Bioreactor for growing methane-recycling microorganisms
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biochemistry. Disclosed is a bioreactor for growing methane-recycling microorganisms with possibility of using methane-containing gas and oxygen-containing gas as substrates for cell growth. Bioreactor is a vertical cylindrical housing with a cover, bottom and central circulation pipe. In upper part of housing of bioreactor on opposite sides there are two closed sectors. Closed sectors form an external reaction volume, each sector is equipped with pipes to feed gaseous substrate for discharge of gas-liquid dispersion medium and to feeding a liquid stream into lower part of sector. Discharge pipe is connected with central circulation pipe, liquid stream feed pipe is connected with pipe for extraction of culture liquid from bottom of bioreactor. In each closed sector there is a mixing device with a logical device.
EFFECT: higher efficiency with simultaneous reduction of power consumption, as well as possibility of making a bioreactor in proposed design of different volume.
13 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bioreactor has a vessel (1) with a cover (2) and a device for mixing and aerating microorganisms, having pipes (3 and 4) on the cover for inlet of aerating gas and outlet of gaseous medium, respectively. The vessel (1) is fitted with multiple coaxially arranged and spaced apart annular partitions (12 and 13) with floats (14 and 15) which are open at the bottom, on a vertical hollow shaft (11) with possibility of rotation and back-and-forth movement thereon with formation of a gap between the wall of the vessel (1) and the annular partitions (12 and 13). The vessel (1) and the cover (2) of the reactor are made from transparent materials. The bioreactor has a meant (19) of holding the reactor afloat in a liquid medium and sources (20 and 21) of artificial light, which are mounted inside the floats (14 and 15) of the annular partitions (12 and 13). The latter are made from optically transparent material. The vessel is in form of a disposable or reusable dismountable envelope (22) and has means (23 and 24) of fastening it to the cover (2) and the bottom (17) of the vessel, respectively. The method of culturing photosynthesising microorganisms involves creating biochemical and physical conditions for growth of the microorganisms in a culture medium and maintaining culturing temperature conditions. The latter is carried out in the bioreactor, which is immersed and held afloat in a natural or manmade water body at water temperature which is favourable for growth of photosynthesising microorganisms in said water body, wherein the culture medium used is the filtered water from the water body in which the bioreactor is located.
EFFECT: high output of biomass of photosynthesising microorganisms, while reducing power consumption and simplifying maintenance.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring heat production by variation of heat rate consumed by maintenance of the isothermal mode of a fermentation vessel with intermitted fluid and gas flows through the fermentation vessel with adjusted heat power consumption by mixing the culture fluid. It is combined with eliminating heat power consumption by heat production in the fermentation vessel of the culture fluid mass due to maintaining its initial value at the pre-set accuracy in the environment of the conducted continuous and periodic cultivation processes by equation of energy gain, consumed for each heating cycle of the fermentation vessel, the energy gain value derived by calibration heating of the fermentation vessel filled with the initial culture fluid mass with the heat production value and the maintenance of the culture fluid mass during the microorganism cultivation process are spread out over a period of time.
