Batter drainage of earthworks
SUBSTANCE: batter drainage on the lower slope is made of prefabricated gabion mattresses 1 of modular design with the width 1-1.5 m, the thickness 0.4-0.6 m and the length up to 2.5 m, and from the underlying layer 5 of the light fascines 2. The underlying layer 5 of light fascines 2 in the base and gabion mattresses 1 from above are bundled with galvanized metal wire. Along the top row of mattresses 1 with deepening into the slope the heavy mattresses of bags 6 with local soil and vegetation are stacked, which are reliably bundled with each other and with gabion mattresses 1 on the slope. At the foot of the drainage in the downstream above the gabion mattresses 1 the stone backfill 7 of gravel and pebble soil is made. The efficiency of the drain device design is improved.
EFFECT: batter drainage in the offered design can be most effectively used in critical conditions of rivers of plains and foothill areas, where low pressure earthen dams and dikes of fine sand and clay soils are erected.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods for prevention of soil and groundwater pollution, in particular to the creation of concrete blankets on the landfills and storage of industrial, household and mainly liquid wastes. Subgrade 1 is prepared and protective layer 2 is arranged in it. Protective layer 2 is previously placed between two layers of geotextile 3 and 4. Mixture of sodium and calcium bentonitic clay 5 is used as the protective layer 2 in ratio of 75% Na-bentonite and 25% Ca-bentonite. Layer of mineral soil 6 with surface treated with fixing agent 7 is laid on top of the protective layer 2. Polymer liquid emulsion from wastes of polyisobutylene is used as a fixing agent at t=34-40°C.
EFFECT: high operational reliability, durability, as well as stability of coating on the slopes and in case of subsidences of the base are provided.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to hydraulic engineering, namely to the means for strengthening the surfaces of various objects of natural or synthetic origin, including the banks and beds of watercourses, surfaces of dams and dikes, as well as underwater lines of pipelines, bridge supports. Besides, the device may find application also in the field of construction. Unit of movable joint for web forming of concrete mats comprises the connecting element and fastenings. Fastenings are embedded into the concrete units of mats. According to the first option of the device, the units are asymmetric in plan and are designed with bevels, forming the cavity in the web. According to the second option of the device, the units are designed with recesses outside the plane of maximum size of the unit in plan, forming the cavity in the web. According to the third option of the device, the units are designed with bevels or recesses in its corner portion, forming the cavity in the web. Connecting element is disposed in the cavity indicated in options of the device, and is connected with fastenings with possibility of unit displacement.
EFFECT: protection of mat fastening against the mechanical damages and manufacturability of creation of movable joint of concrete mats are increased.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. For predicting the destruction of riverbanks, including the determining of adverse sites of the surveyed territories and ranking the sites, the coastal zone of the river is preliminary examined and the coastal areas with the square S equal to 1 m2 are selected. Then, on each of the selected sites the site square, covered with vegetation, is determined, they are summed and the square1 is obtained, m2. Then the rate of total projective covering soil with vegetation is calculated as the ratio S1:S,%, on the same sites the benchmarks are set at a distance of 2, 4, 6 meters from the shore horizon and the readings on the ground level on the benchmark are taken as the reference point of the condition monitoring of sites of riverbank. Then the wash height h, cm, is monthly measured at each benchmark, relative to the reference point, and then the average total index of wash height hav in three benchmarks is calculated, then a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the processes of soil losses from coastal areas of the river bank is performed, and on its basis the relationship is set between the value of the total index hav and the total projective cover, and then the degree of degradation of sites is evaluated, they are ranked to undisturbed and disturbed. Prediction of destruction of sites of the riverbank is made on the basis of the complex use of total index of wash height hav and total projective cover.
EFFECT: invention provides increase in reliability of prediction of destruction of river banks.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to coast-protecting structures. The method to protect river coasts at foothills consists in the fact that at first they horizontally lay reinforced concrete beams 4, to the ends of which at the side of the river they fix tetrahedrons 5, the skeleton of which is represented only by structure ribs. After that, gabions 1 are laid, besides, stone laid into gabion boxes protrudes from net cells by 3-4 cm. The gabion structure is protected from abrasive at high speeds of the flow and increased concentration of abrasive.
