Method of quantitative analysis for distribution of contaminant particles which infiltrated in porous medium during filtration

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: cationic-dyed particles are mixed with granules of loose medium of the colour which is close to the colour of the examined porous medium, and at least three calibration standards are prepared at various known mass concentrations of died particles. The prepared standards are photographed and the images are digitally analyzed based on the RGB additive colour model. The intensity profiles of red, green and blue colours are obtained for each standard. Based on the analysis of the profiles a standard for quantitative characterization of changes in the red, green and blue colours in all calibration standards is chosen and a single calibration curve is received. A suspension of dyed particles is prepared and pumped through a sample of the analyzed porous medium. Then, the sample of porous medium is split into two parts along the suspension direction during pumping and the sample cleavage is photographed under the same conditions under which the images of the calibration standards were obtained. The resulting image of the sample cleavage is digitally analyzed based on the RGB additive colour model and a two-dimension intensity distribution of the red, green and blue colours in the sample cleavage is obtained. The background values of the red, green and blue colour intensity are determined as well as the two-dimension distribution of the mass concentration of dyed suspension particles based on the obtained two-dimension distribution of the red, green and blue colour intensity in the taken image of the sample cleavage using the background values of the red, green and blue colour intensity, selected standard and calibration curve.

EFFECT: simplified and improved information content of the analysis.

16 cl, 9 dwg

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of study of soil parameters. The method of determination of filtration coefficient of running soil is offered according to which through the soil sample the water flow is passed, on the surface of the soil sample of a small weight is places, the moment of start of sinking of the small weight, the parameters of the sample and water flow are measured, the soil filtration coefficient is calculated using the measured indicators. The innovation is in that the value of concentration of polyacrylamide in the water flow passed through the soil sample is registered and at decrease in value of concentration by more than 8% from the initial value the polyacrylamide solution is added into the water flow directed towards the soil sample, thus recovering the value of polyacrylamide concentration in the water flow passed through a soil sample, to initial value.

EFFECT: expansion of functionality is achieved.

1 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement of physical properties related to passage of fluid phase in porous material. The method to assess physical parameters of porous material contained in the flow of fluid media includes stages, at which the material sample (2) is placed into a tight chamber (1) so that the inlet side (3) of the sample communicates with the first volume (V0), and so that the outlet side (4) communicates with the second volume. In the first volume they perform modulation of pressure, and during the time they measure changes of appropriate pressures in the first volume and the second volume. With the help of a differential equation, parameters of which include internal permeability of material, its porosity and its Klinkenberg coefficient, they perform digital analysis of changes in measured pressures for assessment of at least internal permeability and Klinkenberg coefficient, and also preferably its porosity in process of one experiment.

EFFECT: increase of assessment of permeability kI and Klinkenberg coefficient b, and also possibility to simultaneously perform assessment of porosity ϕ in process of one experiment.

13 cl, 28 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises displacement of fluid saturating the rocks at spinning of centrifuge. Note here that before centrifuge spinning the displacement fluid if forced in centrifuge sealed core holder to the level higher than forecast maximum capillary pressure in the rock. Besides, this invention discloses the device used for process implementation.

EFFECT: higher capillary pressure in low-permeability rocks.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of description of characteristics of 2D and 3D samples to determine spread of pore body and pore channel sizes, and also curves of dependence of capillary pressure in a porous medium. Input information includes petrographic images of high resolution and laboratory measurements of porosity. Output information includes distribution of pore body and pore channel sizes and modelling of curves of capillary pressure dependence both for the pore body and pore channels.

EFFECT: improved analysis.

30 cl, 27 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: measurement is carried out according to the principle of air oozing via a porous material with available porosity and moisture. A sample of available length and volume is placed into a device providing for measurement of difference of pressures at its inlet and outlet and volume of air leaking via the sample in the stationary mode under pressure close the atmospheric one. On the basis of measured porosity, moisture, difference of pressures between ends of the sample and time of leaking of the measured volume of air they calculate specific surface of condensed phase, specific surface of the solid phase and potential moisture of homogeneous porous material according to formulas. At the same time measurement of physical values included into the formula, such as volume of gas flowing via the sample, time of gas flowing, pressure difference, is carried out on the same samples of porous materials.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of detection of specific surface of solid phase, specific surface of condensed phase, potential of moisture of homogeneous porous materials.

