5; iron oxide - the balance.
EFFECT: high stability of the catalyst, resistance to catalytic poisons.
1 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a material which is suitable as a support for an alkane dehydrogenation catalyst, a method of producing said material and a method for catalytic dehydrogenation of alkane-containing gas mixtures. Described is a material for catalytic dehydrogenation of gas mixtures which contain C2-C6 alkanes and may contain hydrogen, water vapour, oxygen or any mixture of said gases, wherein primarily alkenes and hydrogen, and additionally water vapour, can be obtained, which: a) consists of ceramic foam obtained from oxide or non-oxide ceramic materials or a mixture of oxide and non-oxide ceramic materials, b) wherein the oxide ceramic materials used are calcium aluminate, silicon dioxide, tin dioxide or zinc aluminate or a mixture of said substances, c) to provide catalytic activity, the material is saturated with at least one catalytically active substance and d) the catalytically active material contains platinum, tin or chromium or mixtures thereof. Described is a method of producing said material by applying a starting ceramic substance, mixed during production with a suitable additive as an auxiliary agent, in form of a suspension onto a prepared starting polyurethane material, after which the obtained material is sintered and saturated with catalytically active material. Described is a method of dehydrogenating alkane-containing gas mixtures (versions) using the disclosed material.
EFFECT: considerable reduction in hydraulic resistance of the catalyst, significant improvement in availability of catalytically active material, increase in thermal and mechanical stability of the material.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrogenation and dehydrogenation unsintered catalysts. Proposed catalyst comprises, at least, one nanoparticles palladium cluster with mean particle size distribution index (d50) varying from 0.1 nm to 100 nm and gas-and-fluid-permeable shell containing zirconium oxide with ID varying from 10 nm to 1000 nm. Proposed method comprises the following steps: producing palladium nanoparticles mean particle size distribution index (d50) varying from 0.1 nm to 100 nm, b) applying SiO2 coating on produced nanoparticles, c) applying zirconium oxide coating on balls Pd/SiO2, d) washing off SiO2 layer by base.
EFFECT: higher catalytic activity.
5 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for chemical processing of mixtures of gaseous C1-C6 hydrocarbons (alkanes) into C2-C3 olefins (ethylene and propylene), involving oxidative condensation of methane and pyrolysis of C2-C6 alkanes, characterised by that oxidative pyrolysis of C2-C6 alkanes is carried out at temperature 450°C-850°C, pressure 1-40 atm and while feeding not more than 15 vol. % oxygen in the presence of oxide catalysts without preliminary splitting of the initial mixture of gaseous C1-C6 hydrocarbons (alkanes) into components and/or separation of methane; oxidative condensation of methane takes place in a stream of methane separated from products of oxidative pyrolysis of C2-C6 alkanes, in the presence of oxide catalysts at temperature 700°C-950°C, pressure 1-10 atm and molar ratio of methane to oxygen ranging from 2:1 to 10:1, wherein extraction of products of oxidative condensation of methane is carried out collectively or partly collectively with extraction of products of oxidative pyrolysis of C2-C6 alkanes, and methane, ethane and C3+ alkanes separated from reaction gases are recycled and redirected to the methane oxidative condensation and C2-C6 alkane pyrolysis steps, respectively.
EFFECT: method ensures high degree of conversion of the starting material, enables to reduce power consumption on extraction of the desired products, and reduces metal consumption of the equipment per unit product.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in petrochemical industry. The membrane reactor for dehydrogenation of alkanes has a tubular catalytic membrane 2 containing several end-to-end radial macropores, on the surface of which a dehydrogenation catalyst is deposited and two membranes 3, which are permeable to hydrogen only. The catalytic membrane 2 lies between the membranes 3 which are permeable to hydrogen only such that, together with transverse walls 5, they form a row of closed cavities 6 which are connected to each other only by the end-to-end pores of the catalytic membrane 2.
EFFECT: invention provides the process of obtaining alkenes without loss of hydrocarbon material.
