Throttle-free heat pump unit
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: throttle-free heat pump unit comprises heating and cooling circuits, compressors are positioned between the circuits. An additional reservoir containing a coolant is connected to the copper pipe on the side of the cooling circuit and upstream of the compressor via a motor operated valve.
EFFECT: invention use allows to perform heating and cooling of gases, liquids and solids, dehumidification of air and heat recovery with the possibility of independent control of heating and cooling circuits' temperature parameters.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water purification by crystallisation and can be used in everyday life, food industry and medicine. The water purification apparatus includes a temperature-controlled heat-exchange vessel 1, means of feeding source water for purification and means 2 of draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants, means 3 of cooling and freezing water and means 5 of melting ice with cooling 4 and heating elements 6, a control unit 7 connected to the means of feeding source water for purification and draining ice water and liquid concentrate of contaminants 2 from the heat-exchange vessel 1 and means of cooling and freezing water 3 and melting ice 5. The heat-exchange vessel 1 has a flat slit-type internal cavity or an annular slit-type cavity 15, and one of the walls of the heat-exchange vessel 1, which is free from the cooling 4 and heating elements 6, is made of transparent material and has one or more internal air cavities 17.
EFFECT: invention improves the quality of water purification and enables to monitor the purification process.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in compressor-type refrigeration systems. The method of heat transfer using three-component compositions comprising 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl, 1,1-difluoroethane and difluoromethane as the heat transfer fluid medium in refrigeration systems comprising heat exchangers operating in countercurrent mode or cross mode with countercurrent tendency.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of the units.
4 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to energy saving, particularly, to hot water supply or heating. Coolant is evaporated in evaporator under effects of low-potential heat and, in gaseous state, is fed to compressor to be compressed and forced at high pressure to condenser to change in fluid state at releasing the energy to be directed to heat power supply. Then, coolant is directed to throttle to get its pressure reduced and to get back into condenser. In case heat output is insufficient, one more compressor is actuated to up the coolant pressure at evaporator, hence, to up the evaporator temperature. Note here that refrigeration output portion is used for preparation of drinking water at cleaning of tap water by frosting of ice lumps thereof with subsequent incomplete defrosting and application of purified water for drinking or for production of distilled water by cooling of exhaust vent air to dew point and condensation of water vapours contained therein.
EFFECT: variation of heat output over notably wide range.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric engineering, namely, to a heat-generating electromechanical converter designed for heating and/or movement of liquid or gaseous medium. The device comprises an additional fixed element made of antifriction non-electroconductive material, which performs the functions of a radial and/or thrust sliding bearing, from polymer composite material on the basis of epoxide-diane resin with filler from fluoroplastic powder, cut glass fibre and additionally aluminium oxide Al2O3 or silicon dioxide SiO2, which makes it possible to increase quantity of heat removed from the primary winding.
EFFECT: increased coefficient of heat conductivity of a fixed heat-insulating element provides for reduced temperature of primary winding of a heat-generating electromechanical converter, which accordingly increases reliability of its operation.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to heat exchange and can be used for cooling of air or equipment, as well as for waste heat utilisation. As per one of the versions, a heat-to-cold conversion device includes the first heat exchanger 2, steam generator 3, liquid heat carrier (cooling agent) 4, a thin plate with hole 5, condenser 6, grid 7, the second heat exchanger 8, overflow valve 9, vertical pipeline 10, counter pressure valve 11, dosing mechanism 12, turbine with magnetic coupling 13, fan 14, the second thin plate with hole 15, and solar collector 16.
EFFECT: improving heat exchange efficiency, economy, ecological compatibility, as well as improving reliability and durability, enlarging an application scope and enlarging functional capabilities.
14 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water decontamination. Water cleaner comprises the following zones arranged in lengthwise vessel 1: water freezing, displacement of impurities from ice front and concentration of impurities as the brine, and transition of water from solid state to liquid state. Freezing zone accommodates circular freezer 2 and frozen water core 3 drive composed by toothed rollers 4 arranged there behind. Impurities displacement zone accommodates splitter arranged at frozen core center and circular heater 11 arranged there behind. Separate pipes 8, 12 are arranged at lengthwise vessel bottom to discharge impurities from said bottom. Said drive is equipped with extra frozen core booster composed by endless belt 15 with drive articulated with that of toothed rollers 4. Position of said endless belt 15 relative to vessel 1 is controlled by tension rollers 16.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, longer life of water cleaner.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device and method for air heating, air cooling and ventilation of rooms with the help of electric energy of centrifugal air pumps, an ammonia thermal pump, a controlled motor, heat exchangers, radiators, a controlled reduction valve, reversible electric motors, thermal controllers, pressure relays. In the mode of air heating and ventilation of rooms the ammonia thermal pump (ATP), while NH3 is boiling, it collects heat from air of rooms, and discharges air of rooms into atmosphere with temperature equal to atmosphere temperature. In the mode of air cooling and ventilation of rooms the ATP during NH3 collects heat from atmospheric air, and cooled air is discharged into rooms.