1 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a physical and chemical analysis and can be used for determination of available cracks on a surface of specimens of rolled steel with a polymer coating, mainly at bending strength testing of the polymer coating as per GOST R 52146-2003. In the method for determining integrity of the polymer coating, which involves contact of the tested specimen with electrically conducting liquid and measurement of an electrical current, according to the invention, current is formed not from an external power supply, but as a result of occurrence in defective sections of the coating of an active electrode - a metal strip. Besides, a saline solution can be used as an electrically conducting liquid. In order to implement this method, a device for determining integrity of a polymer coating is used, which includes a working element with electrically conducting liquid and a current test instrument, which differs by the fact that the working element is made in the form of an electrolytic cell made from dielectric material, in the lower part of which an electrode is located, which is made from material that is not passivated in the applied electrically conducting liquid, and the upper part of which has a contact element made from plastic corrosion resistant material; with that, the electrolytic cell is equipped with a system of its filling and maintaining the level of a convex meniscus in the contact element and contacts the electrically conducting element. Besides, the electrically conducting element can be made in the form of a metallic shell, an electrode can be made from graphite, and the contact element can be made from resin.

EFFECT: creation of a method and a device, which provide for accuracy, objectivity, simplicity and speed of determination of polymer coating integrity.

6 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: potential of the deformability of the soil is determined, which is the ratio of the energy expended for deformation and mass exchange processes per unit of mass of soil in the specific conditions of its location, according to the formula ϕ=(E1mn3A1mn1)+(E2mn4A2mn2),(1)

where A1, A2 is mechanical work spent respectively for deformation of the soil in testing by hardness-testing machine before and after the treatment, J.; mn1, mn2 is respectively mass of deformed soil in testing by hardness-testing machine before and after treatment, kg; E1, E2 is Gibbs free energy, characterising the state of moisture in the soil and thus determining the binding energy between the moving soil particles in a soil sample before and after exposure to it of the working bodies of tillage machines and tools, J.; mn3, mn4 is respectively the mass of soil in the sample, taken at the test site before and after mechanical treatment, kg. In the above formula, the opposite signs of the terms E1 and A1, and A2 and E2 show that the binding energy between moving particles of soil in the soil sample after exposure to it of the working bodies increases, and work expended for the mechanical deformation of the soil is decreased. Measurement of physical quantities used in the formula such as force in the area of direct proportionality of the diagram P=f(h), depth of immersion of the cylindrical tip of the hardness-testing machine is carried out by the hardness-testing machine at the test site before and after mechanical impact on the soil of the working bodies. Measurement of physical quantities, such as the density of the solid phase of the soil, porosity, specific free surface energy at the water-air boundary, the volume specific surface area of the solid phase of the soil, the volume moisture content and bulk density of the soil is carried out on the same soil samples of undisturbed location, selected at the test site respectively before and after mechanical treatment at the same points, the site is tested with the hardness-testing machine.

EFFECT: improving the accuracy of the energy assessment of the mechanical impact of working bodies of the machines and tools processing the soil.

1 dwg, 5 tbl

FIELD: testing technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of testing and determine the properties of the materials. The method of measuring porosity of the particles of bulk materials can be reasonably used for production of granulated catalysts, sorbents, and to determine the properties of porous materials for various purposes. The method of measuring the porosity of the particles of bulk material comprises measuring the true density of the particles of bulk material and the pressure differential across the material layer in the regimes of gas filtering and fluidisation generated by changing the gas flow rate, according to which the porosity of the particles is judged.

EFFECT: ease of implementation, lack of use of toxic substances, scarce materials, as well as providing the possibility of rapid measurements of properties of hydrophobic bulk materials with pronounced sorption properties and developed surface.

