Sodium loop of nuclear power plant with fast neutron reactor
FIELD: nuclear engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sodium loops of nuclear power plants with fast neutron reactors. Separate modules of steam generator (1) are connected separately to the side of sodium intake with inlet connecting pipelines (7), which are equipped with built-in protective element (9) simultaneously connected to discharge pipeline (8) and to inlet manifold (5), and are additionally connected with sodium inlet branch pipe (6). On the sodium outlet side separate modules of steam generator (1) are separately connected through outlet chamber (18) with outlet connection pipe (10), which is fitted in buffer tank (2), which is further connected with sodium outlet branch pipe (16). Then, simultaneously discharge tubes (8) are connected to first reservoir (3) of the emergency protection system. This reservoir (3) is connected both to buffer tank (2) by light-weight branch (12) with at least one first membrane (11), and to second reservoir (4) of the emergency protection system with at least one second membrane (13). At second reservoir (4) of the emergency protection system there is outlet (15).
EFFECT: higher safety of the nuclear power plant.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a power supply system for the compensation of an electromagnetic pump and electromagnetic pump system, which performs the function of the power factor increase, in parallel to the electromagnetic pump there is a power supply mechanism (10) as in a synchronous machine during its normal operation. In the power supply mechanism (10) for the compensation of the electromagnetic pump there is a device (45) with the permanent magnet of the exciter stator, which may switch the exciter between the unexcited state and the excited state. The device (45) with the permanent magnet of the exciter stator contains permanent magnets (15a) of the exciter stator, springs (16) that apply force to the permanent magnets (15a) of the exciter stator in the direction of the position faced to the winding (15b) of the exciter rotor, and electromagnetic solenoids (20), which provide the movement of the permanent magnets (15a), the exciter stator into the positions, where they are not faced to the winding (15b) of the exciter rotor at resistance to the force applied by the springs (16).
EFFECT: higher power factor.
12 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics, atomic power.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear reactors. The housing of a nuclear reactor accommodates a core, having fuel rods. The fuel rods, which are enclosed in a tubular envelope, are immersed in a primary coolant which circulates between the core and at least one heat exchanger. The fuel rods have in their upper part active areas filled with fuel and hollow working areas below the active areas.
EFFECT: low pressure level of gaseous fission fragments accumulating under the envelope of fuel elements, and providing more uniform distribution of the velocity field of the primary coolant at the input of the core.
FIELD: physics, atomic power.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of eliminating deformations and restoring geometric parameters of the graphite stack of a channel-type reactor (RBMK) and can be used in operations aimed at restoring life characteristics of the core of a channel-type reactor upon achieving regulatory sagging, i.e. not greater than the allowed value of 50 mm. The method includes correcting geometric dimensions of graphite blocks. In each process channel, after retrieving the fuel assembly, the value and direction of sagging of the graphite column are determined, and the result is compared with the regulatory value, and local areas of the column with the same direction of sagging are identified. Operation in each of the selected areas is carried out separately. Some of the process channels with sagging greater than the standard are retrieved and the graphite blocks of the middle part of the column are cut longitudinally with the width of the cut of 10-15 mm in the direction perpendicular to the sagging of the column. A tensioner is used to generate force on the adjoining graphite column in a direction opposite to the sagging. Upon achieving the regulatory sagging value, the force is cut off and cells of the column are calibrated.
EFFECT: reduced volume and duration of repairs.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: anti-vibration compensator of the pipeline of emergency system of nuclear reactor cooling consists of pipelines 1 and 3, flanges 2 and 4, the ship hull 5, an internal compensator 6, an internal cavity 8, external compensators 7, external cavities 9, additional pipelines 10, additional outboard heat exchangers 11, pneumatic accumulators 12. Between the pipeline and the hull two flanges are installed. Between flanges several compensators located one inside another are fixed. The external cavities formed by external compensators and flanges are filled with pressurised medium.
