Method for measuring liquid moisture content
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for measuring the liquid moisture content comprises subjecting the controlled dielectric fluid by electromagnetic waves at the measurement site at two different frequencies ƒ1 and ƒ2, to which correspond different values of the dielectric water permeability, and the corresponding values of the dielectric liquid permittivity ∈1 and ∈2 are determined by the result of these subjections, wherein the moisture content is determined as a result of the joint conversion of the measured values ∈1 and ∈2, by the phase shift Δϕ1 and Δϕ2, by the formula where where εb(ƒ1) and εb(ƒ2) - the dielectric water permeability at the frequencies ƒ1 and ƒ2, accordingly, the - the nominal value of the dielectric dehydrated fluid permeability.
EFFECT: improving measurement accuracy of the moisture content is the technical invention result.
SUBSTANCE: device represents the first operating sensitive element in the form of the first resonator - a piece of a coaxial line, which is filled with a test liquid, between the hollow internal and external conductors of which an arrangement is made for a set of one or more metal cylinders coaxial to them and put one into another and in turn short-circuited and opened on one of their ends, and a reference sensitive element in the form of the second resonator filled with a reference liquid, which is a cavity of the internal conductor of the first resonator; with that, both resonators are connected through the corresponding elements of excitation and pickup of oscillation and a line of communication of these resonators with the corresponding electronic units, the outputs of which are connected to the input of a functional converter connected with its output to an indicator. The second resonator is made similar to the first resonator, i.e. it is coaxial; with that, its external conductor is represented with an inner surface of the hollow internal conductor, the internal conductor - a central metal rod, and between itself and the above external conductor an arrangement is made for a set of one or more metal cylinders coaxial to them and put one into another, which are in turn short-circuited and opened on one of their ends.
EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, and namely to humidity measurement of fibrous materials, and can be used in textile and cotton industry. The proposed method involves arrangement between two electrodes of a fibre sample, application to them of alternating voltage and monitoring of current flowing through the material. Fibre sample pressing is performed till its volumetric density of material, which exceeds 400 kg/m3; alternating voltage with frequency of ≤50 Hz and 20-100 kHz is subsequently applied to the electrodes; corresponding currents (I1 and I2) flowing between the electrodes are monitored, and a value of offset current flowing through the sample is determined by the following formula:
EFFECT: improvement of sensitivity and measurement accuracy of humidity of a fibre.
5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of a property of a dielectric material comprises a generator of electromagnetic oscillations, the first isolating element connected by an outlet with an inlet of a phase changer, a transmitting and a receiving antennas, a detector connected with its outlet to a unit of processing of information and an attenuator. To achieve the technical result, the first and second waveguide tees are introduced, as well as the second isolating element. The outlet of the generator of electromagnet oscillations is connected with the first arm of the first waveguide tee, the second arm of which is connected to the inlet of the first isolating element, the outlet of the phase changer via the attenuator is connected with the first arm of the second waveguide tee, the second arm of which is connected to the receiving antenna, the third arm of the second waveguide tee is connected to the inlet of the detector, the third arm of the first waveguide tee via the second isolating element is connected to the transmitting antenna.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement.
^FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in the method to measure complex dielectric permeability of liquid and loose substances in wide range of frequencies in one cell used in the range of frequencies of higher than 100 MHz as a section of a coaxial line, and in the range below 1 MHz as a cylindrical condenser. In the range of frequencies above 100 MHz the dielectric permeability is calculated via measured values of the complex coefficient of transfer of electromagnetic wave (parameter of scattering matrix S12), and in the range of frequencies below 1 MHz - via measurement of full conductivity, the novelty is the fact that for measurements in the frequency range of 0.3-100 MHz an additional section of the coaxial line is used with wave resistance of 50 Ohm and section larger than in a cell, the inner diameter of the external conductor of which is determined in accordance with the formula
EFFECT: method for measurement of CDP provides for its measurement in one cell with low error in the entire frequency range from 1 kHz to 6000 MHz.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to detect solidity of liquid flow in a pipeline, when the liquid flow is exposed to electric field, the controlled flow is probed with an electromagnet wave, and the electromagnet wave passing through the flow is received. At the same time flow probing is carried out orthogonally to power lines of the electric field, amplitude of electric field of the elliptically polarised wave that passed through the liquid flow is measured, and the measured value of amplitude of the electric field of this wave determines solidity of the liquid flow in the pipeline.