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises determination of drilling mud rheological properties, drilling mud filtrate and formation fluid, measurement of outer filtration crust, porosity and permeability of core specimen. Note here that mathematical model of said outer filtration crust if constructed. Drilling mud is forced through core specimen to register pressure drop dynamics at specimen and flow rate of effusing fluid. Micro tomography is used to define the profile of drilling mud solid particles penetrated into said specimen. Mathematical model of inner filtration crust is constructed to describe the dynamics of drilling mud particle concentration in threshold space of core specimen and associated changes in core specimen permeability. Enchained mathematical model of inner and outer filtration crusts is constructed. The latter allows the determination of parameters of inner filtration crust mathematical model whereat reproduced are experimental; data on pumping said drilling mud through core specimen and profile of drilling mud solid particles penetrated into said specimen.

EFFECT: higher accuracy and lower labour input.

1 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: sample is placed into a closed cylindrical cavity between a piston, creating pressure and a fluid-permeable bottom. Pressure levels under examination are specified; cyclic force loading of a sample by pressure is created for each of them. Using the selected pressure to deactivate loading and the pressure equal to 0.85-0.95 of the selected pressure, and to activate loading, change of the sample length and time interval of the pressure decrease at a discharge cycle, as well as the amount of the squeezed fluid are recorded in time. Then the permeability coefficient at a cycle is calculated by formula Kfi=Bimsami(lili1)ρfSn(PP1), the residual weight content of the fluid in the sample is calculated by formula Ci=C0msam0mimsam0mi in each cycle; where Bi=1tkit0iln(PP1), msami=msam0-mi, ufi=Sn·(li-l1), mif·ufi P - pressure level under examination, P1=0.85P÷0.95P - minimum pressure, Sn - piston area, l1 - sample length at the beginning of the 1-st cycle, li-1 - sample length at the beginning of the i-th cycle, li - sample length at the end of the i-th cycle, t0i - starting time of pressure reduction in the i-th cycle, tki - end time of i-th cycle, msam0 - initial sample weight, msami - sample weight in the i-th cycle, ρf - density of the filtered fluid, ufi - total volume of the filtered fluid before the i-th cycle, mi - weight of the squeezed fluid before the i-th cycle, C0 - initial fluid weight content, Ci - current fluid weight content in the i-th cycle, i - changes from 1 to k, k - number of cycle in which the condition (Kf(k-1)-Kfk)/Kfk≤0.01 is fulfilled. Then, the dependence of a permeability coefficient as a function of the fluid weight content and pressure level is determined using the obtained values of the permeability coefficient and the fluid weight content in all the selected pressure levels.

EFFECT: possibility to obtain characteristics for a plastically deformable porous material in the wide range of pressures when measuring the fluid weight content, in particular during the fluid squeezing-out from the material, improvement of the measurement accuracy.

3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is designed to calculate the dynamics of oil production in fields with hard to recover reserves (HRR), including as a result of advanced intrusion of oil reserves. The invention comprises standard definitions of reservoir properties of the rock: porosity, permeability, oil saturation and displacement coefficients in the extended range of studies of core samples on the value of differential pressure to 1×10-4 MPa/m and the linear filtration rate less than 1×10-3 m/day. According to the research results, the statistical pore, hydrodynamic and energy structure of the borehole rock, the reservoir area, or reservoir as a whole is created, which are taken as the standard object "well-reservoir" (hereinafter W-R) with a field of pressure according to the accepted system of influence on reservoir. The dynamics of oil production is calculated as the product of the total specific yield of mobile stocks in hydrodynamic units of the flow (HUF) of the drainage area W-R at the period of its operation. The specific yield of HUF is calculated by the equation of Poiseuille-Darcy in the radial field of filtration taking into account the nonlinearity and the probability of coincidence of three independent events: permeability, porosity, and shear stress, less than applied in the given range of the pressure gradient.

