Separation of multicomponent gas mixtures by short-cycle unheated adsorption with three-stage extraction of target gas of high purity
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry and can be used in production of nitrogen, oxygen and argon from atmospheric air. Method involves using multiple adsorption columns. Main columns (1, 2) are filled with adsorbent which absorbs non-target components of gas mixture, and auxiliary adsorption columns (3) are filled with adsorbent which absorbs target component of gas mixture. Raw gas mixture under excess pressure is fed into main adsorption columns (1, 2), after which end product-rich gas is moved into auxiliary adsorption columns (3), where adsorbent absorbs target gas. After that, target gas is separated from adsorbent and moved back into main adsorption columns (1, 2), where pressure of target gas is raised while bringing it to high purity. Adsorbents are selected so that saturation time of adsorbent in main adsorption columns is approximately twice longer than saturation time of adsorbent in one or more auxiliary adsorption columns.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce complexity of process diagram, overall dimensions and material consumption of plant.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of reforming with application of catalyst. Described is method of reforming hydrocarbons with water vapour, including contact of supplied gas in reactor of catalytic partial oxidation or installation for autothermal reforming. Reactor operates at temperature 800-1600°C and pressure of 20-100 bar. Egg shell type catalyst, consisting of active compound in form of alloy of nickel and one metal from iridium and ruthenium, on supporter, containing aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, titanium dioxide or their combinations. Catalyst has cylindrical shape and has one or several through holes, where distance from centre to external catalyst surface constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, catalyst height constitutes from 10 to 40 mm, with diameter of one or several through holes constituting from 3 to 30 mm. At least 90 wt % of iridium or ruthenium in catalyst are located in external envelope which has depth up to 10% of external catalyst surface or to 10% of periphery of one or several through holes of catalyst.
EFFECT: realisation of method of catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming at reduced drop of pressure in catalyst layer without reduction of catalyst activity.
12 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of petrochemistry and more specifically to a method of producing synthesis gas which is used as the feedstock, for example, for the synthesis of methanol, dimethyl ether, hydrocarbons by Fischer-Tropsch method. The method of producing synthesis gas comprises oxidative conversion of methane-containing gas at a temperature more than 650°C in through-flow riser, using as oxidant the microspherical or crushed catalyst based on metal oxides, capable of multiple redox transitions, at that the catalyst is continuously passed through the riser upwards in the methane-containing gas flow with a residence time of the feedstock in the reaction zone of 0.1-10 s, separating the catalyst passing from the reactor from the product and regeneration of the catalyst by oxidation with carbon dioxide in the regenerator from which the regenerated catalyst enters the reactor. The oxidative conversion of methane-containing feedstock and regeneration of regenerated catalyst is carried out simultaneously and continuously.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the removal rate of the product, to reduce energy consumptions for transportation of oxygen-containing agent, to reduce the risk of explosion and ignition, as well as to adjust the composition of the synthesis gas.
7 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in obtaining hydrogen from reagents, including liquid hydrocarbons, gaseous hydrocarbons and/or oxygen-containing compounds, including those, obtained from biomass, and their mixture. In order to obtain hydrogen used are: section of reagents heating; section of catalytic partial oxidation with short contact time, in which synthesis-gas is obtained; section of heat recuperation; section of converting carbon monoxide, present in synthesis-gas, into carbon dioxide by reaction of water gas conversion; section of said carbon dioxide removal; section of condensate cooling and removal.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain H2 and CO2 of high purity and purge gas with average heat-generating ability, which can be used in combustion processed and/or introduced into installation fuel supply system.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst for heterogeneous reactions, which includes copper, chromium, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional component is disclosed. The catalyst contains, as the additional component, 0.5-5 wt % of a silicon compound with respect to the oxide and the catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components, and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO 50.0-57.0; Cr2O3 11.0-16.0; ZnO 9.5-13.0; SiO2 0.5-5.0; aluminium oxide - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-chromium-zinc catalyst having high strength, thermal stability and which can be used in different chemical processes.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used during HCs production from natural or associated petroleum gas. Method of oxygenates cleaning from reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes conversion of even part of the contained oxygenates under conditions of syngas chilling by even part of the reaction water at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion. Further syngas cooling temperature below 400°C is performed by the cleaned water injection in the syngas flow. Method of use of the reaction water generated at stage of HCs synthesis from syngas during GTL process includes its cleaning of the oxygenates under conditions of the syngas chilling at temperature over 500°C upon contact with catalyst of the oxygenates steam conversion, cleaned water degassing. The cleaned degassed water is used to cool the syngas to temperature below 400°C and produce the water steam.
