Method of detecting three-dimensional changes within observed limited space independently from place of occurrence of these changes within this space
FIELD: radio engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method of detecting three-dimensional changes within an observed limited space independently from the place of occurrence of these changes within the observed limited space relates to radio engineering and can be used in devices for security and fire alarm. Method involves, first, forming in the observed, limited by media separation, space an isotropic by stationary or non-stationary changes in the conditions of an acoustic wave propagation within the limited by media separation space acoustic field; second, measuring amplitude, frequency and phase parameters of this field in one or several arbitrary points of the observed space.
EFFECT: as per the change of these parameters estimated are quantitative values of changes in the conditions of the acoustic wave propagation in the observed space, as per which estimated are quantitative values of volumetric changes independently from the place of their localisation within the observed space.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, the active sonar includes a processor unit, a receiving-transmitting unit, a connection cable from the processor unit to the receiving-transmitting unit, an antenna unit of the sonar with a built-in signal and control cable, wherein the receiving-transmitting unit is portable and includes two phased antenna arrays operating in a pair, one of which is a radiating array with a fan-shaped directional pattern, installed inside a housing and capable of rotating in the horizontal plane about an axis which passes through its geometric centre, and the other is a receiving antenna array which is immovably fixed in the housing and is made in the form of a ring which encircles the sealed housing, filled with a liquid for compensating for hydrostatic pressure of the ambient medium.
EFFECT: simple design of the sonar and operation thereof, low cost thereof owing to use of industrially manufactured components and existing data processing algorithms.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of fishing, and is intended for diagnostics of aquatic organisms (detection, location and movement, the species, age, sex and condition). Essence: using the measurements of the temperature field of the water area under study and echolocation based on the previously determined empirical relationships aquatic organisms behavior (preference for certain parameters of habitat, movement speed, characteristic movements depending on the species, age, sex and condition) on the temperature the presence and location of aquatic organisms is determined, and also their age, sex and condition.
EFFECT: determining not only the presence and location but also the type, age, sex and condition of aquatic organisms: fish and other aquaculture objects.
FIELD: physics, acoustics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sonar, specifically to passive methods for acoustic detection and location of underwater divers, and can be used in underwater search and rescue operations, protecting coastal structures and beaches on the water side or protecting underwater structures, as well as protecting ships at the anchoring berth, offshore oil platforms, port entrances, bridge abutments, channels and water areas at hydroelectric power stations. The method is based on detecting and picking up from the detected noise of the water area under investigation quasi-periodic modulations of unremovable low-frequency respiratory noises of the underwater diver caused by the rhythm of respiratory manoeuvres, the frequency of which lies in the range of 0.1-1 Hz.
EFFECT: longer detection range.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics, navigation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater navigation and can be used for determination of self-contained unmanned submarine proper coordinates in navigation under ice in high Arctic latitudes. This invention allows ruling out of limiting conditions of said submarine coordinates evaluation because of geometrical (spatial) position of gyro motor and submarine. Application of radio navigation receivers GPS/GLONASS, VHF navigation system at determination of gyro motor position with the help of TV-controlled unmanned submarine system as well as elimination of the use of self-contained unmanned submarine heading and OS direct measurement. Said use brings about incorrect data in high Arctic altitudes. Increase in gyro motor mobility allows decision of the problem of definition of proper coordinates of self-contained unmanned submarine in navigation of under ice.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of locating of self-contained unmanned submarine in high Arctic latitudes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises reception of noise-emission signal, determination of noise signal and interference spectrum, accumulation of results and their comparison. Noise-radiation signal is received by signal antenna output to isolate the spectrum actual section. Then, performed are isolation of spectrum virtual section, reiteration of spectrum actual section isolation and reiteration of spectrum virtual section for N serial sets. Sid actual section and virtual sections are summed for N sets. Sum of actual section is squared as well as that of virtual sections. Energy spectrum of sum signal is defined. Simultaneously, the same initial data are used to define the energy spectrum of said difference as the sum of squares of N sets of the difference of actual sections and the sum of squares of N seta of the difference of virtual sections. Decision on the object noise-ration signal availability is make in case the sum energy spectrum exceeds that of the difference energy spectrum.
