Method for laser separation of rubber and polymer coatings

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removal of rubber and polymer coatings, glued to surface of various structures. Described method is based on local infrared laser thermal action directly on zone of adhesive layer. Laser beam at rate providing required heating is used to scan adhesive layer in zone of contact of coating and surface of structure. When temperature values reach 60150C strength of adhesive layer falls by almost an order, that makes it possible to remove a coating layer from surface of structure using an applied tension force.

EFFECT: reduced labor input, power consumption, high efficiency of removal of rubber coatings, providing a method which is safe for personnel by avoiding burning of rubber coating.

3 cl, 1 dwg



Same patents:

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: method can be used to remove different types of dirt from the surface of industrial and processing facilities. The method comprises scanning the corroded surface of an object multiple times in multi-pulse mode with a formed beam of laser radiation; detecting, in continuous mode, the spectrum of the plasma formed during removal of dirt; detecting iron lines and oxygen lines in the obtained plasma spectrum for the surface being cleaned and/or for the dirt; measuring the intensity values of said spectral lines and calculating the intensity ratio of the oxygen spectral line to the iron spectral line. If the intensity ratio of the selected spectral lines is greater than 0.5, the power of the laser beam is reduced and if the value is less than 0.5, the surface is considered clean.

EFFECT: method increases efficiency, monitoring and controllability of the cleaning process, as well as the safety of the process for laser removal of surface dirt.

4 dwg

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treating magnetic sheets with a directed structure in form of a strip (26) in the direction of longitudinal movement by laser scribing. The installation (22) includes a laser generator for a laser beam (46a, 46b), a cylindrical telescopic optical system (38a, 38b) with varying focal distance for the formation of a laser beam (49a, 49b) with an elliptic section having varying ellipticity as function of the focal distances and a rotating mirror scanner (39a, 39b) for moving the laser beam to a given angle. A parabolic reflector (54) of the installation is placed across the strip (26) for receiving the scanning laser beam (51a, 51b) and focusing the beam on the strip (26) in form of an elongated elliptic spot (53a, 53b), along a treatment path. The telescopic system (38a, 38b) is adjustable to change the length of one of the axes of the laser beam (52a, 52b) with an elliptic shape incident on the strip (26).

EFFECT: reduced processing losses by scribing areas with a small cross-section and maximum penetration.

20 cl, 14 dwg

FIELD: printing industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and device for manufacturing moulds for engraved printing, intended for production of security papers, which uses a laser beam (2) for engraving pattern (3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3) of engraved printing directly on the surface of the moulding material (1), in particular metal, made with the ability of laser engraving. Laser engraving of the moulding material (1) is carried out in layers in several separate stages of engraving. The stages are carried out one after another with the absolute register so that the pattern (3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3) of engraved printing is gradually engraved on the surface of the moulding material (1) to the required depth of engraving. The surface of the engraved moulding material (1) is cleaned from wastes of a process of laser engraving after each separate stage of engraving, while the laser engraving unit is in the inoperative state.

EFFECT: improvement of quality of engraving.

24 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: method includes detection of an explosive object in visible or infrared range, making a through hole in the object casing by means of continuous laser radiation of higher capacity and deflagration of an explosive via a hole in the body at the lower capacity of laser radiation in continuous mode. In process of making the through hole in the object casing and in process of explosive deflagration they accordingly measure distance to the object and distance to the hole for appropriate focusing of laser radiation at the object of neutralisation.

EFFECT: higher reliability of detonation-free neutralisation of explosive objects.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to surface processing of ceramic materials by laser radiation for production of nanostructure amorphous films, mainly, from pyroceram. Proposed method comprises pyroceram plate preheating to 450-1100C, laser irradiation of said plate, its cooling together with kiln to 150-200C and air cooling.

EFFECT: higher surface quality.

2 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: printing.

SUBSTANCE: optical raster is used, which posterior surface coincides with the focal plane of the optical elements of the raster. The spatial separation of images belonging to the group of images that form the parallax panoramagram or vario-image is carried out by sequential ablation of sites of posterior surface of the optical raster, on which in turn the images are printed belonging to the group of images that form the parallax panoramagram or vario-image.

EFFECT: exclusion of the dependence between the maximum number of images, from which panoramagram or vario-image is formed and resolution capability of a particular type of printing.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method relates to metal-working industry, particularly, to working rail head by laser. Laser beam is located at angles to axis of symmetry of machined rail, feed direction and beam rotational axis. Note here that laser power is fed in pulses with duration governed by angle of laser beam contact with processed material and laser beam rotation speed.

EFFECT: shaping rail head by concave shaping line formed in laser beam rotation.