EFFECT: improved accuracy, reliability, and significant reduction of costs for determining the dynamics of HRR oil extraction, the definition of estimated time and volume of oil extraction at different variants of reservoir stimulation, the choice of the optimal variant of technological and economic efficiency.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the methods and systems for measurement of gas losses of in the drilling rig surface circulation system. The method of measurement of gas losses on the drilling rig surface includes: adding of pre-set amount of pre-selected gas into the drilling mud on the drilling rig surface; measurement of secondary amount of pre-selected gas in the drilling mud returned from the well without modification of the guiding branch pipe or output mud lines connected to the guiding branch pipe; and measurement of background level of pre-selected gas in the drilling mud; and assessment of gas losses occurring on the drilling rig surface on the basis of pre-set amount of pre-selected gas, of secondary amount of pre-selected gas and of background amount of pre-selected gas. The system for measurement of gas losses on the tank pallet connected with the drilling rig contains the gas measurement system comprising: the probe configured for extraction of the first amount of pre-selected marker gas; a gas analyzer for measurement of the first amount of pre-selected marker gas extracted by the probe; and the software for calculation of the gas losses occurring on the drilling rig surface for comparison of the first value with the secondary amount of the marker gas added to the drilling mud used by the drilling rig, and background level of pre-selected marker gas, and the secondary amount of marker gas is added to the drilling mud without modification of the guiding branch pipe used by the drilling rig.

EFFECT: technical result consists in reliable and accurate measurement of gas losses in the surface circulation system of the drilling rig and the gas sampling mechanism.

24 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method and device for production increasing at the field containing rock that includes at least one mineral of valuable material opened by tock grinding, and at least one other mineral, at that mineral of the valuable material has higher density the at least one other mineral. At that the method is characterised by the following stages: drilling using the drill rig for rock extraction. At that the drill fines are produced, aerosol is generated, it contains drill fines and gas flow, aerosol is transferred from the drill rig to at least one air separator; flow classification is performed, at that at least two fractions are created, they include particles of the appropriate equal-falling drill fines; and properties of at least one fraction are determined, this fraction is used as measure determining optimal degree of the rock grinding.

EFFECT: increased field production.

23 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method and the device for determination of local size of mineral grain for a valuable material mineral in rock of a field or deposit, and rock includes at least one another mineral, and the valuable material mineral is of higher density, than at least one another mineral. The method is characterised by the following stages: execution of the process of rock drilling using the drilling rig, with forming of cuttings, formation of aerosol which comprises cuttings and gas flow, transfer of aerosol from the drilling rig to at least one air separator, execution of sizing in a flow and at least two fractions comprising particles corresponding to equal-settling of cuttings, and determination of property of at least one of fractions which is used as a measure for the local size of mineral grain for valuable material mineral in rock.

EFFECT: determination of local grain size of valuable material mineral in rock of a field or deposit.

20 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises displacement of fluid saturating the rocks at spinning of centrifuge. Note here that before centrifuge spinning the displacement fluid if forced in centrifuge sealed core holder to the level higher than forecast maximum capillary pressure in the rock. Besides, this invention discloses the device used for process implementation.

EFFECT: higher capillary pressure in low-permeability rocks.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in measurements of amplitude values of a geophysical parameter along the axis of a cased string of the well and depth H, on which there detected are maximum amplitude values of the measured parameter, as per which depth of the gas-saturated formation is determined. In the well, under action of difference between formation and wellhead pressures, a gas flow of known velocity V is arranged and time distribution of amplitude values of gas humidity in the same flow is measured, and depth of the gas-saturated formation in the well is determined by the following formula: H=V·t, where t - time of occurrence of maximum at time distribution of humidity amplitude values.

EFFECT: simplifying technical implementation of the method due to eliminating the need for geophysical investigations of logging measurements.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes core extraction and drying, core analysis by steady-state filtration of gas through it with measurement of coefficients of vertical and horizontal absolute gas permeability and further analysis of the survey results and measurement of absolute gas permeability anisotropy. While determining coefficient of horizontal absolute gas permeability for the core survey is made in six horizontal directions with measurement interval of 30°. Thereafter vertical anisotropy is calculated for six directions as ratio of horizontal absolute gas permeability to vertical one for each direction. Horizontal anisotropy is also calculated as ratio of maximum absolute gas permeability to minimum one on the basis of values determined for six horizontal directions.