12 cl, 4 dwg, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organic chemistry and petrochemistry, particularly to designing and using catalysts. Described is a catalyst for dehydrogenation of isopentane and isopentane-isoamylene fractions based on platinum and tin, deposited on a carrier - zincalume spinel. The catalyst is distinguished by that, the carrier is in form of nanocrystalline particles with average crystal size of 22-35 nm with components in the following ratio, wt %: platinum - 0.05-2.0, tin - 0.1-6.0, zincalume spinel - the rest. Also described is a method of preparing said catalyst, involving grinding and mixing oxygen-containing zinc and aluminium compounds, gradual addition of water until obtaining a homogeneous pasty mass, stirring and moulding, drying the granules at room temperature and calcination, subsequent saturation of the formed carrier with an aqueous solution of platinum and tin compounds, final drying of the catalyst mass in air; the method is distinguished by that, the carrier is calcined while gradually raising temperature to 800-900°C at a rate of 10-200°C/hour, and then for 5-40 hours at 850-1000°C, while constantly controlling size of the formed crystals until formation of nanocrystalline particles with average crystal size of 22-35 nm.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of dehydrogenation process due to increased output of isoprene, with high selectivity on dehydrogenation products, as well as due to longer inter-regeneration period of the catalyst.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to perfection of the method of obtaining at least, one product of partial oxidation and/or ammoxidising of propylene, chosen from a group, comprising propylene oxide, acrolein, acrylic acid and acrylonitrile. The starting material is raw propane. a) At the first stage, raw propane, in the presence and/or absence of oxygen, is subjected to homogenous and/or heterogeneous catalysed dehydrogenation and/or oxydehydrogenation. Gas mixture 1, containing propane and propylene is obtained. b) If necessary, a certain quantity of the other components in gas mixture 1, obtained in the first stage, besides propane and propylene, such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide is separated and/or converted to other compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide. From gas mixture 1, gas mixture 1' is obtained, containing propane and propylene, as well as other compounds, besides oxygen, propane and propylene. c) At the third stage, gas mixture 1 and/or gas mixture 1' as a component, containing molecular oxygen, of gas mixture 2, is subjected to heterogeneous catalysed partial gas-phase oxidation and/or propylene, contained in gas mixture 1 and/or gas mixture 1', undergoes partial gas-phase ammoxidising. Content of butane-1 in gas mixture 2 is ≤1 vol.%. The method increases output of desired products and efficiency of the process.
EFFECT: increased output of desired products and efficiency of the process.
72 cl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: before feeding into a reactor, isoamylenes are diluted with steam at 550-750°C, which is fed in two streams, wherein the weight ratio of the two streams is set equal to 1.0:(1.0-1.3), and temperature of the stream with the greater weight ratio is kept 40-100°C higher than that of the stream fed for mixing in a lesser amount.
EFFECT: use of the present method increases conversion of isoamylenes and reduces specific consumption of steam.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: isoprene is obtained by liquid-phase interaction of formaldehyde and isobutylene and/or substances, which represent their sources, for instance 4,4-dimethyldioxane-1,3 and trimethyl carbinol, at higher temperature and pressure in presence of water solution of inorganic acid and metal cations as catalyst, with distillation of reaction products and water from reaction zone and further isoprene separation, with carrying out isoprene synthesis in presence of catalyst, which includes mixture of either ortho- and pyrophosphoric acids, or ortho- and poly-phosphoric acids, or ortho- and metaphosphoric acids and cations of metals of VI, VIII and X group of Mendeleev′s Periodic table of elements, content of which constitutes 0.5-6.0 g/l.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to realise process with higher productivity.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: isoprene is obtained by liquid-phase interaction of formaldehyde and isobutylene and/or substances, which represent their sources, for instance 4,4-dimethyldioxane-1,3 and trimethyl carbinol, at higher temperature and pressure in presence of water solution of inorganic acid and metal cations as catalyst, with distillation of reaction products and water from reaction zone and further isoprene separation. Isoprene synthesis is carried out in presence of catalyst, which includes mixture of ortho- and pyrophosphoric acids, or ortho- and poly-phosphoric acids, or ortho- and metaphosphoric acids and cations of metals of VI and X group of Mendeleev′s Periodic table of elements, with weight ratio mixture of inorganic acids, counted per orthophosphoric acid:cations of metals of VI group:cations of metals of X group equal 1:(0.01-0.5):(0.003-0.04) respectively.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to realise process with higher productivity.
3 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for obtaining isoprene by liquid-phase interaction of formaldehyde and isobutylene and/or substances, for instance 4,4-dimethyldioxane-1,3 and trimethyl carbinol, including water solution of inorganic acid and cations of metals, with catalyst containing as inorganic acid either mixture of ortho- and pyrophosphoric acids, or ortho- and poly-phosphoric acids, or ortho- and metaphosphoric acids and cations of metals of VI and X group of Mendeleev's Periodic table of elements with weight ratio mixture of inorganic acids, counted per orthophosphoric acid:cations of metals of VI group:cations of metals of X group equal 1:(0.01-0.5):(0.003-0.04) respectively.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to realise process with higher productivity.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining isoprene, which includes condensation of isobutylene with water solution of formaldehyde in presence of acid catalyst at temperature 80-110°C, pressure 15-25 atm, separation of reaction mass into oil and water layers, evaporation of water layer, addition of formaldehyde to residue after evaporation of initial water solution and recirculation of obtained mixture into condensation zone, extraction of fraction of 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane from oil layer with its following liquid-phase decomposition in presence of tertiary butyl alcohol and/or isobutylene into isoprene at increased temperature and pressure. Method is characterised by the fact that supplied to decomposition fraction of 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane contains from 0.6 to 4.2 wt % of high-boiling by-products.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce power consumption at stage of 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane extraction.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing isoprene by reacting components of a raw material containing formaldehyde, isobutylene, isobutylene derivatives and isoprene precursors in the presence of a solid-phase acid catalyst which contains niobium phosphate, followed by separation of the end product. The method is characterised by that reaction of formaldehyde with isobutylene, isobutylene derivatives and isoprene precursors is carried out in molar ratio of isobutylene and derivatives thereof to formaldehyde of (3.5-8):1, molar ratio of isobutylene derivatives to isobutylene of (0.75-3.5):1, molar ratio of formaldehyde to isoprene precursors of (4-10):1, the raw material is fed into the reactor at temperature of 140-160°C and pressure of 13-17 atm in form of a continuous gas-liquid stream with volume rate of the gas phase of 20-250 h-1 and of the liquid phase of 10-25 h-1.