EFFECT: invention ensures effective cleaning of the reaction water of the oxygenates, and use of the produced cleaned water as feed water for boilers and water steam production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a system for hydrogen development and a method for controlled hydrogen development. A method consists in carrying out a reaction of a metal agent selected in alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys and mixtures consisting of alkali metals, alkali earth metals, alloys consisting of at least one alkali metal, and at least one alkali earth metal with water for producing hydrogen and a residual product of reaction in the form of metal hydroxide specified in alkali hydroxides and alkali earth hydroxides; the metal agent is condensed by heating in vacuum; the liquid metal agent is supplied into a homogeneous reactor by extrusion by means of feed units, and water is simultaneously supplied to maintain a stoichiometric ratio of water in accordance with an amount of the liquid metal agent; the hydrogen and residual product are transported into the separation units and separated; separated hydrogen is transported into a hydrogen receiver; the residual reaction product is transported into a metal hydroxide receiver; the oxygen ingress into the metal agent feed units, water feed system, reactor, separators and hydrogen receiver by the selective use of vacuum.
EFFECT: developing the method for controlled hydrogen development.
22 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a copper-zinc catalyst, which includes copper, zinc and aluminium oxides and an additional silicon compound. The catalyst contains 0.5-5.0 wt % of a silicon compound, with respect to the oxide, which is mixed with copper and zinc oxides. The catalyst is formed via heat treatment of aluminium hydroxide together with compounds of said components and has a porous structure with total specific pore volume of not less than 0.25 cm3/g and content of mesopores with a diameter of 10-40 nm higher than 60%, and the catalyst has the following composition, with respect to oxides, wt %: CuO - 40.0-55.0; ZnO - 24.0-35.0; SiO2 - 0.5-5.0; AlO3 - the balance.
EFFECT: forming a copper-zinc catalyst having high strength and thermal stability.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the production process of synthetic gas by hydrocarbon conversion, and namely to processes of oxidative conversion. The synthetic gas is produced at the combustion of a hydrocarbon stock with an oxidiser with the oxidiser excess coefficient less than 1 at a temperature less than 1400 K inside a cavity formed partially or completely by a three-dimensional matrix permeable for the mixture of the gas and oxidiser. Input of the hydrocarbon stock with the oxidiser is made through a permeable bottom of the cavity or through permeable walls and bottom of the cavity, while the output of combustion products is made through the upper cross-section of the cavity. Before input to the cavity the mixture of the gas and oxidiser or one gas of the mixture partially or completely is heated by heat produced by combustion products. The matrix is heated additionally by heat radiation reflected from the screen placed in the matrix cavity and permeable for the combustion products.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to the increased output of the synthetic gas at the usage of hydrocarbon mixtures with the high content of non-combustible products having a low calorific value.
2 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes adding of raw gas mix into a set of pipes containing the catalyst into reforming-furnaces, execution of reforming reaction for formation of the reformat containing H2, CO, CH4 and H2O, withdrawal of reformat, burning of fuel with heated gas oxidiser in the reforming-furnace combustion chamber unit, for obtaining of a gaseous combustion product and generation of heat for the purpose of power supply of raw gas mix reaction in pipes, combustion product withdrawal, heating of gas oxidiser by heat exchange with the combustion product, with obtaining of heated gas oxidiser, cooling of the combustion product, heating of the first feeding water flow by heat exchange with the combustion product, with combustion product cooling. Before this from the combustion product the heat is withdrawn for gas oxidiser heating, heating of the second feeding water flow by heat exchange with reformat, supply of the first and second feeding water flows into the deaerator, separation of dissolved gases from flows in the deaerator, withdrawal of the ventilating flow from the deaerator, withdrawal of flow of water feeding the boiler from the deaerator, formation of hydrogenous product from the reformat after heating by reformat of the second feeding water flow, and formation of steam product from part of the flow of water feeding the boiler.
EFFECT: increased amount of withdrawn steam.
17 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining low-pressure hydrogen for further combustion and obtaining water vapour by means of low-voltage electrolysis of alkaline electrolyte of solution of salts of hydrohalic acids and their mixtures by constant current, by means of aluminium electrodes, with further extraction of oxygen from formed aluminium complexes into separate accumulating tank, with support of electrolyte composition and temperature and pressure control in electrochemical cell.