EFFECT: simplified procedure of flow solidity measurement.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of measuring moisture content of a substance moved through a conveyor with extended metal rollers, where a detecting element is placed with or without contact with the conveyor belt and the value of its information-bearing parameter is determined, from which the value of moisture content is determined. The detecting element used is a piece of a long line, at least one of two conductors of which is one or more neighbouring extended metal rollers of the conveyor. Electromagnetic vibrations are excited on this piece of long line. The information-bearing parameter used is one of its resonance frequencies of electromagnetic vibrations, particularly the main resonance frequency.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring moisture content of a controlled substance.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: radiophysical method for detection of physical clay in soils relates to methods of measurements based on microwaves and may be used in agriculture, land reclamation, when making an earth cadastre, etc. for detection of grain-size class of soils, in the radiophysical method for detection of physical clay content the novelty is the fact that in order to reduce time for making a measurement, the measurements are carried out at one value of soil humidity, exceeding the maximum quantity of bound water Wt, at the same time the accurate measurement of soil humidity is not required; soil samples after soaking are maintained in a tight container for 1-2 days, measurements are done on an index of refraction at the soil temperature t from 10 to 40°C at frequencies f1=0.35 GHz and f2=1.75 GHz, the difference of refraction indices Δn=n(f1)-n(f2) is found at these frequencies; the mass fraction of the physical clay C in soil is found based on the following ratio: C=(-0.0392·t+1.992)·Δn+0.0031·t-0.0594.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of measurements through time reduction.
SUBSTANCE: analysed liquid is placed inside a cylindrical cavity resonator whose longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the horizontal; H011 and E010 electromagnetic oscillations are successively excited; the Q-factor of the cylindrical cavity resonator with oscillations H011 and E010 before and after placing the analysed liquid into the resonator is measured and volume concentration of the precipitated moisture is determined from the measurement of the Q-factor of the resonator; the cylindrical cavity resonator is further filled with the analysed liquid; after a time t≥10 s, the liquid is completely removed from the resonator such that residual moisture remains on the bottom end wall and the volume concentration of the precipitated moisture in the range of up to 0.4% is determined from the measurement of the Q-factor of the cylindrical cavity resonator with oscillation E010, and in the range 0.4-2% from the measurement of the Q-factor of the cylindrical cavity resonator with oscillation H011.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining volume concentration of precipitated moisture in liquid hydrocarbons.
SUBSTANCE: reference liquid sample with real and imaginary permittivity much higher than that of the analysed hydrocarbon is taken and placed in separate intertwined pipes. The analysed and reference liquids are heated with microwaves while rotating the pipes at not less than 3 rpm. Relative bulky moisture content of the liquid hydrocarbon is determined using the formula where Δt1e is the heating temperature of the liquid hydrocarbon with known relative bulky moisture content V0; Δt2e is the heating temperature of the reference liquid sample together with the liquid hydrocarbon with known relative bulky moisture content V0; Δt1 is the heating temperature of the liquid hydrocarbon with unknown relative bulky moisture content V; Δt2 is the heating temperature of reference liquid sample together with the liquid hydrocarbon with unknown relative bulky moisture content V, wherein the initial temperature values of the samples before microwave heating during measurements Δt1e, Δt1 Δt2e, Δt2 are equal to each other.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining moisture content.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: in the proposed method capacity of SHF radiation reflected from a researched cluster in a cereal crop is measured, and is compared to the capacity of the SHF radiation reflected from the cluster of a cereal crop with available or basic moisture, for instance, 7%, and using a calibration curve that relates variation of SHF radiation capacity reflected from the cereal crop cluster with moisture, and grain moisture is detected.
EFFECT: possibility to remotely perform efficient monitoring of grain moisture in cereals that grow in the fields and to make a decision on the time of harvesting start.
FIELD: petrochemistry and laboratories such as those for measuring moisture percentage and salinity influencing engine efficiency and breakdown voltage of transformer oil.
SUBSTANCE: analyzed specimen in the form of small-diameter rod is placed in first cylindrical resonance cavity and E010 or E011 electromagnetic field is excited to determine low or high values of moisture volume concentration, respectively. Working Q of first cylindrical resonance cavity that serves as measure of moisture volume concentration in liquid medium being analyzed is measured; then analyzed specimen in the form of small-diameter cylindrical rod is placed in second cylindrical resonance cavity, E010 or E011 electromagnetic field is excited to determine low or high values of moisture volume concentration, respectively, and working Q of second cylindrical cavity is measured at frequency ensuring that loss due to rotational relaxation of water polar molecules is comparable with that due to salinity. In this case working Q of second cylindrical resonance cavity serves as moisture salinity measure and frequency of first cylindrical resonance cavity is chosen to ensure that loss due to rotational relaxation of polar water molecules in microwave region is much higher than that due to salinity. Device used to evaluate moisture content and its salinity in liquid media has cylindrical resonance cavity with pipeline carrying analyzed liquid disposed on its axis, tunable microwave oscillator, and Q meter. Output of tunable microwave oscillator is connected to exciting loop, input of Q meter, to receiving loop of cylindrical cavity, and control output of Q meter, to control input of tunable microwave oscillator. It also has second cylindrical resonance cavity filled with low-loss dielectric that incorporates pipeline carrying analyzed liquid disposed on its axis. Diameters and axes of cylindrical cavities are aligned. Newly introduced are second tunable microwave oscillator and second Q meter; output of second tunable microwave oscillator is connected to exciting loop, input of second Q meter, to receiving loop of second cylindrical cavity, and control output of Q meter, to control input of second tunable microwave oscillator.
