Method of firefighting using a nano-powder and device for its implementation (versions)
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nanotechnologies in field of fire-fighting equipment. Method of firefighting with a nano-powder comprises delivering a shell with the firefighting powder to the fire seat using a thrower, destruction of said shell and supplying of firefighting substance to the fire seat in the form of nano-powder.
EFFECT: proposed technical solution relates to the throwing firefighting means.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: metal-dielectric structure and method of its manufacturing are related to electronic industry and electronic engineering and may be used both in modern energy-saving systems and components being an integral part of modern processors, in particular for development of microsized and nanosized electromechanical systems. The metal-dielectric structure consists of dielectric and conducting layers made as an assembly of capillaries filled with metals to the required length, at that conducting layers are etched on selective basis at different butt ends and metalised. The conducting layers are represented by two different types of electroconductive materials etched on selective basis at different butt ends, at that the conductive layers may be made of semiconductor materials, conducting glass, carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes while the dielectric layers may be made of optical and electron-tube glass, polymer materials. In cross-section the dielectric and conducting layers may be made as concentric circles. The manufacturing method for the above metal-dielectric structure includes assembly, overstretching, stacking to the unit, at that upon multiple overstretching vacuum filling with conducting materials is performed, and butt ends are etched on selective basis with different chemical composites and then they are metalised.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing capacitance and breakdown voltage for capacitors.
5 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pressure sensitive adhesives, suitable for use on a wide variety of substrates, including both high surface energy and low surface energy substrates. Pressure sensitive adhesives comprise an acrylate polymer and surface-modified nanoparticles. The surface-modified nanoparticles comprise a nanoparticle comprising a silica surface and surface modifying groups, covalently bonded to the silica surface of the nanoparticle. At least one surface modifying group is a polymeric silane surface modifying group. At least one surface modifying group is a non-polymeric silane surface modifying group.
EFFECT: disclosure also provides a method of preparing pressure sensitive adhesives, including exposing them to UVA and UVC radiation.
21 cl, 2 dwg, 12 tbl
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, namely to selenium nanocomposites of natural hepatotrophic galactose-containing polysaccharide matrixes, representing water-soluble orange-red powders containing zerovalent selenium (Se0) nanoparticles sized 1-100 nm in the quantitative content of 0.5 - 60 wt %, possessing antioxidant activity for treating and preventing redox-related pathologies, particularly for treating toxic liver damage, to a method for producing and to an antioxidant agent containing the above nanocomposites.
EFFECT: invention provides the targeted agent delivery to liver cells, as well as higher agent accessibility and lower toxic action of selenium.
7 cl, 11 ex, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method is implemented as follows: preparing a mixture 1 by adding 0.5M aqueous solution of selenious acid 250 mcl in PEG 400 8 ml, mixing thoroughly in a magnetic mixture at min. 750 rpm with pH of the given mixture 7.55; that is followed by preparing a mixture 2 by adding 0.5M aqueous solution of hydrazine hydrochloride 250 mcl in PEG 400 8 ml, mixing thoroughly in a magnetic mixture at min. 750 rpm with pH of the given mixture 0.68. The mixture 1 is added to the mixture 2 by mixing thoroughly drop by drop. The prepared solution is dialysed against distilled water with removing PEG 400 and hydrazine hydrochloride; the surplus water is distilled off in a rotary evaporator at 60 rpm and 70°C. The prepared solution is added with a low-molecular compound specified in a group of: gentamicin, hexamethylene tetramine, methionine, cephalexin, indole-3-carbinol; pH is reduced to 7.2-7.4. The components are mixed in an amount to provide their content in the agent, wt %: biologically active low-molecular compound 0.001-5.0; selenium 0.0001-1.0; water up to 100.
EFFECT: simplifying the technology.
2 tbl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and describes a method for producing glucosamine sulphate nanocapsules by non-solvent addition, wherein glucosamine sulphate is added in small amounts to a carrageenan suspension used as a nanocapsule shell in butanol, containing E472c preparation 0.01 g as a surfactant; the produced mixture is agitated and added with the non-solvent hexane 6 ml, filtered, washed in hexane and dried.
EFFECT: invention provides simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation in carrageenan and higher weight yield.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of obtaining nanocomposite coatings and can be used in creation of optic microelectronic devices and materials with increased corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Method of obtaining two-phase nanocomposite coating, consisting of titanium carbide nanoclusters, distributed in amorphous hydrocarbon matrix, on products from hard alloys, includes application of adhesive titanium or chromium sublayer, magnetron sputtering of titanium target in gas mixture of acetylene and argon under pressure 0.01-1 Pa and precipitation of dispersed particles of target and carbon-containing radicals on product surface in combination with bombardment of surface with ions, accelerated by bias voltage, with product surface being subjected to purification with argon ions from plasma, generated by electronic beam, before application of adhesive sublayer, and gas mixture being activated in the process of coating application by impact with beam of electrons with energy 100 eV.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at increase of coating adhesion and micro-hardness of obtained products, as well as at provision of high efficiency of application of acetylene in the process of coating application.