EFFECT: higher pipeline vibration isolation efficiency.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: nuclear reactor core is enveloped with a lead neutron reflector. In the reflector part adjacent to the core there is lead in which more than 90% of 208Pb isotope, and in the peripheral part - a neutron retarding material with low atomic weight in an amorphous state at cryogenic temperature. According to one particular case, the reactor housing is made from polycrystalline material slowly absorbing neutrons, for example Mo-Zr alloy and built into composition of the neutron reflector. According to another particular case, between the housing and the peripheral part of the reflector with the neutron retarding material with low atomic weight there arranged is polycrystalline material with high atomic weight, for example lead with content of 208Pb isotope of more than 90%.
EFFECT: excluding runaway of a reactor at jumps of reactivity, which considerably exceed a fraction of delayed neutrons as to the value.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: reactor core, fuel rod and fuel assembly for its manufacturing are intended for use in fast neutron reactors with nitride fuel and liquid-metal coolant, mainly as melted lead and its alloys. Core contains three parts, i.e. central, interim and peripheral, that are made by the fuel assemblies with fuel rods having different height of fuel column in the rods of the central, interim and peripheral parts with same enclosure. Radial fuel distribution over the core volume is characterized in stepped cross-section. Radius of the core central part is from 0.4 to 0.5 of effective core radius, and fuel column height in fuel assembly rods of the central part is from 0.5 to 0.8 of height of fuel column in fuel rods installed in the fuel assemblies of the core peripheral part.
EFFECT: simplified design of core with negative hollow effect of reactivity and effective balancing of the energy release along its radius.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, atomic power.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modular nuclear reactors which convert nuclear fission wastes. The reactor continuously produces usable energy while converting U-238 and/or other fertile waste materials to fissionable nuclides. The reactor has a highly uniform, self-controlled core with a decades-long life and does not require reactivity control mechanisms within the active core during operation to ensure adequate safety. One version employs high-temperature helium coolant, a dual-segment initial annular critical core, carbide fuel, a fission product gas collection system, ceramic cladding and structural internal components.
EFFECT: economic production of energy over multiple generations of reactor cores with only minimum addition of fertile material for each generation.
17 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant comprises two replaceable horizontal nuclear reactors with displacing reflector. One reactor is operating while another one is either removed or kept ready for operation. Said reactors are connected in turn to circulation circuit. Core of every reactor is arranged inside the shell, all over its length. Displacing neutron reflector covers the working reactor shell to ensure fusion reaction in the core power generation and is notably shorter than said core. At operation of working reactor, recovery of reactivity margin wasted at fuel burn at core power generation section is ensured by reflector displacement to adjoining section of the core with "green" fuel and involving the latter to fusion process. For cooling purposes, heat carrier is forced the core in working reactor shell.
EFFECT: long service life without overloads.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: physics, nuclear.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to travelling wave nuclear reactors. Determination of core section materials comprises determination of the amount of the main fissionable materials and the amount of substitute materials. Determination of microscopic cross-section of main material absorption and that of neighbour materials. Approximation of microscopic cross-section of absorption by neutron flow spectrum function and, additionally, by absorption microscopic cross-section function integral weighed by neutron flow spectrum.
EFFECT: simulation of optimum composition of travelling wave reactor core.
31 cl, 22 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgical and pipe rolling industries. Electroslag melting bars with size off 485×1600±25 mm are cast and turned into cakes with size of 470×1600±25 mm. A through hole is drilled with a diameter of 100±5 mm. Cakes are heated to temperature of 1120-1140°C and pierced in a cross-rolling mill into blooms with size of 480×vn.315×2500 mm. Cakes are rolled into pig hot-deformed stock pipes with size of 337×28×8000 mm in a gauge 340 mm on burnishers 282/286 mm with drawing of µn=3.79, clamping by diameter Δ=29.8% and feed of blooms into a deformation site m=16-18 mm. Stock pipes are straightened using temperature of rolling heating and cut into two stock pipes with size of 337×28×4000 mm. Stock pipes are turned and ground. Rolling of stock pipes on cold pilgering mills 450 and 250 is carried out along the routes: 325×12×4000---273×8×6680---219×4×16100 mm. Pipes are cut and rolled on the cold pilgering mill 250 into stock pipes with size of 194×2.5×14100 mm. At one of ends of stock pipes they drill a hole for a pivot of a pulling chain. Stock pipes are profiled into hexahedral pipes with a flat-to-flat dimension of 175±0.4×2.5+0.3/-0.2×14100 mm.