EFFECT: improved reliability and accuracy for absolute gas permeability anisotropy on whole cores due to increased number of horizontal gas permeability measurement and improved information content of this method.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes core analysis, lithologic sectional layering, plotting of lithologic and stratigraphic columns (considering textural and structural diagnostic properties), interpretation of well survey materials, identification of the examined object and definition of correlation dependence, performance of mapping, paleoreconstruction of depositional conditions for the examined object considering ratios of natural radionuclides (thorium and uranium). At first the core is described by studying and identifying lithologic and structural features of rock porosity and permeability properties, thereafter the core is photographed in day light and ultraviolet light, profile and physical and chemical researches are performed. Then lithologic sectional layering is made with plotting of lithologic and stratigraphic columns considering textural and structural diagnostic properties. Then materials of well surveys are interpreted, analysed and obtained results are checked against identified correlation dependence, and detailed objects of study are identified. Further by mapping methods analysis is performed for identified dependences, which characterise the object of study by geologic, lithologic, petrophysical, geochemical, geophysical, structural, dynamic, tectonic and other signs of the object of study. On the basis of earlier acquired and processed data geological model of the deposit is formed using methods of facies map reconstruction for depositional conditions considering ratios of natural radionuclides (thorium and uranium); boundary of marine conditions transition to continental "sea-land" conditions for depositional conditions in the model.

EFFECT: improved efficiency, accuracy of exploration, search and reconnaissance, development and operation of oil and gas deposits.

2 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method, a casing string with temperature sensors attached to its outer surface is lowered to a well and cement is pumped to an annular gap between the casing string and well walls. During a cement filling and hardening process, temperature measurements are made and thermal conductivity of surrounding mine rocks of the well is determined as per the measured relationship between temperature and time.

EFFECT: possibility of simultaneous reception of information on properties of a relatively thick layer of rocks around the well and information on thermal conductivity of rocks for the whole cemented interval of depths.

3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes measurement of indicator diagram of well flow rate dependency on pressure drawdown and determination of the dependency peak corresponding to optimal pressure drawdown. Elastic strain dependency is measured, for example, propagation rate of elastic rate from porosity pressure in a core sample selected from the formation and placed into the hydraulic chamber with uniform pressure corresponding to conditions of natural occurrence, then porosity pressure is reduced smoothly up to the formation pressure with rate that does not exceed relaxation rate of limit strain in the core, which is used for assessment of acoustic emission non-availability, and then porosity pressure is continued to reduce as the core drawdown, and against commencement of sharp change in this dependency gradient reduction when plasticity limit is reached and acoustic emission occurs the limit value of optimal pressure drawdown is assessed.

EFFECT: improving accuracy in determination of optimal pressure drawdown.

1 dwg

FIELD: geophysics.

SUBSTANCE: probe has non-magnetic hermetic body and cylindrical base, on which a hollow cylindrical magnetic duct is placed coaxially, with ring polar end pieces, ends of which are made in form of truncated cone with slanting angle of outer surface of end to cylindrical base, equal to 30° and ring polar shelf at middle portion and two generator coils, placed on both sides of ring polar shelf, and enabled oppositely. Probe also has an even number of indicator coils - multi-coil frames without a core, having a parallelogram shape in cross-section with slanting angle of greater side thereof to cylindrical base, calculated from formula. Indicator coils are placed axially and evenly distanced from cylindrical base, re placed evenly along the circle in two rows with maintenance of alignment between the latter and adjacently between each other, are made in two wires with forming of two windings. Upper row of indicator coils is placed above ring polar shelf, lower one - below it. Windings of indicator coils are connected in couples, enabled accordingly and successively. First couple has windings with the least number of coils, and is presented diametrically by opposite windings of indicator coils from different rows, and second - windings with number of coils being in 1.5 times greater and is formed due to connection of identical windings of indicator coils, placed at minimal space from each other, from different rows.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex

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