1 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains carrier from porous zeolite KL and binding agent and catalytically active substance - platinum. Carrier additionally contains tin tetrachloride pentahydrate nanopowder, and as binding agent - mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders in equal proportions, with particle size of each not exceeding 40 mcm. Ratio of ingredients is in the following range, wt %: platinum - 0.3-0.8, mixture of gibbsite and rutile powders - 25-70, zeolite KL - 29.12-74.69, tin tetrachloride pentahydrate - 0.01-0.08. Claimed catalyst is characterised by high activity in reactions of aromatisation of synthetic hydrocarbons.
EFFECT: invention also relates to method of obtaining such catalyst.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of nanotechnology, in particular to plant growing, and deals with method of obtaining nanocapsules of 6-aminobenzylpurine. Method is characterised by the fact that 6-aminobenzylpurine is used as core and sodium alginate is used as envelope of nanocapsules, obtained by addition of E472c as surfactant to sodium alginate in butanol, portioned addition of 6-aminobenzylpurine into suspension of sodium alginate in butanol and further drop-by-drop introduction of precipitating agent-petroleum ether after formation of separate solid phase in suspension.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of process of obtaining nanoparticles and increased output by weight.
SUBSTANCE: method includes crushing and fractioning of initial material, delignification of initial raw material by alkaline hydration and alkaline pulping with further washings. After that, two-stage acidic hydrolysis with intermediate neutralisation and three washings is performed. Then, three-stage bleaching with hydrogen peroxide H2O2 with three washings is carried out. In second washing finely dispersed ozone is supplied. Obtained product is additionally subjected to homogenisation and drying. Invention makes it possible to obtain final product with virtually absolute absence of lignin, with high organoleptic and physical and chemical properties from lignin-containing initial material.
EFFECT: method does not require application of expensive equipment, does not involve application of highly toxic reagents, includes simple technological operations, is characterised by production scalability.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing Sel-Plex nanocapsules possessing the supramolecular properties by non-solvent addition, characterised by the fact that Sel-Plex is dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide; the prepared mixture is dispersed in xanthum gum solution used as a nanocapsule shell, in butanol, in the presence of E472c preparation while stirring at 1000 cycles per second; the mixture is added with the precipitator benzol, filtered and dried at room temperature.
EFFECT: simplifying and accelerating the process of nanoencapsulation and ensuring higher weight yield.
4 ex, 12 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire-fighting equipment. Methods and device for two-stage hazard suppression system in accordance with various aspects of the present invention comprises a housing accommodating the first substance for combating against the hazard, which is made with the ability to be placed near the source of hazard, and a container accommodating the second substance for combating against the hazard placed at a distance from the source of hazard. The housing may be made with the ability to release the first substance for combating against the hazard in response to damage to the housing and/or the source of hazard. The container can be made with the ability of release of the second substance for combating against the hazard, controlled by the time, in response to release of the first substance for combating against the hazard. Alternatively, the sensor can be used to initiate the release of the second substance for combating against the hazard in response to the initiating event, independent from the initial damage to the housing and/or the source of hazard.
EFFECT: increase in operating speed of fire-fighting system is provided.
20 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in the use of an extinguishing composition, which is a normal water solution of graphite particles with a mass fraction in the solution from 0.5 to 0.9%. The graphite particles with a size less than 50 microns are used, and the extinguishing composition is fed into the seat of fire in the form of a monodisperse atomised stream with the droplets radius of 200 to 500 microns.
EFFECT: reduction of the number of the extinguishing composition used and reduction of time of fire suppression.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: containers from shell destroyed by exposure to the burning object temperature are filled with dispersed fire extinguishing agent mixed with dispersed explosive exploding when exposed to high temperatures. The containers filled with the fire extinguishing agent mixed with an explosive are placed in fire hazardous places, in case of fire under exposure to high temperature the container shells melt, the explosive explodes thereby the spurts of flame are shot down, and the fire extinguishing agent is intensively sprayed. The fire extinguishing agent is deposited on red-hot items of the burning object in the entire volume of this burning object area, thereby heat removal is carried out.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishing of facilities inconstantly maintained.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: containers are made of the shell destroyed by the impact of the burning object temperature, are filled with the dispersed fire extinguishing agent mixed with the dispersed explosive, exploding when exposed to the burning object temperature. The containers filled with fire extinguishing agent mixed with explosive are loaded on board of the helicopter. When reached the border of the burning object, the containers filled with fire extinguishing agent mixed with explosive are thrown down. Under the influence of high temperature of the latter the container shells melt and the explosive explodes thereby the spurts of flame are shot down. The fire extinguishing agent is deposited on red-hot subjects of the burning object thereby heat removal is carried out. Flying deep into the extinguishing area is carries out, where the following containers are thrown down, the described operations are performed, flying around the whole area of fire extinguishing.