EFFECT: increased measurement accuracy of continuous and periodic microorganism heat production in the fermentation vessel.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: initial nutrient medium together with an inoculated autotrophic microorganism is supplied from a technological container into an input section of a photobioreactor with forming a suspension film of a photoautotrophic microorganism flowing down by gravity on an internal surface of transparent cylindrical tubes. Simultaneously, mixed air and carbon dioxide are reverse-flow supplied inside the tubes with using sleeves with suspension film outflow. The photoautotrophic microorganism suspension flowing in the internal surface of the transparent cylindrical tubes gets into a light section wherein it is continuously illuminated with a fluorescent tube. From the transparent cylindrical tubes, the photoautotrophic microorganism suspension flows down in an output section of the photobioreactor wherein it is bubbled to saturate the cells with carbon dioxide additionally and illuminated with a horizontal toroidal lamp. An external surface of the transparent cylindrical tubes is sequentially cooled in cooling air in the light section and in cooling water in the cooling section with cooling air and cooling water flowing in the respective recirculation loops. The photoautotrophic microorganism suspension is added with a nutrient medium of main and correction flows supplied into a technological container at first and then into the suspension recirculation loop at the input of the input section of the photobioreactor. Waste mixed air and carbon dioxide are supplied from the photobioreactor into the mixer by means of a compressor through the mixed air and carbon dioxide recirculation loop and temporarily collected in a gas tank. Post-bubble foam is continuously discharged from a lower section of the photobioreactor into an anti-foaming separator and separated into a suspension supplied into the input section of the photobioreactor and mixed air and carbon dioxide combined with waste mixed air and carbon dioxide in a regulation loop, while being temporarily collected in the gas tank and supplied into the mixer with extra saturation of waste mixed air and carbon dioxide with a required amount of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide saturated mixed air and carbon dioxide are discharged from the mixed by two ducts one of which being a main flow is reverse-flow directed inside the transparent cylindrical tubes; the other one is supplied into the output portion of the photobioreactor when bubbling the suspension. From the output portion of the photobioreactor, the microorganism suspension is discharged from the suspension recirculation loop with intermediate vented out oxygen release accompanying a cultivation process with using a desorber; another portion of the photoautotrophic microorganism suspension is discharged in a finished biomass collector to be measured for the required values for the purpose of creating optimal conditions for photoautotrophic microorganism cultivation.
EFFECT: invention provides higher effectiveness of photoautotrophic microorganism cultivation, enabled integration of the presented method into the current production lines, improved energy efficiency and performance of photoautotrophic microorganism cultivation.
2 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemistry; biochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method can primarily be used in biotechnology, biochemistry and industrial microbiology. Fermentation apparatus are used to study growth and metabolism of microorganisms and for solving several other tasks. Proposed solution involves measurement within given time intervals of flow of liquid and gaseous media through a fermentation vessel at the beginning of the fermentation process and during the said process after selected time intervals necessary for measuring heat production of microorganisms and evaluating destabilising inputs of heat power from operation of apparatus for moving the culture fluid. Heat production is calculated as the increment of current values of heat power to the initial value of the measured heat power while making corrections for the effect of the said destabilising inputs. The method is realised in a fermentation apparatus in which a fermentation vessel is placed inside a controlled thermostating screen and is fitted with an additional mixing device for controlling temperature of the fermentation vessel. Pipes running to the fermentation vessel are in thermal contact with the controlled thermostating screen.
EFFECT: more accurate measurement of heat production of microorganisms in a fermentation vessel in continuous or periodic processes.
4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: biotechnology and microbiological industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns governing periodical air-intake biotechnological process carried out in bioreactor. Method comprises measuring oxygen content in effluent gas, working volume of culture medium, concentration of biomass, and concentration of intermediate product of its vital activity. Measured parameters allow specific oxygen consumption rate and velocity of intermediate product concentration change to be determined to enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration, supplying nutritional medium, and agitating culture medium. Moreover, temperature of culture medium, temperature of supplied and withdrawn cooling agent, and consumption of the latter are measured to use these parameters for determining biomass heat release rate and velocity of intermediate product amount change. The two latter parameters enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration and supplying nutritional medium. The following characteristics are thus improved: elevating power by 8.1%, maltase activity by 7.9% and resistance by 7.4%.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of governing biotechnological process and improved qualitative characteristics of process.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biotechnology. Claimed is a method of growing colonies of microbial cells on a surface of a porous plate. The method includes supply of a nutrient solution from bottom to top through the porous plate into zones of growth of colonies of the microbial cells on its upper surface, supply of a suspension of the microbial cells onto the upper surface of the porous plate, creation of controlled conditions for the colony growth, performing observation of the colony growth, separation of the grown colonies of the microbial cells from the zones of growth and their transfer into external means of identification. The nutrient solution is supplied into the zones of growth of the colonies of the microbial cells by creation of a pressure difference between the hole input and output. Holes are made in the plate from an anode aluminium oxide orthogonally to its large plane and are topologically coded. The said zones of growth are formed in them in the form of porous membranes. The porous membranes are located at the same level as the upper surface of the plate or with formation of a hollow and do not pass the microbial cells. After supply of the nutritional solution, the suspension of the microbial cells of a specified concentration is supplied onto the upper surface of the plate until their homogenous distribution is achieved. Between the zones of growth on the surface of the plate a film, preventing attachment of the microbial cells, is formed. Separation of the grown microcolonies from the zones of growth is performed by hydroblow. A hydroblow is directed from the side of the input of cylindrical holes of the plate and spreads along them and farther through the pores of the porous membranes with force, which does not destroy the microcolonies but is sufficient for their separation from the growth zones. Also claimed is a device for growing the colonies of the microbial cells by the claimed method.