EFFECT: increased reliability of coast-protecting structures.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a protective system, in particular to the protective system intended for preservation and restoration of the shoreline. The protective system (1) comprises a gabion having opposite side walls (13, 15) interconnected at regular intervals along the length of the gabion by several separating walls (7, 9), and the gaps between neighbouring pairs of partition walls (7, 9) bound together with the side walls at least one separate compartment (7) of the gabion. At least one separate compartment of the gabion is bounded by respective opposite side walls or opposite parts of the side walls in the respective opposite side walls. The partition walls are hingedly connected to the side walls, and the separate compartment of the gabion extends from it outwardly with at least partial converging of panels of the open frame (21), forming in whole or in part the protruding compartment (5) of the gabion. The method of preservation or restoration the shoreline comprises the following steps, including creation of the above-mentioned protective system; at least partial filling at least one compartment with the filling material, preferably sand, stones and/or vegetation; at least partial filling the protruding compartment with oyster shells, and performing at least partial facing the shoreline with the protective system.
EFFECT: protective system is used for changing the direction of the wave energy, especially sea wave energy, to preserve the shoreline, as well as for restoration the shoreline.
36 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a landslide protection structure on the basis of a collapsed slope there is a bed of flexible mats, which are made of tight rows of light fascines laid normally to the line of slope inclination. On top of flexible mats there is a fixture of gabion mats with drainage devices made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid by alternating rows and wrapped into a gabion net. Flexible mats in the base and gabion mats on top of them are connected to each other by a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. A drainage prism from rock filling is arranged along the foot of the collapsed slope. Above the slope fixture from flexible and gabion mats there is an additional fixture with low inclination from similar gabion mats with drainage devices. Gabion mats of slope and additional fixtures are tightly tied with the help of reinforcement wire and are fixed to reinforced concrete anchors arranged at a certain distance from each other in stable soil behind collapsed massif of the slope.
EFFECT: reliable protection of different objects located under slopes, where landslides and collapses of soil massifs are possible.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used when creating the impervious protection of water entities, canals and reservoirs of industrial wastes made on subsiding soils. Ground base is prepared. Bentomate mattress is laid. Revetment from concrete or reinforced concrete slabs is performed. In this case, strip of bentomate mattress is placed on mattress under the joints of concrete slabs. Width of additional strip of bentomate mattress depends on geological and subsiding soil properties.
EFFECT: high production manufacturability and simplification of works on creation of impervious coating is provided.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes orientation of a flexible concrete mat (FCM) in respect to a bottom surface by its one or another side depending on type of soil. The method to install the FCM according to the first version includes orientation of FCM to the bottom surface with the side having higher penetration power as water flow in a water course exceeds the value of non-washing speed for this section of the water course and/or if characteristics of bottom surface soil are sufficient for FCM self-submersion into soil under gravity. Otherwise the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with the side having the lower penetration power. The method of FCM installation according to the second version in case, if the bottom surface is formed mainly by rock, half-rock or clayey soils includes FCM orientation to the bottom surface with a side, on which blocks have bases of flat shape and larger area in plan compared to the opposite side. If the bottom surface is formed mainly by sandy or macrofragmental soils, then orientation of FCM to the bottom surface is carried out with a side, on which blocks have bases of smaller area in plan or are made without bases. If the bottom surface of the water course mainly contains sludges, sapropels, peated soils or peats, then the FCM is oriented to the bottom surface with its any side. The flexible concrete mat comprises concrete blocks, connected to each other row by row and in rows with at least one connection element. Surfaces in these blocks at the upper and lower side of the FCM are made mainly narrowing in direction from the central part of the blocks. The bases of the blocks have flat shape at one or both sides of the FCM. Ratios of average values of the base area, height of blocks and angles of inclination of the side surface of blocks must correspond to the laws given in the patent claim. The coefficient of asymmetry between FCM sides exceeds or its equal to 1.05.
EFFECT: higher reliability of FCM adhesion to protected bottom surfaces of any type.
17 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and nature conservation construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The anti-landslide system comprises a stepped arrangement of gabions and heavy fascines at the foot of the collapsed slope. Along the foot of the first stage made of three rows of heavy fascines 4, there is a pile grid 13. The pile grid 13 is made of a group of piles 14, driven into the base at a certain distance from each other along one line, and a metal lathing 15. The lathing 15 is arranged on top of piles at the height of the first step. Gabion mats 5 with drainage devices that create sites of steps 1, 2, 3, are made as cut into a collapsed soil massif and with an inclination towards the retaining walls. On top of the last step the gabion mat 6 of the site is arranged further than the line of possible massif collapse, to its stable soils.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of system operation as an anti-slide structure.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction and may be used to protect coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses. The method includes laying of gabions onto the collapsed slope. At first on the base of the collapsed slope they arrange a preparation from flexible mats 2, made from tight rows of light fascines, laid normally to the line of the slope inclination. Then on top of the flexible mats 2 they arrange a fixture from gabion mats 3 with drainage devices, made of light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. Flexible mats 2 in the base and gabion mats 3 on top of them are connected to each other with a galvanised metal wire with diameter of 2.5-3 mm. Along the foot of the collapsed slope they arrange a drainage prism 6 from drop-fill rock. Reliable protection is provided for different facilities located under slopes, where there are landslides and collapses of soil massifs. The method may be most effectively used, when the height of the possible collapse of the soil massif does not exceed 10-12 m.