EFFECT: increase in efficiency of fire extinguishing of vast crown forest and steppe fires.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: dispersed extinguishing agent is produced, mixed with dispersed explosive exploding when exposed to the temperature of the burning object. For aircrafts the discrete sprayers of the extinguishing agent are produced, mixed with the explosive. When approaching the border of the burning object, the discrete sprayer of the extinguishing agent is activated, mixed with the explosive, with which the portions of the extinguishing agent mixed with the explosive are delivered to the selected area of the burning object. Under the action of high temperature the explosive of each portion of the extinguishing agent mixed with the explosive fallen to each selected area explodes, by which the spurts of flame are beaten out. The extinguishing agent is deposited on red-hot items of the burning object in the whole volume of this area of the burning object, by which heat extraction is carried out. When flying deep into the area of fire extinguishing, where the following portions of the fire-extinguishing agent mixed with the explosive are thrown out, the described operations are performed, flying around the whole area of fire extinguishing.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of fire extinguishing of extensive crown forest and steppe fires.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: mobile fire extinguishing complex contains the ATV 1 used as a vehicle which by means of the coupling device 2 is coupled with a monoaxial trailer 3. On the trailer 3 a water vessel 4, a motor-pump 5 and a hydraulic accumulator 6 are placed. In the vessel 4 the filter 7 is installed with a possibility of extraction which placed inside the vessel 4 hollow; this filter is designed as a hollow metal cylinder the free end of which is punched with holes, and on the second end of the filter 7 connected to the suction sleeve 8 the float 9 is rigidly fixed. The motor-pump 5 is connected with the pressure head pipeline 11 the cavity of which is interconnected with the hydraulic accumulator 6 and the distributor 12 with the taps 13 which by means of connecting hoses 14 are connected with the side fire monitors 15 and with the manual fire monitor 16. The pressure head pipeline 11 is fitted with the bypass valve 17 which is connected to the overflow pipeline 18. On ATV 1 the additional frontal frame 20 with hingedly fixed axis 21 is installed on which the side fire monitors 15 connected among themselves by means of two rods 22 are placed. On the axle 21 the sliding screw spacer 23 is hingedly fixed, and in the top part of the frame 20 the lifting spacer 24 hingedly connected to the fixed part of the sliding spacer 23 is installed.
EFFECT: offered mobile fire extinguishing complex will allow to suppress forest fires in conditions of far location or absence of open water sources near the fire scene.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: device of delivery of substances intended for extinguishing fire in confined spaces comprises a cannon 1 and a shell 2. The shell is made compound comprising a heavy cylinder 3 in the form of a cup and a light cylinder 4 connected monolithically to the conical part of the shell 2, in the form of a cup, and which outer diameter is equal to the inner diameter of the heavy cylinder, mounted to the sheared split pins 5 inside the heavy cylinder 3, forming the closed chamber 6 to accommodate the substance 7 for extinguishing fire. On the surface of the light cylinder 4 there are grooves 8 for the sheared split pins 5 with the length equal to the distance from the head 9 of the light cylinder 4 to the openings for the split pins 5.
EFFECT: possibility of extinguishing fires in confined spaces in the distance and the use of cannonry for peaceful purposes.
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of detection of peat fire comprises identification of the most fire-hazardous parts of peatlands and placement in the part area of vertical wells. The perforated tubes are mounted in the wells, the tubes are filled with smoke-generating pyrotechnic composition and the wellheads are covered with granulometric material. The coordinates of the wells are recorded on the forest fire map. The boundaries of the fire are determined by the smoke location over the wells and its coordinates are recorded on the map. In the well cavity simultaneously with feeding the exhaust gases of internal combustion engine the fine powder of calcium carbonate is fed.
EFFECT: in comparison with the analogue, the method provides the ability of use of signal wells on peatlands with high content of ferrous iron due to feeding into the well cavity of exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine and powder of calcium carbonate that suppress the vital activity of iron bacteria.