EFFECT: reduced discharge coefficient of metal.
FIELD: physics, atomic power.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of ensuring subcriticality of a reactor core in uncertainty conditions. The present method comprises taking physical measurements of core subcriticality after assembling the core and comparing the obtained characteristics with design values, after which adjustable reactivity rods are installed in the reactor at the level of the fuel portion of the core if there is a mismatch between values of the obtained characteristics and design values. Enrichment of the adjustable reactivity rods with the boron isotope B-10 is selected to be higher than enrichment of shim rods with the B-10 isotope.
EFFECT: optimising operating conditions of absorbing elements of the shim rod group, including avoiding the need to increase their movement and simple technique of monitoring during production, as well as a simple algorithm for safe reactor control.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed containment has inner space accommodating condensing chamber, high-pressure chamber, cooling pond, and discharge pipe. It is also provided with condenser communicating with high-pressure chamber. Discharge pipe is component part of inner space that provides communication between high-pressure chamber and condensing chamber. Condenser may be mounted in high-pressure chamber with top end of discharge pipe disposed above condenser. Operating process of condenser in nuclear power plant is characterized in that nondensables are automatically discharged from above-condenser area.
EFFECT: enhanced safety in operating nuclear power plants.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering; nuclear plants for transmutation of radioactive wastes including excess nuclear weapon materials.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method that provides for commencing and ceasing nuclear reaction simply by starting and stopping fuel pumps, effective monitoring and control of nuclear reaction, neutron energy spectrum, and transmutation speed includes production of nuclear-reactor liquid-fuel core by stream of liquid fuel jets formed by means of holes in delivery chamber at core inlet and its discharge to vacant state at core outlet. Core jets are cooled down by means of helium circulating within reactor vessel. Liquid fuel is supplied from liquid state to delivery chamber by means of pumps thereby initiating chain fusion reaction within reactor core. Remaining spaces of liquid fuel loop are always maintained in subcritical state. Stopping liquid fuel pumps causes core disappearance.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure, reduced cost and enhanced safety of radioactive waste transmutation process.
FIELD: nuclear power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed core used for water-moderated water-cooled reactors, and type VVER-1000 in particular, is characterized in that water-uranium ratio of fuel lattice, outer and inner diameters of fuel element cladding are 1.51 to 2.10, 7.00 · 10-3 to 7.50 · 10-3 m, and 5.93 · 10-3 to 6.36 · 10-3 m, respectively, for fuel assemblies incorporating 468 to 510 fuel elements, or water-uranium ratio for fuel lattice, outer and inner diameters of fuel element cladding are 1.49 to 2.06, 7.60 · 10-3 to 8.30 · 10-3 m, and 6.45 · 10-3 to 7.04 · 10-3 m, respectively, for fuel assembly having 390 to 432 fuel elements, or water-uranium ratio of fuel lattice, outer and inner diameters of fuel element cladding are 1.61 to 2.03, 8.30 ·10-3 to 8.89 · 10-3 m, and 7.04 · 10-3 to 7.46 · 10-3 m, respectively, for fuel assembly with 318 to 360 fuel elements, core height to fuel assembly length ratio being 0.7677 to 0.7945.
EFFECT: reduced linear heat loads and fuel element depressurization probability, enlarged reactor power control range, enhanced fuel utilization.
5 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: research thermal pulse reactors.
SUBSTANCE: proposed nuclear reactor has cylindrical tank of diameter D filled with water moderator and accommodating reactivity modulator incorporating N dry tubes axially and symmetrically disposed over diameter D1 on tank bottom. Dry tubes accommodate movable tubes filled with water, each tube holding two rods made of neutron absorbing material. Rods are rigidly fixed on common hollow shaft at distance R from movable tube axis and at distance 2R from each other. Values of 2R and D1 are found from following expressions: 0.107D > 2R > 0.105D; 0.806D > D1 > 0.8D; protective elements have storage capacitor with spark gaps.
EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities due to evacuating central test channel in core, reduced neutron background level, enhanced nuclear safety of plant.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to nuclear technique particularly to construction of homogenous fast reactor on suspension.
SUBSTANCE: the homogeneous fast reactor-reservoir is characterized thereby that thermal contour working on natural circular fine-dispersed dredge of the fuel particles in liquid metal carrier contains an active zone of variable volume, has under critical stagnant zones with an open surface also having a reserve volume. Together with refrigerating part of the liquid metallic refrigerating contour it is contained inside closed volume limited by an external body of the reactor. Liquid lead and its alloys are used as carrier of fuel particles in a fuel contour and thermal carrier in the refrigerating contour and mixture of raw and fissionable species serves as a fuel for starting feeding. The rising section of the fuel contour is fulfilled in the form of a vertical cylindrical housing with inputs from below and outputs from above, lateral openings connecting the housing relatively with assembled and distributed collectors of ramified system of thermal tubes, paved together with the tubes if the refrigerating contour in space between the external wall of the housing and the inner wall of the reactor's body. An ousting plug is immersed in the upper part of the housing with a gap for passing of suspension. The plug is fulfilled with possibility of vertical displacement relatively to the wall of the housing, and the vacant lower part of the housing serves as active zone the volume of which is determined by the position of the plug. The external body of the reactor is fulfilled in the form of high-fusing bucket closed with a protective cover with openings for loading and other technological channels which are designed for keeping non-volatile radioactivity at temperatures no higher than the point of boiling of the lead and located inside the protective structure fulfilled of heat resistant cement-basalt or similar other mineral foundation.
EFFECT: allows to insulate the fuel contour inside closed volume.
4 cl,3 dwg
FIELD: nuclear physics; multiplying neutrons for building subcritical nuclear reactors.
SUBSTANCE: proposed multistage neutron multiplier has a number of multiplication stages abutting against each other. Each stage has coaxially arranged disks of different thickness abutting against each other. Disks are assembled of active material, neutron moderators of two types, and neutron absorber. They are alternating in stage so as to ensure unidirectional movement of neutrons and their multiplication.
EFFECT: enhanced neutron multiplication factor.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: radiation engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gamma-ray installation used in particular to irradiate modular objects to sterilize, pasteurize, or modify them has irradiation chamber accommodating isotope radiation sources placed in irradiator, system for displacing irradiator and object being irradiated made in the form of pushing conveyer, control and radiation protective system. Isotope sources are placed in irradiation chamber into two parallel flat irradiators mounted for free sequential passage of target object modules on all sides of irradiator so as to ensure their two-way irradiation.
EFFECT: enhanced radiation safety and irradiation efficiency.
FIELD: fuel cells designed for use in gas-cooled nuclear reactor core.
SUBSTANCE: fuel cell 10 designed for use in gas-cooled nuclear reactor has assembly of two adjacent fuel plates 12a, 12b disposed relative to one another and shaped so that they form channels 14 for gaseous coolant flow. Fuel plates 12a, 12b incorporate elementary fissionable particles, better non-coated ones, implanted in metal matrix. Metal coating may be deposited on both ends of each plate 12a and 12b.
EFFECT: enlarged heat-transfer surface, enhanced power density per volume unit.
13 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: nuclear technology; atomic power stations with water-cooled nuclear reactors.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of nuclear technology, in particular, to atomic power stations with water-cooled nuclear reactors. The nuclear reactor contains: the body and the cover with the branch-pipes for outputs of the detectors of the intrareactor control; the pins with the screw nuts for tightening of the above-mentioned cover to the body. On the branch-pipes for outputs of the detectors of the intrareactor control there are safety devices fixed on the pins for tightening of the cover to the body by additional screw nuts. The invention allows to increase safety of the nuclear reactor operation.
EFFECT: the invention allows to increase safety of the nuclear reactor operation.