EFFECT: providing conditions of automation of processes of the nutrient solution supply and processes of separation and transfer of the grown colonies, possibility of integration into miniature portable devices, and application in laboratories on a chip and provision of the device portability.
6 cl, 14 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of biotechnology. Claimed is device for obtaining nanoparticles by reduction of metals from initial salts in presence of cultivated cells of microorganisms. Device includes control computer (1), connected with it electronic block of regulation and control (2) of all functional units and blocks of fermenter (3), pH-stabilising block (4) with pH sensor (5) and hoses for supply of titering solutions by pumps (6, 7), block (8) for regulation of redox-potential of culture mixture, provided with redox sensor (9), independently controlled pumps (10, 11) for introduction of initial solutions of metal salts, reducing agents and growth factors into fermenter (3), block (12) for regulation of dissolved oxygen level with sensor pO2 (13), pump (14) for supply of growth substrate, block (15) for measurement of optic culture density with application of optic fibre sensor (16), block (17) for measurement of spectral characteristics of culture mixture with application of optic fibre sensor (18), isolated with impermeable for cells membrane with pore size 100-250 nm, block (19) for thermoregulation of fermenter (3), equipped with temperature sensor (20), block (21) for regulation of culture mixture mixing, which brings into motion blade mixer (22), block (23) for regulation of culture mixture illumination in case of cultivating phototrophic microorganisms and control of spectral parameters of submersible diode lamp (24), block (25) for ultrafiltration of sampled culture mixture with sterilising membrane with pore size 100-250 nm with possibility of output of only nanoparticle suspension from fermenter, condenser of output moisture (26), preventing loss of culture mixture.
EFFECT: invention contributes to extension of arsenal of technological methods of obtaining nanoparticles of metals and makes it possible to achieve controllability of modes of nanoparticle formation.
2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes inspection of an inoculator with process equipment for tightness, sterilisation of the inoculator with steam via an aeration device at the pressure of 0.20 - 0.25 MPa for 30…40 min., its filling with nutrient medium heated by steam to the temperature of 100°C. Then the temperature of the nutrient medium is increased to 121 - 123°C at steam pressure of 0.10 - 0.15 MPa, and the nutrient medium is maintained at these parameters for 15-60 min., afterwards the pressure in the inoculator is reduced down to 0.03…0.05 MPa. The nutrient medium is cooled down to cultivation temperature of 31…32°C with cold water with temperature of 7 - 10°C. After cooling of the nutrient medium, it is seeded with a seeding material with simultaneous mixing and aeration with sterile air. Cultivation of the produced liquid seeding culture is carried out at pH 4.2 - 4.5 and temperature of 31 - 32°C to achieve the phase of exponential growth for 12 - 14 hours. Then it is sent by means of displacement with sterile air from the inoculator into the prepared fermenter in the amount of 3…10% of the nutrient medium amount with its filling by 7/10 of its volume, and the microorganism culture is grown at fermentation temperature of 28 - 40°C for 96 - 120 hours with continuous aeration with sterile air, mechanical mixing and supply of warm water with temperature of 27 - 47°C into a heating jacket of the fermenter. After fermentation the cultural fluid with accumulated biomass is supplied into previously sterilised collectors of finished culture.