EFFECT: use of the present method increases isoprene output and reduces output of high-boiling by-products.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatus for liquid-phase synthesis of isoprene from material which contains isobutylene and formaldehyde and/or substances which are sources thereof, for example, trimethyl carbinol and 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane, in the presence of an aqueous solution of an acid catalyst. The apparatus is a reactor system consisting of a shell-and-tube reactor which is heated by steam through the inter-tube space and is connected in series to a hollow vertical reactor, possibly fitted with a pump for forced circulation of the reaction mass between reactors, wherein there are distribution devices in the reactors for feeding material. The apparatus is also characterised by that it has at least three reaction zones defined by points of feeding material. In the hollow reactor, there are distribution devices for the entire stream of reaction mass above the points of feeding material, wherein the distance between a point of feeding material and a distribution device of the entire stream is at least 0.1 m, preferably 0.5-2.0 m.
EFFECT: use of the present apparatus enables more flexible control of the process of synthesis of isoprene with reduced formation of by-products and also increases efficiency of using the reaction volume, thus reducing capital and operating costs.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing methyldihydropyran and/or by-products of synthesis of isoprene from isobutylene and formaldehyde via thermocatalytic decomposition thereof over an aluminosilicate-containing catalyst with preheating (or without) of the starting material in the presence of water vapour followed by condensation of the obtained contact gas to form aqueous and oil layers. Reaction products - isoprene, isobutylene and formaldehyde - are then extracted from said layers. The method is characterised by that an isoprene fraction containing 3-25 wt % isobutylene dimers is added to the contact gas at temperature 35-90°C, with weight ratio of the isoprene fraction to the contact gas equal to (0.02-0.15):1.
EFFECT: use of the present method enables to considerably improve the quality of waste water from the process and reduce loss of the end products without reducing selectivity of the process and without increasing deposition of coke on the catalyst.
1 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing isoprene through liquid-phase reaction of tert-butyl alcohol, 4-methyl-5,6-dihydropyran and 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane with aqueous formaldehyde solution in the presence of a solid acid catalyst and molar excess of tert-butyl alcohol with respect to formaldehyde with continuous outlet of the formed products and subsequent separation thereof. The method is characterised by that synthesis is carried out in a single reaction zone in a homogeneous phase at temperature 120-150°C and pressure 12-15 atm.
EFFECT: use of the present method simplifies the process, optimises characteristics of the process: selectivity and output of isoprene and by-products, eliminates the energy-consuming step for recuperation of formaldehyde.
4 cl, 11 ex, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing isoprene, involving liquid-phase condensation of isobutylene in form of an isobutylene-containing C4 fraction with aqueous formaldehyde solution in the presence of an acid catalyst at high temperature and pressure to form 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane and a mixture of high-boiling by-products, followed by liquid-phase decomposition of the obtained 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane to isoprene in the presence of trimethyl carbinol and/or isobutylene and an aqueous solution of an acid catalyst at high temperature and pressure. The method is characterised by that 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane and a mixture of high-boiling by-products are separated from the condensation products by fractionation, where said mixture is then distilled on a vacuum fractionation column with collection of distillate in amount of 10-50 wt % from the column feed, followed by feeding the collected distillate for liquid-phase decomposition to isoprene in the presence of trimethyl carbinol and/or isobutylene and aqueous solution of the acid catalyst at temperature 150-200°C, pressure 0.6-1.7 MPa together with 4,4-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane and/or in a separate reactor.
EFFECT: method simplifies the process by eliminating gum formation and increases output of isoprene from the same amount of raw material.
3 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: described is a catalyst additive for oxidising carbon monoxide when regenerating cracking catalysts, which contains a manganese compound, aluminium oxide, natural bentonite clay and amorphous aluminosilicate, with the following content of components, wt %: manganese in terms of MnO2 10-15, bentonite clay 20-30, amorphous aluminosilicate 16-25, Al2O3 - the balance, having spherical particles with average diameter of 70-85 mcm, wear-resistance of not less than 96% and packed density of 0.68-0.76 g/cm3. Described is a method of preparing said catalyst additive.
EFFECT: high activity of oxidising CO.
2 cl, 5 ex