6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: machine tool comprises stationary foundation, column translating in foundation guides, spindle wheel translating horizontally and vertically in the guides fixed on said column, tool magazine, workpiece change device, cabinet-type cutting area guard. Machine tool is provided with rotary spindle head arranged spindle wheel, laser optical head to be opened in response to command from NC circuit, laser radiator and waveguide fitted into compression spring and laid into box bent to match bending radius so that said waveguide mad be contracted and restored when spindle head and laser optical head turn.

EFFECT: expanded performances.

2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for producing textured substrate to write data thereon in the form of code. Proposed method comprises focusing laser spot on the surface and transfer of preset-diametre and depth surface brought about by local evaporation of material along recesses of wavy texture being applied. In mixing local evaporation zone, a small-scale oscillation of zone position is initiated. Note here that oscillation amplitude does not exceed half the diametre of local evaporation cone.

EFFECT: small-scale intermittent wavy texture that allows reflection without glare at all angles of optical radiation incidence on etched surface.

5 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to jewels production, particularly, to laser etching of images on articles from noble metals. In compliance with first version, article is polished to purity class of not over 9th and cleaned for the article to be fixed. Computer image is entered into laser radiator program unit and applied on article surface by laser beam tuned to point burning-through. Then, finished article is cleaned of carbon. In compliance with second version, prior to applying the image, surface of article is coated by rhodium.

EFFECT: improved quality, lower costs.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: technological processes.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of cleaning of auxiliary surfaces of coating application plants, which comprises a chamber for coating application. Prior to application of the coating, an anti-adhesive layer is applied onto auxiliary surfaces of the coating application chamber. After application of the coating they treat auxiliary surfaces with the help of jet treatment with dry ice and/or snow CO2.

EFFECT: simplified cleaning of part surface with eliminated wear.

4 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to repair and can be used for cleaning the surface of concrete and reinforced concrete by abrasive means. Surface of concrete and reinforced concrete is processed by abrasive means composed by copper-smelting slags at the pressure of 7 atm for 4.0-5.0 min/m2. Consumption of abrasive equals 8-10 kg/m2 while cleaning rate makes 25-30 m2/h.

EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.

1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear engineering, particularly, to removal of electroplates and decontamination of radioactive material surfaces. Proposed method comprises chemical treatment in reagent combined with physical factor action consisting in thermal vacuum processing at 600-650C for at least three hours, chemical treatment of surfaces to remove thermally deformed electroplates using acid solutions of etching based on compounds of mineral acids and machining. Then, cleaned parts are processed in the solution of sulfur-containing organic compound in volatile solvent to produce protective, at least 10 mcm-thick, layer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing organic wastes and municipal solid wastes. Proposed device comprises long chamber for wastes processing at high temperature and having waste inlet and processed solids outlet, first means of hot gas feed into said chamber arranged in radially distance chamber area and means to discharge hot gases from chamber central area. Note here that said working chamber has first zone for air and/or moisture extraction of wastes and second zone for extraction of synthetic zone located downstream of said first zone. Said extraction means extract air and/or moisture separately from synthetic gas. Propose method comprises the steps whereat: wastes are fed to processing area, hot gases are fed from radially distant zone, removal of solids from the zone, extraction of synthetic gas from zone central area and extraction of air and/or moisture separately from synthetic gas.

EFFECT: efficient processing.

37 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to repair processes. It may be used for shotblasting surfaces of B5-B60-strength class concrete and reinforced concrete in repair after destructive effects of H2SO4 in corrosion of II kind (effects of sulfurous gases, say SO2, sulfuric anhydride SO3 at various temperatures and hydrogen sulphide H2S in microbiological corrosion). In surface cleaning, shots are forced at 7 atm, consumption of shots makes 9-11 kg/m2, efficiency equals 20-40 m2/h, duration of shotblasting makes 2.0-2.5 min/m2, degree of cleaning is Sa 2S-3.

EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: cleaning device 1 comprises, at least, two coils 4, 11 and opening 3 for mounting torch 5, power supply 7 connected with said coils and, if required, with device to apply washing fluid on torch point 5. All components are arranged common case 2 and controlled one control device 8. To up the cleaning quality and increase cleaning zone, coils may be fed independently by said power supply. Cooler 14 is used to cooling coils 4, 11.

EFFECT: higher quality of gas cleaning.