EFFECT: increased yield of cultural liquid with accumulated biomass of aerobic microorganisms, reduced specific power inputs and provision of environmental safety at all stages of production.
1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: enzyme preparations are obtained using a fermenter with a heating jacket for submerged culturing of microorganisms of the enzyme preparations with continuous aeration with compressed air and mechanical agitation at culturing temperature of 30…32°C on the entire volume of the fermenter; the culture liquid obtained in the fermenter is cultured to remove the residue and the filtrate of the culture liquid with moisture content of 92…95% is fed into a vacuum-sublimation drier, in which the desublimator used is a two-section evaporator of a vapour compression refrigerating machine, the working and spare section of which alternately operate in condensation and regeneration modes, respectively; wherein "hot" water is obtained by heating thereof in the condenser of the refrigeration machine using condensation heat of the coolant to temperature of 68…73°C, one part of which is fed into the heating jacket of the fermenter and the other is first fed for thawing the evaporator section operating in regeneration mode, and then the water cooled to temperature of 5…7°C is then removed from the evaporator section into a storage tank together with the liquid formed from the ice cover thawed on the surface of the cooling element in an amount of moisture evaporated from the enzyme preparation, and further, in closed cycle mode, fed in two streams, one of which is mixed with waste water after the fermenter before the condenser, and the second with "hot" water before the fermenter, wherein excess water from the recirculation loop is removed through the storage tank, followed by measurement of the culturing temperature in the fermenter, the flow rate and temperature of the water at the inlet of the heating jacket of the fermenter, the flow rate and moisture content of the filtrate of the culture liquid, residual pressure in the working volume of the vacuum-sublimation drier, the moisture content of the dried enzyme preparation, the flow rate and temperature of water vapour removed from the vacuum-sublimation drier into the working section of the evaporator, the boiling point of the coolant in the working section of the evaporator, the temperature of uncondensed vapour at the outlet of the working section of the evaporator and the level of water in the storage container; mass and heat flow of the mixture of cooled and "hot" water into the heating jacket of the fermenter is established by changing the ratio of flow rates thereof with adjustment of the culturing temperature in the fermenter; the measured values of moisture content and flow rate of the filtrate of the culture liquid are used to determine the power of the drive of the compressor of the refrigeration machine and the required residual pressure in the working volume of the sublimation drier by action on the power of the controlled drive of the vacuum pump with adjustment of the residual pressure on the final moisture content of the enzyme preparation; the flow rate and temperature of water vapour removed from the vacuum-sublimation drier into the working section of the evaporator, the temperature of uncondensed vapour at the outlet of the working section of the evaporator and the boiling point of the coolant in the working section of the evaporator are used to determine the current value of the coefficient of heat transfer from the water vapour to the coolant on the cooled surface of the working section of the evaporator, and upon achieving minimum permissible value of the coefficient of heat transfer, power of the drive of the compressor of the refrigeration machine is increased first, and the working section of the evaporator is then switched from condensation mode to regeneration mode while simultaneously switching to condensation mode the section operating in regeneration mode.
EFFECT: improved quality of enzyme preparations by increasing accuracy and reliability of controlling the process parameters, high energy efficiency and environmental safety of production processes and vacuum-sublimation drying.
SUBSTANCE: when culturing phototrophs, the culture fluid is stirred and aerated through agitation by moving cultivators back and forth in the horizontal plane at given temperature and pH values. The cultivators are illuminated with a pulsed light source with pulse duration of 0.00001-0.001 s and pulse spacing of 0.01-0.1 s. In the apparatus used, the culture fluid is illuminated with diodes located under transparent bottoms of vessels of the same geometric shape and powered by a pulse generator with controlled frequency and light pulse duration.