FIELD: firefighting means.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to extinguishing of large-scale fires. Experience of extinguishing such fires demonstrated practical inefficiency of existing methods for a series of reasons, the main of which is insufficiency and often unavailability of the main agent for fire extinguishing - water. The original source of the main fire extinguishing agent is atmospheric air, which contains water vapours. Absolute humidity of air, i.e. mass of water vapour per unit of air volume, depends on temperature and atmospheric pressure. According to statistics, in average on the soil surface on 1 m2 there is 28.5 kg of water vapour available in air above this surface. Production of water from air, according to the proposed method, is carried out by cooling of air volume above fire zone to the temperature below the dew point temperature, i.e. when water vapour condenses and falls in the form of rain (or snow). Air above the fire zone is cooled by means of even distribution of liquefied nitrogen in its volume from reservoirs installed in aircrafts, in layers at different altitudes in the altitude range from several hundreds meters to the soil surface to approximately 1500 m. Simultaneously air is cooled in the surface layer from reservoirs with liquefied nitrogen, placed on the surface of soil along the perimeter of the fire front.
EFFECT: method to extinguish large-scale fires has a scientific basis, which makes it possible to produce the original source of this main fire extinguishing agent, not using technical means for delivery of water to seats of fire from natural or manmade water reservoirs, which may be located at significant distances from the fire zone.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises forming inside a facility of a hypoxic gas-air medium with the set initial low content of oxygen under normal pressure of hot water supply; the oxygen content is set depending on the type of the pressurised space. Monitoring is carried out by sensors of pre-alarm pre-fire state of the gas-air medium, and the pressure and oxygen content are adjusted if needed, in the specified period of time, by reducing the oxygen content and increasing the content of nitrogen or inert gas to the values of the concentration and pressure specified for this space, sufficient to detect and eliminate the causes of the pre-alarm state. After a series of measures the initial set value of oxygen content is reset at the normal pressure of hot water supply for each closed space of the pressurised facility. The device for implementing the method comprises a system control unit, a sensor assembly of controlling parameters of the gas-air medium and the assembly of cylinders with inert gas or a mixture of inert gases, it additionally comprises a sensor assembly of pre-alarm control, connected by information-control and pneumatic bonds, a regeneration unit of the gas-air medium, an assembly of cylinders with oxygen, an assembly of oxygen distributors, an assembly of high pressure air cylinders, an assembly of the gas-air medium purification with the filter of purification from mechanical impurities and the filter of purification from harmful chemicals and carbon oxide, an assembly of separation of air, an assembly of high pressure compressor, and a compartment control unit in each controlled space of the pressurised facility.
EFFECT: reduction of the risk of combustion and fire on submarines and other pressurised inhabited facilities by introducing pre-alarm monitoring and creation in them of the hypoxic gas-air media, with simultaneous creating the conditions for normal functioning of the submarine crew under conditions of an extended voyage.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire-fighting equipment, particularly for volumetric fire extinguishing in closed space.
SUBSTANCE: method involves separate feeding cooled gaseous aerosol with progressively increasing temperature to upper space of room to be protected at the command of control system; additionally supplying sprays of fire-extinguishing powder mixed with products of solid fuel combustion across the whole room volume or locally in lower room part at maximum speed, wherein quantity of supplied aerosol, initial time, direction and necessity of fire-extinguishing powder supply is determined from fire spread speed and nature. Fire-extinguishing substance is supplied in accordance with the following program. Under false operation of control system or in the case of small fire apparatus is given a command to supply gaseous aerosol. If fire covers the full room volume apparatus is given a command in 5 - 10 min to supply gaseous aerosol and, when needed, if fire is not extinguished, apparatus is given a command to additionally supply fire-extinguishing powder. If fire is accompanied by explosion and in the case of room air-tightness failure apparatus is given a command to simultaneous supply gaseous aerosol and fire-extinguishing powder. Fire-extinguishing apparatus comprises at least one aerosol generator AG 1, at least one powder extinguisher PE 2 with solid-fuel displacing gas generator GG 3, control system for operating fire-extinguishing composition supply connected to aerosol generator and powder extinguisher. Control system has sensors 4 and control-and-triggering means 5. Aerosol generator and gas generator GG 3 are provided with cooling inert nozzles. Control system is programmed to actuate aerosol generator and powder extinguisher in dependence of fire nature.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reduced time of space filling with fire-extinguishing composition and, simultaneously, increased economy and safety to people, possibility to extinguish fires at early stage in large rooms with dense equipment arrangement in the case of people present and in rooms with large quantities of pressurized combustible materials which may explode with creation of high-power fire sites distributed across the whole room volume; increased consumption of fire-extinguishing composition and reduced volumetric concentration thereof, increased reliability of fire-extinguishing system in temperature range from -60° to +60°.
10 cl, 2 dwg