EFFECT: automatic detection of hydroacoustic signals.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a multielement hydroacoustic antenna, having a base on which sections are mounted, the sections having rod-shaped piezoceramic transducers, each section being enclosed in a sealed housing and having on the front side a plate in the openings of which front cover plates of the rod-shaped piezoceramic transducers are inserted, the cover plates being sealed with the walls of the openings by rubber decoupling seals, and each section having an electrical lead. In the antenna, each plate is a segment of a cylindrical surface with a height h with a centre angle β. The multielement hydroacoustic antenna is in the form of a segment of a thick-walled cylinder with thickness b, where b is the radial dimension of the section, height nh, where n is the number of sections on the height of the multielement hydroacoustic antenna, and a centre angle α=kβ, where k is the number of sections on the guide cylindrical surface. The base of the multielement hydroacoustic antenna is in the form of a circular metal flange which is provided with supports which are perpendicular to the flange and have the shape of a segment of a cylindrical surface which is congruent to the inner surface of the section; the supports are displaced from the edge of the base by a distance b. The housing of each section is attached by its back surface via detachable connections to two supports; the width of the support b1 is sufficient to accommodate a detachable connection, which may be threaded, and electrical leads from the sections are made at the back side thereof in spaces between supports and come out of the antenna through a centre hole in the flange.
EFFECT: easy transportation of the antenna to a facility and assembly thereof, which improves technological effectiveness thereof, reduces the cost and overall dimensions, and the possibility of replacing sections directly onboard prolongs service life without deterioration of tactical and technical characteristics.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydroacoustic equipment, namely to active hydrolocation, including to active hydrolocators intended for detection of objects, measurements of coordinates and parameters of movement of detected objects.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of detection with high probability of objects against reverberation interference, at unknown radial speed of a reflecting object, determination with increased accuracy of coordinates and parameters of movement of detected objects at radiation of only one sending.
FIELD: radio-engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: guarding system is intended for use at water areas, lakes, in river streams and channels. Use in the system of the direct information transmission via the border water-air ensures prompt deployment of the guarding system in the monitoring zone without cables routing on bed and without radio beacons use on the water surface thus excluding possibility of the unauthorized external effects on the system.
EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency of the guarding system, simplification and cheapening of the transmission to the receiving point of the underwater situation information under complicated conditions of underwater monitoring and guarding measures at real water areas.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the development of underwater mineral deposits, mainly deposits of liquid and gaseous minerals, and namely to the construction of process facilities intended for the development of marine deep sea oil-and-gas deposits operated in extreme conditions. The method for the development of marine deep sea oil-and-gas deposits lies in the construction of a row of offshore fixed platforms, underwater bottom facilities, subsea intrafield and main pipelines, tanks for the well production storage and shipping facilities, at that at least one platform is made as a subsea version with a substructure fixed to the bottom and upper dimension placed below the water level per a value of the biggest size of an iceberg underwater part passing over it. Besides, all platforms in the subsea version should be interconnected structurally and technologically by electrical cables and pipelines for condensate and gas. Regular deep seismic sounding is performed in the area of terminals for the production of underwater hydrocarbon deposits by passive sensing of the sea bottom and further analysing of microseismic motions of the Erath crust; a block-module of a power supply platform is equipped with a gas turbine plant; sea conditions forecast is made close to the marine drilling rigs by the placement of pitch-roll buoys in the aquatic area and start-up of pilotless aircraft equipped with measuring instruments; a value of the biggest underwater part of an iceberg is defined by sounding of the underwater part of the iceberg by sonar signals from a movable submersible vehicle equipped with a parametric sonar and controlled through a hydroacoustic communications channel by an automated control and monitoring system; block-modules of the platform substructures in the subsea version used for the accommodation of personnel in underwater air chambers are made with docking units ensuring docking with a submarine escape vehicle placed in a special submarine hangar.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the construction and operation, reduced capital and operational costs for the development of marine deep sea oil-and-gas deposits.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises image correction and unweighted full image segmentation (SEG) in snippets at the image preprocessing step (FPP), the use of a threshold value algorithm based on the detected local contrast changes at the detection step (DET), monitored learning with the aid of the support vector method (SVM) with a hyperplane (HE) for subdivision into two classes at the classification step (CLA), automatic calculation of the distance of the detected thermal signature of the marine mammal (TSMM) and its variation over time and space relative to the ship (RV) at the localisation step (LOC), the possibility of an instantaneous check of the decision by an operator at the verification step (VER), and automatic provision of user-specific image data (IRV) of the detected thermal signatures of marine mammals (TSMM) at the documentation step (DOC). An infrared camera system (IRC) with full or partial surround monitoring and an active gyroscopic stabilisation relative to the horizon (HZ) are used to generate data.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of real-time capture of marine mammals.