EFFECT: group of inventions enables to reduce power consumption when culturing phototroph biomass.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: chemistry; biochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: device for speeding up reproduction, through faster reproduction and/or increased reproduction output of living cells in a suspension or any cultured organisms through a natural selection process has a flexible sterile pipe 7 with culture medium. A system of movable clamping apparatus 3, 4, 5 divides the pipe 7 into separate zones, containing spent culture (downstream zone), growing culture (growth compartment) and fresh growth medium (upstream zone). In the device there is an apparatus 13 for moving gates and the pipe such that, part of the growth compartment and the culture associated with it can be shut off by clamping apparatus and separated from the growth compartment. That way, part of the pipe which contains unused medium can be linked with part of the culture and medium associated with it, already present in the growth compartment.
EFFECT: realising a method with high reproduction output of living cells or cultured organisms.
36 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: biochemistry, in particular, methods and devices for producing coloring substances, possible use in food and cosmetic industry, and also during various biological research.
SUBSTANCE: phycoerythrin protein pigment is produced by extraction from seaweed. It is extracted from seaweed, selected from a group including Galaxaura oblongata, Halymenia ceylanica, Helminthocladia australis and Porphyra dentate.
EFFECT: phycoerythrin has high optical density.
2 cl, 27 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: equipment for growing plant tissues.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to the invention, unit for accelerating growth of plant tissues contains a set of boards, forming matrices of holes. Each hole contains a tissue sample. Support for boards is provided by a rack which contains a set of vertically stacked shelves, containing one or more holding recesses, which forcedly move boards to given positions. Light for tissue samples is provided by a set of matrices of light diodes, mounted on mounting plates. Light diodes emit white light. Each mounting plate is supported by corresponding end comber-type rack connector, so that light diodes are close to boards, supported by shelves, positioned lower. Matrix of light diodes preferably matches matrix of holes, supported by a lower positioned shelf in fixed position, so that each light diode is centered above a corresponding hole.
EFFECT: creation of high capacity system for processing samples of tissues which require light for supporting cell reproduction.
7 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: biotechnology, in particular biopreparation production.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes feeding of sterilized broth into presterilized inoculator or bioreactor equipped with means for redox-potential (eH) controlling, including eH electrode and microprocessor unit for controlling and adjustment of eH and pH measurement of redox potential value for 1 h under stirring and comparison of steady-state eH values with steady-state values. When redox-potential value deviates from steady-state value of broth redox-potential by 10 % said broth is recognized as non-sterile one.
EFFECT: process of decreased cost.
4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biogas production using the method of anaerobic methane fermentation. The bioenergy complex for production of biogas and granular biofuel is offered. The complex includes a biopond and the unit for production of gaseous biofuel, with the series-connected branch pipes for biomass supply by chipper, homogenizer and bioreactor. The bioreactor consists of, at least, one methane tank, the gas output of which through gas-holder and compressor is connected with the power unit. The tanks made from composite elastomers with polyurethane or polyvinylchloride two-sided coating are used as pressure-tight methane tanks that are equipped with the piping heating system. The tanks are connected through branch pipes with the hydromixing system. The chipper has a receiving bin, and the output for the used bioreactor biomass is provisioned with the receiving vessel. The complex is supplemented with the unit for pellet fabrication, with the possibility of its work in a mode of fabrication of pellets from green vegetative mass, planted in the biopond, or in the mode of fabrication of pellets from biomass processed in the reactor. The unit for fabrication of pellets consists of the pressing-out unit, and the liquid discharge branch pipe of the pressing-out unit is connected with the possibility of adjustment with the homogenizer of the unit for production of gaseous biofuel or with the biopond. The solid fraction output of the pressing-out unit is connected with granulator, the output of which is connected with the packaging line for two kinds of pellets.
EFFECT: invention allows to perform deep degassing of organic mass, to increase the output of biogas, profitability of biogas units for electrical power generation in a low power range from 10 kW/h up to 500 kW/h, expand functionalities, ensure mobility and work capacity of the complex in any climatic conditions.
9 cl, 2 dwg