EFFECT: application of claimed method makes it possible to reduce danger in carrying out the process due to binding of resulting from reaction oxygen into complexes and possibility of its further utilisation.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: thermodissociating hydrogen and oxygen generator contains a steam generator, a rotating steam collector with holes for steam release, plasmochemical reactors for thermal dissociation of water vapour and obtaining of hydrogen and oxygen which are connected to the power supply and which are interconnected from one side with holes in the steam collector and from another side - with expanding nozzles and cylinders of wave compressors. The plasmochemical reactors either consist of a housing in which a cathode electrode is installed and which has a jacket interconnected with a cooled anode nozzle, and the front surface of the housing is implemented as a disk with holes for steam supply, or plasmochemical reactors are implemented as a block of reactor housings which are interconnected with the block of cooled anode nozzles, the housings contain cathode electrodes, on the block of plasmochemical reactors the valve mechanism for steam intake is located. Plasmochemical reactors, expanding nozzles and cylinders of wave compressors have jackets for cooling liquid circulation.
EFFECT: decrease of cost of finished goods.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of power engineering and can be used for partial or full replacement of hydrocarbon fuel in various modes of transport, in heating systems of residential and industrial premises, in steam generators and for separate generation of pure oxygen and hydrogen for industrial, medical and other applications. The method of generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water vapour includes passing of superheated steam with the temperature 500-550°C through high voltage DC electric field, meanwhile the superheated steam is passed simultaneously through the gravitational (inertial) field created by steam itself during its movement in electric gravitational hydrogen cell, and separation of hydrogen and oxygen mix. For generation of gravitational (inertial) field the electric gravitational hydrogen cell is designed as a set of the disk plates with the central hole which are used as electrodes and guides for movement of water steam along screw trajectory, and collected in such a manner that disk plates form the double screw, and homonymous ones - even, odd disk plates are connected among themselves and electrically insulated from the heteronymic ones.
EFFECT: invention allows to reduce considerably dimensions and to increase productivity of units.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing hydrocarbons, hydrogen and oxygen using carbon dioxide and water. According to the method, water is saturated with carbon dioxide to obtain carbonated water; the carbonated water is passed through at least one reactor having a catalyst to conduct the reaction: nCO2+[4n+2(k+1)]H2O=CnH2n+2+[3n+2k+1]H2+[3n+k+1]O2, where k is an integer greater than or equal to 0, n is an integer greater than or equal to 1, to obtain hydrocarbons, hydrogen and oxygen, further fed into at least one separator; reaction products from the source carbonated water are separated in at least one separator by separating the gas phase and the liquid phase, wherein hydrocarbons are separated from the liquid phase and the gas phase, and hydrogen and oxygen are further separated from the gas phase.
EFFECT: method enables to simultaneously obtain hydrocarbons, hydrogen and oxygen while reducing power consumption while reducing environmentally hazardous products.
10 cl, 1 ex, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrically drive oxygen separator. Said separator comprises at least one tubular membrane with anode and cathode layers, electrolyte layer arranged there between, and two layers of current collector to adjoin and to stay in contact with anode and cathode layers and located on inner and outer sides of said tubular membrane. Besides it comprises a set of conductors connected with one of two layers of current collectors at two spaced apart points of tubular membrane and with the other of two layers of current collector spaced from two central points so that power supply can apply electric potential via said set of conductors between two spaced apart central points and two opposite end points. Note here that electric current induced by said potential passing via at least one tubular membrane is divided into two parts passing between two spaced apart central points and two opposite end points. Invention relates also to the method of electric potential application, to tubular membrane for electrically driven oxygen separator and to tubular membrane end seal.
EFFECT: improved operating performances.
24 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises forming external gas flow 1, compressing it in compressor 2, its stepwise separation in membrane modules 4, 10 by forcing ir along surfaces of selective membranes 3,8 in high-pressure areas of said modules 4, 10, forming feed gas flow and feeding it into working space. Membrane modules 4, 10 make two-step unit. Gas flow from said high-pressure areas is combined and fed into intermediate tank 6 and features nitrogen content of 92-99 vol. %. Gas flow from said low-pressure areas is combined and fed into intermediate tank 14 and features nitrogen content of 90-99 vol. %. Before feeding gas flow to unit first step, then from low-pressure areas from first step and to every next step as well as into intermediate tank 14 with oxygen content. Gas flow is subjected to pre-compression at 5.0-15.0 bar. Gas flow is discharged from low-pressure areas at absolute pressure of 0.3-1.0 bar by controlled feed of gas flow from intermediate tanks with nitrogen and oxygen content to form breathing atmosphere in working spaces.