EFFECT: protection of coastal areas, roads and other facilities against landslides and collapses.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to techniques of drainage of agricultural land of nonchernozem belt with closed drainage and the techniques of use of these lands. The method comprises loosening the drained soils to a depth of at least 60 m. In order to ensure the required by the plants of soil humidity conditions, preventing the possible damage to the pipes of closed drainage and providing industrial applicability of deep loosening, the deep loosening is carried out to a depth of hl, determined in each case from the condition of compliance with the following requirements: (hr)min ≤ hl ≤ (hr)max;(1), hl ≤ (hr)min - D - ΣΔhi , (2), where ΣΔhi = Δh1 + Δh2 + Δh3 + Δh4; (3), 60 ≤ hl ≤ ht , (4) where (hr)min and (hr)max are the minimum and maximum depth of penetration into the trench backfill of the closed drainage of the root system of cultivated culture, respectively, cm; (hd)min is the minimum depth of placement of closed drainage pipes of the project at the site where deep loosening is planned to be carried out, cm; D is the outer diameter of the closed drainage pipes at the site (cm); ΣΔhi is the sum of corrections (cm), including: the correction which depends on the accuracy of the topographic altitude survey of soil surface of the drained site, Δh1; the corrections taking into account the technogenic erosion of the soil surface during carrying out crop-engineering and land planning Δh2 and during ploughing Δh3; correction taking into account the depth of the gauge made by the tractor on the soil surface during deep loosening, Δh4; ht is the maximum possible depth of loosening soil due of the technology level and characterising the industrial feasibility of the inventive method; at that in each point of the drainage trench the thickness of the powdering layer of the drainage pipe over the bottom of the trench mp > hd - hl, where hd is the depth of placement of the closed drainage pipe. Prior to loosening the soil on the drained part the value of the set depth of deep loosening is set on the mechanism of the ripper when setting up, preparing it for work.
EFFECT: positive result is to obtain by a landholder of closed drainage durable and reliable in operation, providing design humidity conditions of soil during its operation for at least a normative term of service.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises drains 1, an inlet collector 2, and an outlet collector 3, between which the storage tank 4 with a siphon 5 is placed. The descending branch 6 of the siphon 5 is brought to the drain well 7 on the level of the outlet collector 3. The float 8 with the plate 9, suspended on a holding traction 10 of the float drive with a valve 11 is arranged, respectively, at the level of the siphon neck 5. The float 8 is placed on the corresponding critical depth of groundwater for the soil and climatic and hydrological conditions of the area, in which the drainage system is located. In the wall 12 of the tank 4, a hole 13 is made for the intake pipe 14, through which the tank 4 is connected to the draining storage water intakes 15. The storage water intakes 15 are connected to the openings 16 of sections of the inlet collector 2 at the location of the drains 1. When mounting the filter storage water intakes 15 the filling of waterproof materials 17 is used, such as sand, gravel, slag or synthetic wastes of light industry.
EFFECT: invention enables to automate fully the process of maintaining the level of groundwater at the level corresponding to the critical, ensures the supply of a certain amount of water from the groundwater in the root layer of soil, which increases moisture reserves for crops and enables decrease partly the irrigation rates, which provides saving water resources, the necessary regime of moistening and aeration of soil is ensured by creating an optimal level of groundwater in the different phases of plant vegetation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: construction method of adits containing a water-receiving element in the form of a solid unit of n number (n>2) of vertical longitudinal toe filters involves trench excavation by means of an excavating and drainage machine, laying into it of a drain pipe covered with protective filter material, and refilling of the trench by means of a padding device moving synchronously with the drainage machine and provided with a bunker for filter material with a drain chute. Laying of the drain pipe covered with protective filter material and refilling of the trench is performed simultaneously. The drain pipe covered with protective filter material is padded throughout the trench width to the depth of 15 cm above its crown from a duct to which filter material is supplied from the bunker via the drain chute. The duct represents a rectangular parallelepiped having width equal to trench width, and height that is somewhat bigger than trench depth. Duct bottom is located near the trench bottom at the distance of padding layer thickness of the drain pipe relative to the trench bottom. The duct is rigidly attached with front wall 7 to housing 8 of the excavating and drainage machine. On rear 9 wall of the duct there installed on the outer side are (n-1) vertical partition walls 10 parallel to each other and to walls 1 of the trench with a possibility of changing the distance between them according to thickness of the filters. Height of each of partition walls 10 is equal to the duct height. The filter material bunker is divided into sections by means of partition walls with a possibility of changing the distance between them and their number so that the number of bunker sections is more by one than the number of vertical longitudinal toe filters of the adit. Each bunker section is provided with its own drain chute, from which each adjacent vertical longitudinal filter is filled with heterogeneous filter material.
EFFECT: providing a possibility of filter refilling of the trench of the adit; improving hydrological action of adits and ecological and economic efficiency of draining of low-water-permeable middle and heavy loamy and clay soils.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device is located at drainage-watering collector and drainage network. Device contains a drain well 2 with installed drain tip 1, shutdown device, drive and chamber 10 connected by means of the additional chamber 28 with collector 27 cavity. The device is provided with installed self-regulating gear 3 of the regulator in well, and comprises head regulator made in form of the membrane 13 provided at bottom with mesh-type protecting limiter 22 of membrane 13 movement. The membrane 13 is secured at top to the casing 4. The above membrane cavity 12 is connected with atmosphere and with valve 14 and rod 16 by means of two-arm lever 17 with output valve 20 closing the hole 21 in the chamber 10 bottom. The rod 18 of the output valve 20 has piston 19 for water supply in the cavity of the collector 27. The output valve 20 is located in the additional chamber 28, in its side wall the calibrated hole 29 is made, it is connected with well 2. The chamber 10 bottom has inlet hole 23 with valve 24 connected with float 25 installed with possibility of the latter abutment to the limiting shoulders 26.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the device, operation reliability and quality of the water regulation in the drain system.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises a device of drainage trench with a drainage pipe laid on its bottom with a protective-filtering material, the filtering elements in the form of prisms of soil of humus horizon, arranged in a trench to the arable layer, and the final backfilling the trench with soil of humus horizon. Each drainage trench is made with the depth of at least 1.1 m and the width of at least 50 cm across the direction of flow of surface waters at an angle of not more than 30 degrees to the horizontal. The drainage pipe with protective-filtering material is sprinkled with soil of humus horizon, cut off from the upper edges of the trench, not less than 15 cm above the pipe crown. The filtering elements are made in the form of a single block composed of the nth odd number (n≥3) of the vertical regular prisms parallel to the trench walls, in which the prism of soil of humus horizon alternates with the prism from the excavated soils. The width of the prism from the excavated soil is two times greater than the width of the prism of soil of humus horizon, and the width of the trench B and the width of each odd prism of soil of humus horizon b"n" are related to each other as b"n"=2B/(3n-1).
EFFECT: improvement of hydrological action of the closed regulatory network, increase in efficiency of the use of topsoil and the ecological and economic efficiency of drainage of average-loamy soils.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of enhancing the drying action of close collectors consists in supplementing them with deep loosening of soil, comprising periodic deep loosening at an angle to the direction of drainage pipes. Each subsequent periodic deep loosening is carried out in the direction opposite to the previous one. Continuous deep loosening of soil is carried out each time with the ripper with the V-shaped working body necessarily in two directions: the first direction - at an angle of 90° to the direction of the drainage pipe of the collector, the second direction - at an angle of 150° to the first one.
EFFECT: accelerated drainage of surface water and temporary water from the plough layer, obtaining by the landholder of the closed collector durable and reliable in operation, providing the design intensity of soil drying and its moisture regime required to grow plants, during the minimum standard service life of the drainage system.