EFFECT: ability of determining liquid media salinity along with its moisture content.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technologies for monitoring surface fertile soil layer.
SUBSTANCE: method includes remote filming of area in different ranges of electromagnetic radiation and decoding images from this filming. One-scale filming of area is performed in visible and invisible electromagnetic radiation ranges. On image in visible range contours of relief depressions are detected and marked in form of rivers, lakes, swamps, etc. Areas and borders of water-resistant growth are detected and marked on basis of brighter tones on image in visible area range. On image in invisible range areas and limits of soil watering are marked. Images are combined in visible and invisible ranges to single total image. Area zones are detected and marked on it, having water-resistant plants and watering combined with relief depression. Total image is combined to area map on basis of recognizable points and found portions are marked on it as over-watered.
EFFECT: higher precision.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method includes coaxially exciting effect from water component of gas-liquid mixture on pipe of dielectric material and measuring changes of resonance frequencies, exciting electromagnetic field in two identical coil resonators, positioned coaxially on pipe of dielectric material, two identical supporting and measuring auto-generators. Electric field of coil of support auto-generator is screened from gas-liquid mixture. frequencies of auto-generators are evened in absence of gas-liquid mixture in pipeline. Proportionality coefficient of difference of frequencies of auto-generators is set relatively to determined volumetric share of water in presence of gas-liquid mixture with known volumetric share of water.
EFFECT: higher precision.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used in gas and oil industry for measuring volume fraction of water in pipeline containing gas-liquid mixture without separating products to fractions directly in wells or in collector areas of primary processing of gas-condensate and oil production at real time scale. Device has section of pipe made of dielectric material passed through wires of two identical coils. One coil is connected with reference self-excited oscillator and the other coil - with measuring self-excited oscillator. Electric screen provided with longitudinal slit is disposed inside coil connected with reference self-excited oscillator. Device allows excluding influence of saltiness of liquid into results of measurement.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: primarily, for a given moisture level an arbitrary thickness of dispersion material flow is formed and power of absorption energy is determined, then along exponent thickness of flow is reduced to minimal value, determined by size of material pieces, after that flow thickness is increased to maximal level. In accordance to certain graphs of dependence of absorption energy and flow thickness, optimal value of flow thicknesses is found, at which measurements of moisture level of dispersion weak-conductive material are performed then. Device has serially connected UHF generator, receiving and transmitting antennae, phase-sensitive detector, comparison block and measurement device, while device is provided with serially connected power and thermo-stabilization blocks, phase-sensitive detector, made in form of pulse generator, working channel amplifier, support channel amplifier, comparison block, made in form of logarithmic amplifier, current-voltage transformer, optimal position microprocessor unit, mechanical displacement block, position indicator, movement mechanism and generator of flow of weak-conductive dispersion materials. One of outputs of UHF generator is connected to input of pulse generator and provides at output forming of two signals with phase displacement, while output of pulse generator is in parallel connected to one of inputs of UHF generator. Outputs of working channel amplifier and of support signal amplifier are connected to input of logarithmic amplifier, output of which is in parallel connected to input of measurement device and to input of optimal position microprocessor unit, second input of which is connected to generator position indicator, and output of optimal position microprocessor unit is connected to input of mechanical movement block, output of which is connected to mechanism for movement of generator of flow of weak-conductive dispersion material. Generator is made in form of evening plow or in form of pallet.
EFFECT: higher precision, higher reliability.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: technology for determining moisture load of solid materials, possible use for construction, chemical and other industries.
SUBSTANCE: UHF method for determining moisture load of solid materials on basis of Brewster angle includes positioning researched material into high-frequency electromagnetic field with following registration of parameters alternation, characterizing high-frequency emission. Ring-shaped multi-slit antenna with electronic-controlled direction diagram excites electromagnetic wave, falling onto dielectric material. Direction diagram inclination angle is measured until moment, at which minimal power of reflected wave is detected, wave length of UHF generator is determined and Brewster angle is calculated. Then on basis of normalized mathematical formulae moisture load value of surface layer of Ws is calculated for measured material. Further, power of refracted wave is stabilized by changing power of falling wave, temperature of subject material T1 is measured, and after given time span - temperature T2 and moisture level are determined for volume of material from given mathematical relation. Device for realization of given method includes UHF generator, UHF detector, wave-guiding Y-circulator, input shoulder of which has generator block controlled by voltage, attenuator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, UHF watt-meter with output to central microprocessor unit device for controlling and stabilization of output power, diode pulse modulator and video pulse generator, controlled by central microprocessor unit, peak detector. First output shoulder of Y-circulator has absorbing synchronized load, and second output shoulder has complex cone antenna, consisting of emitting portion in form of ring-shaped multi-slit antenna and cone-shaped receipt portion, to which gate is connected as well as second UHF watt-meter, connected to extreme digital controller for searching and indication of power minimum of returned wave and resonator indicator of wave meter. UHF generator is powered by central microprocessor unit controlled power block, video pulse counter is connected to digital wave meter, and thermal pairs block is connected to central microprocessor unit device.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity, increased precision of measurement of moisture load of surface layer, expanded functional capabilities due to additional determination of integral moisture load on basis of interaction volume and decreased parasitic UHF emission.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: crude oil treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of determining constituents of liquid mixtures, such as emulsions, suspensions, and solutions, and can be applied when separating water-petroleum mixtures into constituents. Method of invention consists in electromagnetic irradiation of water-petroleum mixture stream by means of emitting antenna in microwave region and receiving electromagnetic energy passed through water-petroleum mixture stream by means of reception antenna, which serves to measure values characterizing received electromagnetic emission. When comparing these measured values with calibration values corresponding to different contents of water, petroleum, and solid inclusions in water-petroleum mixture in subject stream, thus obtained comparative results allow one distingue particular components in water-petroleum mixture. This information serves one to properly adjust electromagnetic emission in specified bands within microwave region. Emitting antenna utilized is at least one rectangular waveguide facing with its open end, which is emission aperture, water-petroleum mixture stream. Reception antenna is at least one rectangular waveguide facing with its open end, which is reception aperture, the same stream. Apertures of each waveguide or one of the two waveguides is made truncated at an angle, which is less than minimum Brillouin angle of electromagnetic energy emission.
EFFECT: increased water and petroleum measurement accuracy in presence of salts.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: moisture tester can be used for testing moisture of soil, seeds and various loose materials, for example, in agriculture or construction. Reflectometer moisture tester has high frequency branch box. First tapping of branch box is connected with input of stroboscopic reading device. Synchronizing output of the reading device is connected with first output of synchronizer and output of reading device is connected with oscillograph. Second tapping of branch box is connected with output of probing pulse oscillator. Triggering input of oscillator is connected with second output of synchronizer. Third tapping of branch box is connected with connecting cable through mating unit. Connecting cable is connected to primary converter, which is made in form of delay line with distributed parameters. Input ends of delay line are made open or closed. Delay line is made in form of section of coaxial line, which has wire spiral with isolated turns at inner rod made of isolating, dielectric or high-frequency-electromagnetic material. It also has external screen made of external rod conductors disposed symmetrically along circle relatively internal rod. Ends of rod conductors fastened to base are closed by link which link together with spiral wire forms input ends of delay line. Medium to be measured is placed between internal rod and external rod conductors.
EFFECT: improved precision of testing; reduced sizes.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises multiplying the ratio of the area of the vessel base to the absorption index of water by the logarithm of the ratio of the amplitude of electric field of the electromagnetic wave that enters the vessel to that the wave that leaves the vessel.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement.
FIELD: oil industry, possible use when determining amount of water and oil in water-oil emulsion.
SUBSTANCE: when determining amount of water and oil in water-oil emulsion, constant electric current with value, providing synchronization of wave resistance of source-receiver and wave duct, is sent from source-receiver via wave duct, made in form of two-wire isolated line with Schottky diode between lines. Simultaneously from source-receiver along wave duct high-frequency electric current is sent, time of expansion of high-frequency current along wave guide is measured. Wave guide of fixed length is used and it is positioned in moving water-oil emulsion. From source-receiver along wave duct simultaneously sent is high-frequency electric current and direct electric current, greater, than current of synchronization of wave resistance of source-receiver and wave guide. Resulting current is measured. Time and speed of current expansion along wave guide are measured and amounts of water and oil in oil-water emulsion are computed.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.