21 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: underwater acoustics.
SUBSTANCE: method allows detecting sonar signals inside real channel of propagation when distortion of signal is taken into account which distortions appear at reflection and dissipation of waves at boundaries of channel as well as phenomena of signal total internal reflection. Method of detection of bandwidth signals consists of operations of mutual-correlation comparison of accepted realization with copy of irradiated signal and making decision on detection. Accepted realization of mutual-correlated signal is compared with Gilbert-image of copy of irradiated signal; results of mutual-correlation comparison of accepted realization with reference and Gilbert-image of reference of irradiated signal are squared and summed. Calculated value is compared with threshold one.
EFFECT: increased noise immunity; extended radar range.
SUBSTANCE: device has power source, receiving device, device for forming probing pulses, device for control and synchronization, indicator and antenna, and also has receipt converters commutator and indicator element commutator, antenna has emitter of acoustic pulses and three receipt converters, indicator has three columns of vertically positioned indication elements.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment, possible use for determining cable-laying route and depth for underwater cable in water body bottom during its operation, and also laying depth and route for pipes and other extensive underwater communications.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method for determining cable-laying route and depth for an underwater cable, low-frequency electromagnetic signal is transmitted along the cable, by means of watercraft positioned on the surface of body of water receipt antenna adjusted to same frequency is moved above underwater cable close to bottom of water body, signal received by receipt antenna is transmitted to processing block mounted on aforementioned watercraft and on basis of distribution of levels of electromagnetic field above underwater cable, route and laying depth of underwater cable in bottom of water body are determined, while close to bottom above the cable a system is positioned consisting of receiving all-directional antennas, receipt antennas are distributed over space in accordance to certain plan, so that their mutual position relatively to each other does not change during movement, transformer is connected to system of antennas, which is connected to each one of receiving antennas and through control cable is connected processing block on watercraft, in transformer signals are received from each one of receipt antennas, their parameters are optimized and serially transmitted along control cable to processing block, in which electromagnetic field levels are memorized, received by each receiving antenna of system, echo-sounding device is mounted on watercraft which is utilized to determine position of receiving antennas relatively to bottom of water body, in accordance to data about position of each receiving antenna of system and levels of electromagnetic signals received by aforementioned antennas distribution of electromagnetic field levels in space above underwater cable is determined, which is utilized to determine laying route by position of maximal values of levels and laying depth of underwater cable in water body bottom by comparing maximal values to support value.
EFFECT: improved precision and lower costs of determining cable-laying depth and route of an underwater cable in the bottom of body of water.
FIELD: hydro-acoustics, possible use in hydro-locating technologies for detecting underwater objects like submarines and small objects like mines and underwater swimmers.
SUBSTANCE: method includes determining, in the moment of temporary position of expanding spatial angles wave front, tracking belonging to acoustic beam (bearings) for each reflective element, positioned in wave packet of reflected signal (in space between frontal and back fronts of signal pulse, and limited body angle of direction characteristic of receiving antenna. Spatial receipt on basis of spatial-phase and spatial-correlative processing of reflected signal provides for detecting difference between spatial positions of reflecting objects within received signal wave front, which provides more information for object detection and, due to that, principally distinguishes the method from commonplace amplitude-temporal signals processing technology.
EFFECT: limited reverberation effect due to organization of spatial processing of signal.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: underwater acoustics, radar engineering.
SUBSTANCE: input process is presented and filtered within two-dimensional scale-time area by means of continuous wave-let transform operations.
EFFECT: improved noise immunity of frequency-modulated signal detector.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to hydrography particularly to the modes and the means of definition of corrections to the depths measured with an echo-sounding device at surveying the relief of the bottom of water areas.
SUBSTANCE: the technical result is increasing accuracy of definition of corrections to the depths measured with an echo-sounding device at surveying the relief of the bottom, increasing the depth of calibration with fixed metrological characteristics. The mode of definition of corrections to the depths measured with an echo-sounding device at survey of the relief of the bottom of water areas and arrangement for its execution provide possibility of accurate measurement of a vertical gradient of the depth by hydrostatic pressure at each horizon of calibration due to synchronously measured parameter on the base with known length and definition of accurate increasing of the parameters for each horizon of calibration owing to calculation of difference of the parameters' readings following through a small interval of time as a result constant systematic errors of measurements of increasing distance to the surface of water areas or increasing hydrostatic pressure are excluded.