SUBSTANCE: system includes supply drain lines 1, manifold 2, and storage well 3, in which siphon block 7 is mounted. The system is provided with self-regulating mechanism 4 of ground water level installed in well 3 and consisting of float chamber 6 rigidly fixed in the upper position above the ridge of siphon block 7 and connected by means of a rigid float drive through valve 8 with a blind section of pipe 13 on a descending branch of siphon block 7. The descending branch of siphon block 7 is connected to discharge pipe 14. Float chamber 6 is connected via hydraulic channel 12 to well 3. The lower part of well 3 is sealed, and above discharge pipe 14 it has outlet opening 15 with branch pipe 17, which is shut off with a level control by means of an additional float drive for control of gate 16. Float gate 16 has L-shaped lever 19 with flange 20, on which float 18 and horizontal plate 23 is fixed. Branch pipe 17 is connected to storage well 3 below the ridge of siphon block 7 by value Δh providing maximum design water filling of well 3 with further discharge to discharge pipe 14. Value Δh is calculated by the following formula: Δh=h1-h2. The self-regulating mechanism is connected to hydraulic channel 12 and well 3 as per a principle of communicating vessels. When the level of the ridge of siphon block 7 is achieved, a charging device is actuated and water discharge through siphon block 7 is performed in a pressure mode to the level of the inlet opening of its ascending branch. The level control in well 3 is actuated when maximum water level achieves the fixed restraining bracket 21, and opening of opening 15 with gate 16 is performed.
EFFECT: use of the invention will allow automating of a ground water level control process and maintaining correct soil humidity balance; automatic flushing of the well with pressure water flow.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method consists in creating a closed water area in the form of a storage pond 8 with the area of accumulation of sludge from liquid flows. The storage pond 8 is a water area with a levee 12, in which body the inlet water intake hole is made, and the opposite - a water receiver 9 of the water intake pipeline 22. According to the first embodiment of the method, at the bottom of the storage pond 8 the closed air-injecting devices 14, 15 are mounted to form a number of beams diverging from the device as horizontal perforated pipelines 16 in the direction of the base of the upper slope of the dam 12. The perforated pipelines 16 end with a dead end. The air-injecting devices 14, 15 are connected to the central supply pipeline 17, 18 connected to a source of compressed air. With the increase in the accumulation of sediment in the form of sludge in the zones of the storage pond 8 the air supply in portions into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is resumed with brief connection of the compressor 19 on the command of the time relay 20 on the air duct in the intake pipeline of the closed air-injecting device. Breaking through the holes of the perforated pipeline 16, the compressed air loosens and roils the sludge, with simultaneous saturation of manure flow with it, and transports it to the discharge water intake pipeline 22. As the reduction in the sludge layer in the storage pond 8 the air supply into the air-injecting devices 14, 15 is stopped. According to the second embodiment of the method, in the storage pond a floating platform is placed, on which a compressor is located, connected to the pressure hose air duct. The nozzle of the pressure hose air duct is made in the form of a metal trunk with a perforation in its end part, attached to the rod with graduations in height and in the section of sludge residual accumulation, the end of which is inserted into the precipitate formation. The floating platform is attached on both sides of the dam using a rope and block system in the areas of erosion of the sediment of sludge precipitation.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of transport capacity of roiled manure flow coming from the livestock complex, and increased in functional capabilities of the storage pond with possible disposal of flows on irrigated fields of reclamation.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of soil with simultaneous formation of soil ridges. After summer deep tillage before planting herbs the levelling and compacting is carried out in a single pass with smooth water-filled rollers. Planting is carried out with a mixture of stand of grass growing naturally on sod-podzol sandy loam soils with band stripes. Overseeding of tall-stem cultivated crop of corn is carried out with simultaneous formation of the ridges between the bands, and inter-row processing is not carried out. The tall-stem cultivated crop of corn, which has not reached its complete ripeness, is left for winter. The harvesting is carried out on the second year in spring before the vegetation of grass with grinding and removal of the stems with leaves from the field for dry feed with the subsequent feed additive. In addition, overseeding grass between the band stripes is carried out into mechanically damaged ridges, and top dressing of grass is carried out, which is harvested during the complete vegetation season. The distance between the stripes is taken as 20-25 m, and the row spacing of corn is 70 cm.
EFFECT: creation of an optimal snow cover which protects plants from freezing, and the accumulation of moisture in the spring period for plant development.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises a collector 1 connected with the drains 2 entering into it, vertical tubes 3 and a device for flushing of sediments. The device for flushing is made of perforated pipes 4 in the form of air outlets 7 arranged inside the drains 2 attached to the upper part of the pipes above the bottom. The perforated pipe 4 by the metal barrel 6, placed in the tube 3 is connected to the pressure hose 8, which inlet is connected to the discharge pipe 9 with the valve 10 of the receiver 11. The receiver 11 is connected to the compressor 12 generating the compressed air. The compressor 12 is connected to the timing relay. The invention increases the transporting capacity of disturbance sediments and other compounds in the drain cavity and accelerates their removal into the open channel 17.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of flushing and increased drainage term by air exposure to sediments.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.