EFFECT: invention provides fresh air and permanent climate of rooms.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: all-purpose complex power system for generating electricity, cold and heat includes a wind motor aggregated with a compressor driven with it through a power module, an air accumulator, a heat exchanger with hot and cold circuits, a warm air consumer, a turbo-expansion machine aggregated with an electric motor driven with it, and a cold air consumer. The compressor is connected gas-dynamically with its inlet to atmosphere, and with its outlet through a hot circuit of the heat exchanger to the air accumulator inlet. The turbo-expansion machine is connected at the inlet gas-dynamically through a shutoff member to the air accumulator outlet, and at the outlet to the inlet of the cold air consumer. Inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger cold circuit are connected to each other through the warm air consumer. The power system includes an increased-pressure natural gas source, a natural gas consumer, an additional compressor with a drive and an additional turbo-expansion machine with a power consumer. The turbo-expansion machine with the power consumer are enclosed in a capsule. The additional compressor is connected at the inlet gas-dynamically to atmosphere, and at the outlet through the shutoff member to the air accumulator inlet. The additional turbo-expansion machine is connected at the inlet gas-dynamically through shutoff members to the natural gas source and to the air accumulator outlet and at the outlet through shutoff members to the natural gas consumer and to the cold air consumer inlet.
EFFECT: invention allows stable and effective supply to consumers of the specified amount of electric energy, cold and heat at reduced level of wind potential with additional improvement of consumer properties of the power system.
12 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: trigeneration plant on the basis of a microturbine motor comprises a compressor, a fuel combustion chamber, a gas turbine, an electric generator, a heat exchanger-regenerator with lines of direct and reverse flow. The gas turbine is installed on the same shaft with the compressor and the electric generator. The line of air supply into the compressor and the heat exchanger-regenerator with lines of direct and reverse flows are a part of the motor. The heat exchanger-regenerator is connected to the microturbine motor with lines of supply and make-up flows, at the outlet of which there is an absorption refrigerating machine.
EFFECT: higher efficiency factor, power saving, energy efficiency due to heat removal in a microturbine motor, a heat exchanger-regenerator for hot water supply and an absorption refrigerating machine from burnt gases of fuel for generation of electric and thermal energies and a low-temperature carrier for consumers.
SUBSTANCE: coolant after condensation is divided in a vortex into steam and supercooled liquid phases due to difference of pressures of condensation and suction, at the same time steam is sent for compression jointly with vapours from an evaporator, a small portion of supercooled liquid phase is sprayed and supplied into the suction tract of the compressor in the amount providing for minimum reheating of vapours in the end of compression, and the main flow of supercooled coolant is supplied into the evaporator.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce specific costs of external energy for transfer of a heat unit compared to other reverse cycles and to increase coefficient of heat pump transformation.
FIELD: combined cooling and refrigeration systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises expanding air in the turbine up to a low temperature, heating air in the first heat exchanger with utilized heat, compressing air to the initial pressure in the compressor, withdrawing heat in the second feeding heat exchanger, and supplying compressed dry air to the receiver where the air is heated.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: air-conditioning and plenum-exhaust ventilation systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed air-conditioning unit has three-section housing consisting of two peripheral sections and one central section located between them; it has two opposing suction ports for delivery of air to sections; each peripheral section has one delivery port for connection with respective fan and evacuation of air from peripheral sections where compressor and condenser are located; air-conditioning unit is also provided with evaporator of refrigerating machine and shut-off valve connected with central section and located between pair of ports; valve is made in form of plate and is used for control of air flow; this plate is mounted in central section between opposing suction ports; it is turnable relative to central section for disconnection of opposing suction ports and peripheral sections; each peripheral section is connected with respective opposing suction port, thus admitting the air to peripheral sections.
EFFECT: enhanced energy efficiency and operational reliability; facilitated procedure of assembly.
24 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: pipe-line systems.
SUBSTANCE: heater for fluid has housings of hydrodynamic converters which are made of diverging members at the ends of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the members is concave and is mating to the surface which is defined by the rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. Each face of the vortex pipe is provided with the flow generator which is mounted with a space relation to it. The flow generator is made of a disk whose symmetry axis is coaxial to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The space between the face of the vortex pipe and the surface of the flow generator, which faces it, receives at least four flow deflectors. Each flow deflector is made of a plate whose surface is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the adjusting chambers is concave and mating to the surface which is defined by rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency .
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heating and cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heating of buildings and cooling of refrigerating chambers using high-pressure gases, for instance, natural gas. Proposed system contains vortex tube installed on gas main line after preliminary gas preparation plant, heating system and hot-water supply system with heating devices, heat exchanger and pump, and also cold supply system with coil in refrigerating chamber and pump. All components of systems are coupled by straight and back pipelines. Coils interconnected by jumper pipe are arranged from outer of vortex chamber and heated gas outlet pipeline of vortex tube. Segments displaced relative to each other through one turn of coil mounted on said segments are arranged on inner surface of pipeline of heated gas outlet at opposite sides. Coil is connected with outer coils and straight pipeline of heating and hot-water supply systems provided with controller connected electrically by impulse lines with inner and outer air temperature sensors and actuating mechanism rigidly coupled through shaft with control element installed at outlet of heated gas of vortex tube. Coil placed inside cooled gas outlet branch pipe communicates hydraulically with pump and, through straight pipe line, with coil of refrigerating chamber.
EFFECT: improved environment protection.
FIELD: energy conversion into heat by liquid parameter change, particularly to obtain heat used in raw hydrocarbon gathering, preparation and refining, in chemistry and oil chemistry, to heat hydrogen-containing liquid polluted with mechanical injuries, salt and gels.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating vortex flow of cavitating liquid by utilizing liquid pressure and providing following linear liquid flow; providing cavitating liquid flow rotation at speed which provides creation of central and peripheral areas in which positive and negative ions of dissociated liquid molecules are accumulated during cavitation thereof. The negative ions are gathered in peripheral area under the action of centrifugal force. Positive ions having lesser mass are accumulated in central area of liquid flow. This results in obtaining potential difference between central and peripheral areas of liquid flow.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of liquid flow energy conversion into heat along with electric power obtaining.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engineering of steam compression systems and heat exchangers.
SUBSTANCE: reversible steam compression system has compressor, internal heat exchanger, expanding device and external heat exchanger, connected by pipelines in working connection for forming of a single system. Internal and external heat exchangers are mounted in main contour. Compressor and expanding device are mounted in sub-contours, connected to main contour by means of flow switch devices for making it possible to switch system from cooling mode to heating mode. Reversible heat exchanger for liquid coolant, in particular, for carbon dioxide, in steam compression system contains several mutually interconnected sections, made with possible serial passage of air through them, having coolant contour, and is connected to mutually connected first and second sections. Flow of liquid coolant is witched from heating mode to cooling mode by means of flow switching devices, mounted in appropriate sections.
EFFECT: improved efficiency.
2 cl, 46 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow into and thermal energy. Proposed station contains dam, conduit system, hydraulic turbines and electric generators. It includes at least one swirl heat generator whose injection branch pipe is furnished with water pressure transmitter and is connected with conduit system through adapter provided with water pressure regulator made, for instance, in form of shutter whose drive is connected with water pressure transmitter.
EFFECT: possibility of generation heat energy for consumers in addition to electric energy.
FIELD: heat engineering, in particular, used gas heat utilizing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has heat carrier circulation contour comprising contact economizer with used drying agent inlet branch pipe and cooled used drying agent outlet branch pipe, heat pump comprising compressor, condenser, throttle and evaporator connected to circulation contour upstream of contact economizer. Tubular heat-exchanger is positioned upstream of contact economizer. Influx air is heated in tubular heat-exchanger and is then supplied into convective drier.
EFFECT: increased economy of used drying agent heat utilizing apparatus owing to reduced consumption of power for driving of heat pump compressor and more complete utilization of used drying agent heat owing to preliminary cooling of drying agent to saturation state.
FIELD: methods for exposure to the flow of liquid medium, applicable in hydrodynamics, mainly in heat-exchange and mass-transfer apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in formation of the primary flow of fluid working medium, formation is accomplished outside the space region of the heat generator, a translational motion is imparted to the primary flow, an external disturbance is applied to the flow of fluid working medium inside the space of the heat generator, the secondary flows of fluid working medium are formed, and the flow of fluid working medium is removed in the direction of the outflow, the primary flow is formed in a pipe-line, whose diameter equals the diameter of the inlet pipe connection of the heat generator and is within 50 to 120 mm, the flow has characteristics of a laminar rectilinear flow, a rotary-translational motion is imparted to it at a rate provided by the pressure in the pipe-line within 3 to 140 atm. The device for liberation of energy has a vortex tube, hydrodynamic converters of liquid medium motion made in the form of cones at the ends of the vortex tube, a flow shaper whose axis of symmetry is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vortex tube, and a flow dissector made in the form of a plate whose surface is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the vortex tube, the vortex tube is made with helical ducts on the inner wall of the cylindrical part of an elastic laminated plastic and is provided with a metal casing enveloping with a clearance the outer surface of the vortex tube.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: cooling-heating devices.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in acceleration of gas to the supersonic speed in a contoured nozzle, delivery of it to a tube and extraction of cold from the tube outer surface. The gas is subjected to overspeeding on spiral guides located inside the tube, then cold is extracted from the tube outer surface and then heat is extracted from the stagnant flow at the tube outlet. The cooling-heating device has a tube made of a heat-conducting material, and a contoured nozzle. A spindle-shaped insert is positioned in the tube axis, spiral guides are located on the insert surface.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg