Residential building basement drainage method
SUBSTANCE: residential building basement drainage method involves trenching with a slope towards the discharge of drainage water, where perforated drainage pipes are laid in a homogeneous layer of filter material. In order to ensure free drainage, the trench bottom is made with a slope of ≥0.005. Drainage pipes with perforations made at the sides, are joint and placed on a layer of filtering material. The end of the drainage pipe is connected to the manhole through the exhaust pipe. A trash box of a sump, a check valve are installed between the drainage and discharge pipe, then the trench and the entire basement area is filled with a layer of filtering material.
EFFECT: provision of continuous drainage of basement prone to flooding, where a constant or intermittent inflow of groundwater is observed, provision of a sufficient drainage area of the basement and provision of drainage construction durability in general.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the methods for prevention of soil and groundwater pollution, in particular to the creation of concrete blankets on the landfills and storage of industrial, household and mainly liquid wastes. Subgrade 1 is prepared and protective layer 2 is arranged in it. Protective layer 2 is previously placed between two layers of geotextile 3 and 4. Mixture of sodium and calcium bentonitic clay 5 is used as the protective layer 2 in ratio of 75% Na-bentonite and 25% Ca-bentonite. Layer of mineral soil 6 with surface treated with fixing agent 7 is laid on top of the protective layer 2. Polymer liquid emulsion from wastes of polyisobutylene is used as a fixing agent at t=34-40°C.
EFFECT: high operational reliability, durability, as well as stability of coating on the slopes and in case of subsidences of the base are provided.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: surface and ground water discharge device includes a longitudinal trench located along a slope of a road bed and at least one transverse trench on the high side and one transverse trench on the low side of the road bed, which are connected to the above longitudinal trench and located perpendicular to the road bed slope. The transverse trench on the high side and the transverse trench on the low side of the road bed are located in one cross section in each lowered part of relief. Longitudinal and transverse trenches are made to depth of a seasonal freezing layer and filled with drain soil. A heat-insulating layer is laid on each transverse trench.
EFFECT: increasing service life of a device, which exceeds standard service life, and preserving stability of a road bed owing to preventing deformations in the body of the road bed itself by providing free filtration of ground water through soils of the road bed from its high side to the low side.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: multi-layer hydraulic insulation of an underground structure includes layers of geotextile, geomembranes and an internal safety drainage layer from geonet. Hydraulic insulation is formed by an external closed layer of geotextile made from material with a property of temporary filtration unidirectional in transverse direction, external and internal hydraulic insulating layers with closed geomembranes, between which there is an internal safety drainage layer from geonet.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase reliability of hydraulic insulation.
6 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for horizontal draining of waterlogged structures on pile foundations relates to construction, namely to the construction of drainage systems for the protection of structures on pile foundations against ground water logging. As per the proposed method, dewatering of a waterlogged object is achieved due to the fact that from one radial drain well developed along the outer wall outside the structure normally to rows of the load-carrying piles and equipped with a filter there passed are additional side drain wells between the rows of piles. Drilling of additional shafts is performed by means of a downhole motor and diverting devices out of the above said radial well. The steadiness of walls of the additional wells at drilling is provided by the application of hydrolysed polyacrylonitrile or other self-decomposed drill fluids. After driving of the side additional shafts is completed, the drill tool is disconnected and used for the shutoff of the well bottom, and the motor together with drill pipes is removed through a filter pipe that was drawn by means of the downhole motor.
EFFECT: proposed drainage system allows solving a problem of protection against waterlogging of structures on pile foundations.
SUBSTANCE: previously they make a horizontal circular drainage 1 with a tubular drain having gravel fill and wrapped in geotextile. Then a bed drain 3 is arranged under the bottom of the basement with filtering fill from crushed stone. A sink 4 is equipped with fill from coarse-grained sand. Walls 6 and the bottom 7 of the basement are hydraulically insulated. Piles 8 are driven, and a groove-and-tongue wall 9 is arranged. Perpendicularly to the horizontal drains 1 tightly to the groove-and-tongue wall 9 at the rated distance they arrange vertical perforated plastic pipes 2. Vertical collectors 2 are wrapped by a protective filtering material and are combined into a single system. For quick reduction of ground water level they apply forced pumping of water by a pump 10 from vertical collectors 2 with its further discharge into the horizontal circular drainage 1.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of drainage operation.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, and namely to development of flooded mineral deposits, as well as it can be used at unwatering of foundations and in hydraulic engineering. In order to protect an open pit against underground water influx, the main horizontal drain wells 4 are constructed normally to open pit 2 side 1. At least two opposite lying additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed out of each main horizontal drain well 4. Out of points 5, 6, 7 on the main horizontal drain wells 4 there constructed to one side in the direction of adjacent wells 4 to the right are additional side horizontal drain wells 8, 9, 10. Out of the same points 5, 6, 7 on adjacent wells 4 there constructed to the left are additional side horizontal drain wells 11, 12, 13. All the additional side horizontal drain wells are constructed till their mutual intersection and formation of a closed drain circuit. All wells are constructed at the bottom of the drained water-bearing horizon.
EFFECT: providing increase of entrapment degree of breakthrough of underground water to open pit sides and reducing drilling volumes of the main horizontal drain wells owing to enlarging distance between them.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of hydraulic engineering and can be used when creating the impervious protection of water entities, canals and reservoirs of industrial wastes made on subsiding soils. Ground base is prepared. Bentomate mattress is laid. Revetment from concrete or reinforced concrete slabs is performed. In this case, strip of bentomate mattress is placed on mattress under the joints of concrete slabs. Width of additional strip of bentomate mattress depends on geological and subsiding soil properties.
EFFECT: high production manufacturability and simplification of works on creation of impervious coating is provided.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction and relates to a water impermeable membrane. It includes a barrier layer and an adhering layer. The sealing facility is arranged in the form of a grate between the adhering layer and the barrier layer.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create an improved water impermeable membrane and thus to reduce to the minimum propagation of cavities in a barrier layer and size of areas, where water leaked, and also to easier localise the damaged area.
16 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to protect sunk buildings and structures against retaining flooding with groundwater consists in the fact that a distribution-filtration sand cushion is formed under the entire structure. It is equipped with an injection-washing system, with the help of which the cushion body is cleaned from clayey particles of natural mudding by groundwater washing having underwashing speed of filtration, which is developed by injection of compressed air under a foot of the underground part of the structure.
EFFECT: provision of preservation of protective properties of a distribution-filtration sand cushion against retaining flooding of an underground part of buildings and structures for the entire period of their operation, provision of preservation of natural hydrological conditions of a development area.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to eliminate water leaks in underground engineering utilities includes drilling of boreholes and injection of a strengthening hydraulic insulation composition into them. The strengthening hydraulic insulation composition is injected into previously drilled boreholes by means of separate supply of the following into the mixing nozzle under pressure of 0.2-1 MPa: a cement-water suspension with W/C=1-1.5 and liquid glass with density of 1.3-1.6 g/cm3 at the following ratio of specified mixtures accordingly, wt %: 75-90 and 10-25.
EFFECT: simplified technology of water leaks elimination in a defect hydraulically insulated zone of underground engineering utilities.
FIELD: oil industry, particularly oil-field construction, namely to built storage pit adapted for oil-drilling waste storage.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out ground; erecting banking; forming waterproofing screen of film material with weld seams; connecting polymeric adhesive strips to back film side transversely to weld seams facing outwards so that space between strips is not more than 3 m and strip ends extend over outer screen surface, wherein the waterproofing screen has ample size; securing one end of waterproofing screen on pit edge by shackles and covering thereof with ground along the full pit edge; gradually laying unstrained waterproofing screen on pit bottom and side walls to reach opposite pit edge so that weld seams face outwards; loading screen edges across the full width and forming pleat at pit edge along the full perimeter thereof; securing the pleat with ground; fastening free edges of laid waterproofing screen along the full pit perimeter with shackles and covering thereof with ground; folding free screen edges in two in shackle installation areas and placing cantledge on pit bottom along the full perimeter thereof; placing textile protective screens over rocky ground zones. The waterproofing screen dimensions may be determined from given relation.
EFFECT: increased liquid product storage reliability.
2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods of production of the waterproofing materials in the sheet shape.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the method of production of the waterproofing materials in the sheet shape, which is used for facing of the ponds, lakes and the refuse dumps provides for disposition of the central layer containing the capable to swelling bentonite between appropriate carrying layers, and joining of the carrying layers by the ultrasonic welding in the intervals or along one or more lines by means of making the base plate protrusion to get in contact with one carrying layer and making the sonotrode to get in contact with the other carrying layer in the opposite places and in the intervals or along one or more lines and at such a control over the sonotrode, that to cut through the central layer and to join the carrying layers. The invention presents the characteristic of the second version the method of production. The technical result of the invention is the increased strength of the produced waterproofing material at its shift.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased strength of the produced waterproofing material at its shift.
14 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: constructional engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructional engineering and can be used for building construction and upkeep. Method for damp-proofing of below-grade building includes levelling blanket laid on basement soil, formation of membrane system, formation of protective concrete layer, installation of reinforcing cage, concreting of footing and below-grade filler members. Membrane system is arranged by continuous laying of extended hoses made of polymeric fabrics and fastening them or, alternatively, overlapping at an angle to each other. Hose outflows are placed outside the footing. The footing and below-grade filler members concreted, damp-proof mixture is grouted through outflows to hose cavity pockets to produce impervious beds.
EFFECT: simplified below-grade construction procedure, improved reliability of groundwater protection of both horizontal and vertical footing elements, decreased work content as well as possibility to repair membrane system during building construction and upkeep.
9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: safety device for bed against surface water includes preparation of base course, foundation, pockets backing, blind area facility. Between blind area and bed there is formed self-locking waterproofing locker made of wedgelike elements: braced - underlying and overlying, nonrigid - made of viscoplastic material, such as bitumen, located between rigid elements. At that external wall of foundation is implemented leaned big end down the foundation.
EFFECT: reduction of differential settlement of foundation and building deformation.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction, namely, to reconstruction and renovation of old buildings and constructions, in particular, to means and methods of intra - wall detaching waterproofing for walls protection from soil water. Composition for intra - the - wall waterproofing contains, wt %: potassium silicate with silica modulus 2.33 - 2.88 99.6-99.9, Trilon B 0.1-0.4. Method of intra - wall detaching waterproofing includes supply of the above said composition into brickwork through preliminary drilled holes periodically drying after supply according to the scheme: supply - drying - supply.
EFFECT: viscosity reduction, increase of filtration coefficient, improved detaching water - proofing characteristics for protection of walls from soil water.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, namely to fighting suffosion processes that occur during flooding of earth foundations in buildings, which are for instance, located in high-water bed. In method for protection of building earth foundations against suffosion processes that occur as a result of building flooding, wells are drilled in building foundations, soil in wells is sampled, specimens obtained are used to determine value of critical head gradient and critical seepage path. Water impermeable wall is erected in building earth foundation around the base, at that distance between the base and water impermeable wall, as well as depth of water impermeable wall location from daylight is selected depending on values of critical gradient and critical seepage path. Space between building base and water impermeable wall is filled with water permeable material consisting of single-size particles, and space between the base in the level of its underside and water impermeable wall is filled with the layer of water impermeable material. Drainage holes with meshes are arranged at internal edge of water impermeable wall in water impermeable layer, and filling with layer of water impermeable material is done with layer separation into sections, in every of which surface is arranged with slope to drainage hole providing water drain into hole.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of building protection against suffosion processes, and also increase of operational reliability of buildings, reduction of material intensity.
SUBSTANCE: method of protecting sunken buildings against ground water underflooding consists in the fact that distribution sand cushion is formed, highly compressed silty-clayed soils are removed from the whole underground part of buildings. When constructing underground parts of erected buildings on natural slopes in silty-clayed soils with high level of ground water, above lower boundary of design compressed mass of ground foundation, there developed is ditch, from the depth of lower boundary of compressed mass corresponding to level of lower edge of distribution sand cushion to day surface, the slopes of which correspond to position of planes of lower side edges of design distribution sand cushion which is formed as filtration one and designed in the outline of diagrams of equal vertical and horizontal stresses corresponding to stress of natural soil in lower part of compressed mass. Height of cushion is taken equal to design depth of compressed soil mass, and width of upper and lower edges of cushion is equal; at that, it exceeds width of foundation base on both sides by the value which is determined by graphical drawing of planes tangential to diagram of equal horizontal stresses at an angle to vertical plane, which is equal to angle of internal friction of cushion material to the crossing with plane of foundation base level. Position of side edges of cushion is determined by the planes being drawn from extreme points of upper and lower edges of cushion, which are tangential to diagrams of equal vertical and horizontal stresses till they cross each other; at that, inclination angle of tangential plane to diagram of equal vertical stresses is taken equal to angle of natural slope of natural soil. Then there formed is lower body of cushion in the volume of ditch slopes and upper body of cushion in the volume of upper side edges of cushion; after that, there performed is backfilling of cavities between upper cushion body and ditch slopes with natural soil as per layer-by-layer technology; then underground part of buildings is erected.
EFFECT: maintaining natural hydrological conditions in order to exclude dangerous ground water underflooding of underground parts of buildings, decreasing the scope of ground works concerning development of ditch, reducing material consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and may be used to arrange drainage system to control water level in basement premises. Method for water depression in basement premises of dwelling houses, administrative-industrial buildings and storehouses includes digging drainage channels, assembly of precast filtering well, laying filtering material or perforated pipes with filtering elements into channels, installation of pump into well, which drains water from well and is equipped with connection and disconnection breaker. Drainage channels and precast filtering well are assembled in ground inside area fenced by house foundation, in order to create depression zone on area limited by house foundation. In case this area is separated by solid walls of foundation, or there are foundation screeds, shafts are drilled, which are also filled with filtering material, or in which perforated pipes are installed with filtering elements. Outlet hole of pump is connected to sewage system of the house. Connection of pump outlet to connection and disconnection breaker to sewage system of the building results in cleaning of pipes and joints in sewage system.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of water level control in basement premises and reinforcement of foundations with various configuration.
SUBSTANCE: drain of closed type comprises a deep-laid trench with an incline towards drain water discharge, where perforated pipes are installed in a layer of filtering material, and also inspection wells of the drainage system. Pipes are arranged with perforation in the tray part and are laid into a homogeneous filtering material. The bottom of the trench is arranged with an incline of 0.003-0.004% and is insulated with a water-impermeable film together with the trench wall at the side of a pit or along the outer surface of the underground part of the structure, and also with coverage of the drain trench filtration fill roof or under the foot of the erected structure shoulder.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of drain operation, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness, increased manufacturability of construction processes.
SUBSTANCE: underground part of a concrete wall with a wall drain comprises a filtering shell made of a polymer material and vertically laid onto the external surface of the wall to form channels draining water from soil fill into the fill of a drain pipe connected to a drain header. The external surface of the wall is coated with a geomembrane, which is arranged from a polymer material and with its anchor ribs fixed to the wall and forms its protective hydraulic insulation. The filtering shell is arranged in the form of a geogrid and a filtering nonwoven material attached to it at the side of the soil fill, at the same time geogrid cells are formed by crossing rods laid one onto the other and fixed in points of crossing with each other.
EFFECT: higher reliability and durability of a building or a structure, higher quality of wall protective hydraulic insulation and improved water-draining capacity of a filtering shell.
2 cl, 3 dwg