EFFECT: increases accuracy of definition of corrections to depths.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic lever meter comprises connected in series generator of radio pulses, amplifier, detector, piezoelectric vibrator connected to the generator and amplifier, and unit for automatic time adjustment. The control input of the amplifier is connected with the output of the unit for automatic time control of amplification. The unit also has display, microcontroller, comparator, attenuator, time interval meter, adder, and generator of threshold voltage. The first output of the microcontroller is connected with the display, and the second output is connected with the inputs of the unit of time automatic control of amplification, generator of threshold voltage, and meter of time intervals whose output is connected with the input of the microcontroller. The second input of the meter of time intervals is connected with the output of the comparator whose first input is connected with the input of the attenuator and output of detector, and second input is connected with the output of the adder. The first input of the adder is connected with the attenuator, and the second input is connected with the generator of threshold voltage.
EFFECT: enhanced resistance to noise and reliability of measurements.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of underwater acoustics technique connected with radiation of sonar tonal and tonal-impulse signals of great intensity in a limited space sector.
SUBSTANCE: it may be used in radiating sections of sonars, hydro acoustic logs and other hydro acoustic means. The technical result of the invention is in creation of possibility of radiation of wide axially symmetric sectors of space with an acoustic signal whose intensity exceeds in many times the intensity of the signal which may be achieved at forming with known modes of direction characteristic of the same width and also creation of possibility of operational management of the width of the direction characteristic by way of changing the value of the coefficient G. For provision of this technical result the mode of forming direction characteristic of a multi-element discrete hydro acoustic antenna has a plane aperture limited with a circumference whose radius is greatly more than the length of the wave sound in the water and whose aperture is divided on N zones inside whose frontiers the elements of the indicated antenna are electrically united and form sections; it includes incoherent excitation by the electric signals of the elements, entering in different sections, transformation of the electric signals of excitation by the elements into sound vibrations and radiation of sound waves by working surfaces of the elements , the frontiers of the zones are concentric circumferences, and the phases of excitation of the elements of the sections are defined by the law: where ϕn -a phase of excitation of the elements of the sections with the index n; - the coefficient defining the depth of the phase distribution; rn - an average radius of the section with index n; R - a radius of the aperture of the antenna, C - an arbitrary constant. For reducing non-uniformity of the direction characteristic in the space sector where signal of great power is radiated it is suggested to introduce amplitude distribution and for simplification of realization of the mode it is proposed to unite in one channel of excitation of the antenna the elements of the sections whose phases of the signals of excitation differ on 2π.
EFFECT: creates possibility of radiation of wide axially symmetric sector of space with an acoustic signal.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of underwater acoustics and may be used in underwater acoustic systems of passive detection of hydrobionts and active underwater acoustic means.
SUBSTANCE: according to the proposed mode the detection of signals is made by a method of trajectory tracking along the center of the interesting parameter. At that they process the signal whose frequency-time structure on the plate is formed by one field uninterrupted in time and on frequency, identification of separate fields of frequency-time structure is conducted according to the algorithm proposed in the formulae. At that separate fields are considered belonging to one and the same signal if the intervals between them for each of mentioned parameters are not larger then the given signals.
EFFECT: possibility to process underwater acoustic multi-pulse signal with a priori unknown carrier frequency, duration of impulses, intervals between them and form of modulation in the limits of each impulse.
FIELD: the invention refers to underwater acoustics particularly to radiating sections of hydro locators using circular antennas.
SUBSTANCE: the technical result of the invention is possibility of forming a relatively narrow direction characteristic (less then 40o-30o) in a wide diapason of frequencies by the sector of the circular antenna of relatively small wave dimensions. For obtaining the indicated result the mode of forming a frequency-independent direction characteristic by the sector of the multi-element hydro acoustic radiating circular antenna includes excitation of each n-element of the sector with an electric signal with a weighting coefficient , where ϕn - an angular position of the element of the antenna, taking a reading from the symmetry axle of the sector, ϕo -the half-width of the sector and radiation of acoustic signals by elements of the sector into water medium different by the fact, that electrical signals of excitation of each of n elements of the sector delay for a time , where r - the radius of the antenna; c- the sound speed in the water; α - a coefficient whose value is chosen in accordance with approximate formula .
EFFECT: possibility of forming a narrow direction characteristic in a width diapason of frequencies.