13 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser processing of materials for use in machine building and instrument making for cleaning surfaces of dirt and undesirable layers, producing preset surface properties for structural materials, and to devices used to this end. Processed surface us subjected to scanning beam of intermittent-pulse laser radiation. Laser beam with time structure made up of intermittent concurrent trains of light pulses is formed. Every pulse train is swept into band. Bands formed by scanning each intermittent concurrent pulse train are coupled. Width of processing band equals crosswise size of laser beam on processed surface. Proposed device comprises interconnected laser and opto-mechanical system Laser generates beam with time structure made up of intermittent concurrent trains of light pulses. Said opto-mechanical system is made up of system that forms homogeneous spatial structure of laser beam and scanning system at the output of which focusing lens is arranged. Computer is connected with synchronising unit connected, in its turn, with laser and scanning system.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of cleaning diverse surfaces.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method and device used to clean open tanks from compacted split material. The knives of the face body part of the driller are made in the form of flat lever mechanism relatively to the knife rotation axis. At this the outer lever stands outside the inner diameter of the driller to the outer diameter of spiral screw. It deepens with return supply of the drillers until the removal of contact with channel material by the cutting part. The inner lever of the knife stands into the driller body to reach the driller axis by the cutting part. The length of cutter grinding of the device shall cover at least the channel radius. From the non-operating parts of the driller the stops are installed which fix working position of knives during drilling and return supply. Between the knives there is a contact sensor transmitting signal of driller contact with bottom part of the tank. The signal is transmitted to the program device which controls the time of movement time, positions of cutting parts, and vibrations depending on the properties of compacted split material. The device is equipped with knife fixation device to fix them in the operating conditions. It is connected to solenoid and pusher moved by program device commands.

EFFECT: reduction of cleaning time, reduction of cost of cleaning of open tanks by mechanizing the process and improvement of work conditions.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of removing radioactive contaminants. The method of deactivating and cleaning a solid organic substrate contaminated with solid radioactive dispersed inorganic contaminants, in which the substrate is brought into contact with a water-free extraction medium, containing: densely compressed CO2; non-halogenated surfactant selected from block-copolymers of polyethylene oxide PEO and polypropylene oxide PPO, such as double-block copolymers (EO)x-(PO)y, tri-block copolymers (EO)x-(PO)y-(EO)x and tri-block copolymers (PO)x-(EO)y-(PO)x, where x and y are integers from 2 to 80, where x is not equal to y, and polydi(from 1 to 6 C)alkylsiloxane, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS); a complexing agent selected from tributylphosphate (TBP), crown ethers, tributylphosphine oxide, triphenylphosphine oxide; and tri(n-octyl)phosphine oxide; and a substrate and/or extraction medium are subjected to mechanical action simultaneously with the contact operation.

EFFECT: invention provides satisfactory deactivation of substrates and prevents repeated contamination.

28 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: set of invention relates to laser decontamination of shaped part surface and may be used for contamination of nuclear fuel rods. Decontamination is performed by affecting shaped part surface 3 sequentially by pulse laser beams with wavelength in UV range to remove shaped part surface layer particles for them to be sucked, then, off. Laser beams are distributed so that to irradiate simultaneously the edges of shaped part treated surface. Proposed method used device that comprises treatment chamber 1 with opening for shaped part 3 to allow part surface sections to be introduced into treatment zone 4, and appliances to deliver laser beams into treatment chamber. Treatment chamber comprises optical lines 11, 12 to allow laser beams therein and appliances to suck off removed particles.

EFFECT: laser decontamination of nuclear power plant units for their cleaning and dismantling.

13 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: hydrocavitating methods of treatment of different surfaces.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the hydrocavitating methods of treatment of the different surfaces and may be used for clearing of different composite surfaces including underbody surfaces of ships. The method provides for an action of at least two being under pressure cavitating water jets onto a zone of a surface under treatment. The action is realized with provision of intersection of the cavitating jets. For increasing concentration and maintenance of uniformity of cavitational bubbles in a zone of a surface of treatment the distance L between the longitudinal axes of the injectors of the cavitating jets was taken satisfying to the following ratio: , where is an angle of expansion of a cavitating jet, and di is a diameter of an injector. The distance h from injectors up to a zone of a surface of treatment is equal to an interval h = (40-60)d, and - an angle of expansion of a cavitating jet is in the interval . The device for realization of the method contains at least two injectors. Distance L between the longitudinal axes of the injectors is taken satisfying the ratio , where is the angle of expansion of the cavitating jet, and di is the diameter of the injector. At that - an angle of expansion of a cavitating jet is in the interval . The invention allows to increase effectiveness of treatment, to improve uniformity of treatment of the over-all surface, to increase concentration and to maintain uniformity of cavitation bubbles in a zone of a surface treatment, to reduce pressure.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased effectiveness of treatment, improved uniformity of treatment of the over-all surface, increased concentration and uniformity of cavitation bubbles in a zone of a surface treatment, reduced pressure.

11 cl, 14 dwg