EFFECT: simultaneous control over oxygen concentration in several working spaces.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry to separate atmospheric air when producing nitrogen and oxygen. The apparatus includes an air compressor 1, an adsorber regenerator 2, a turboexpander 5, a lower 3 and an upper 4 fractionation column, nitrogen and oxygen collectors 6,7, a condenser 8, an atmospheric air flow sensor 9, a purified air flow sensor 11 and valve 12 for the column 3, a purified air flow sensor 13 and valve 14 for for the turboexpander 5, a flow sensor 15 and a valve 16 for nitrogen released from column 4, a nitrogen flow sensor 17 and valve 18, an oxygen flow sensor 19 and valve 20 and a controller 21. The first input of the adsorber regenerator 2 is connected to sensor 9, the first output of which is connected to sensor 11, valve 12 and column 3, and the second output is connected to sensor 13, valve 14 and turboexpander 5. The turboexpander 5 is connected to the first input of the column 4, the second input of which is connected to column 3. The first output of column 4 is connected to sensor 15 and valve 16 with the second input of the adsorber regenerator 2, the second output is connected to the nitrogen collector 6, at the output of which there is a pipe with sensor 17 and valve 18. The third output of the column 4 is connected to the oxygen collector 7, which is connected to the condenser 8, at the output of which there is a pipe with sensor 19 and valve 20. Inputs of the controller 21 are connected to outputs of sensors 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and its outputs are connected to inputs of valves 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20.
EFFECT: apparatus increases efficiency and quality of the obtained products.
1 tbl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to a device and a method of hydrogen and oxygen production and may be used in chemical industry and power engineering. The device comprises (a) a cathode unit, including a cathode electrode 3 and a nozzle 24 of the electrode, a surrounding cathode electrode 3, besides, the nozzle 24 of the electrode has the first wall 28 and the second wall 29, which form the first duct 13 and the second duct 11; and (b) at least one anode unit, comprising an anode electrode 2 and an electrode nozzle, which surrounds the anode electrode 2 and forms at least one duct. Power is supplied to the cathode electrode 3 in order to develop electric current between the cathode electrode 3 and at least one anode electrode 2 to generate an electric retaining field 5 induced by magnetic field. The flow of inert gas is supplied via the first duct 13 into the electric retaining field 5 in order to create plasma around a tip 14 of the cathode electrode 3. The flow of the vapour steam is sent via the second duct 11 into the electric retaining field 5 and plasma around the tip 14 of the cathode electrode 3 for the purpose to produce elementary hydrogen 19 and oxygen 20.
EFFECT: device and method make it possible to reduce costs in production of oxygen and hydrogen and to use produced gases for generation of power, thus preventing consumption of any fossil fuels accompanied with discharge of carbon-bearing substances.
15 cl, 9 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: oxygen generator can be used as a more efficient compact standalone source of oxygen gas for enabling people to breath, mainly during accidents and emergency situations. The generator has a housing which has one or more outlet openings, a solid charge of oxygen-generating material which is placed in a combustion chamber lying in the housing and having one or more outlet openings. Between the outer surface of the combustion chamber and the housing of the generator there is a multifunctional active element which has a porous gas-permeable structure and whose material is selected from a group of peroxides and superoxides of alkali and alkali-earth metals. The generator has a device for igniting the charge and a filter for removing particles from the obtained oxygen.
EFFECT: increased specific output of oxygen with simultaneous reduction of temperature and increase in purity of the generated oxygen, reduction of temperature of the housing during and after operation of the generator, longer operation time of the generator and increased safety during its operation.
12 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: mechanics; fire-fighting equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hardware with the principle of operation consisting in using suspended highly-dispersed solid particles, aerosols, as flame retardants, the aerosol being formed in burning of pyrotechnical grains and released in a protected chamber. Aerosol generator comprises the primer of grains distributed in a cylindrical heat-protected housing combined with the receiver communicating, via a pipeline, with the reverse circular channel formed by a heat exchanger, a casing and a tapered cover. The said casing and tapered cover are arranged reversed and partially overlapping to form an annular outlet nozzle, both being furnished with a heat-protection material interlayer. Note that the said cover rests upon the housing mounted on the central ledge of the casing. The said housing and casing are jointed together with the help of an axial rigging screw, the casing being arranged on a mounting plate with a heat-protection coating acting as a deflector. Note also that the pyrotechnical grains and receiver pipelines are fixed in the housing with the help of gypsum plaster.
EFFECT: simpler design, ease of manufacture, higher efficiency.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to coke furnace operation method. According to the method coke gas generated in coking process is supplied as useful gas to processing of raw materials, at that hydrogen is separated from coke gas, and in order to generate thermal energy required for coking process synthetic gas is supplied as combustion gas, which is produced from fossil fuel by gasification process, at that the first share of the obtained synthetic gas is used as combustion gas, at that extra share of the obtained synthetic gas is used for further synthesis with hydrogen separated from coke gas.
EFFECT: invention provides effective usage of the generated coke gas during operation of the coke furnace.