Angular velocity and linear acceleration micro-opto-electromechanical three-axis sensor
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making field, in particular, to angular velocity and linear acceleration measuring devices. Summary of invention is, that angular velocity and linear acceleration micro-opto-electromechanical three-axis sensor optical radiation absorption device consists of four beams intersecting at right angle with square lateral side, cantilever fitted with small faces to central gasket in intersection area, each beam is made from piezoelectric material with light-absorbing coating, includes electric contacts, located at beam both ends, and load secured on its free end, sensitive element comprises fourteen additional optic radiation orientation devices, wherein each of sixteen optic radiation orientation devices is located symmetrically relative to intersected beams geometric center, parallel to four beams free ends long faces, attached by one smaller side face to central gasket, and by other small side face rests on side gasket, providing gap between four optic radiation orientation devices and optical radiation absorption device cantilever fixed beam, angular velocity and linear acceleration micro-opto-electromechanical three-axis sensor additionally comprises fourteen channels for optical radiation receiving-transmitting, each of which is optically connected, through light guide, with one of fourteen additional optic radiation orientation devices and electrically connected to information processing unit, control device, connected to information processing unit and intersected bars electric contacts.
EFFECT: technical result is expansion fibre-optic linear acceleration converter functional capabilities based on optical tunnelling effect to provide angular velocity and linear acceleration measurement relative to inertial coordinate system three axes.
1 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: ballistic gravity meter contains a vacuum chamber, a test body dropping device, a radiation source, a photodetector, a signal synchronisation and processing device. On the test body the optical element is fixed, which is designed as a diffraction lattice. Marks of the named lattice are located horizontally. On the way of the light rays diffracting on a lattice during the device operation the optical multiplexer is installed, the output of which is connected to a photodetector.
EFFECT: increase of time resolution, reduction of dimensions of the device and simplification of algorithm of signal processing.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: measurements are taken using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Light from light sources is guided through a collimating system towards the Fabry-Perot interferometer and an interference pattern is focused by lenses on a recorder. The light guided to the Fabry-Perot interferometer comes from multiple independent sources which illuminate different regions of the interference pattern, and in each region of the interference pattern, blurring of interferometric rings is compensated for, said blurring being caused by misalignment of the mirrors of the interferometer, by replacing, on the recorder, the focal plane with a plane where beams of all interference patterns of a non-parallel Fabry-Perot interferometer intersect, creating a partial pseudo-focus.
EFFECT: enabling simultaneous measurement of shift of frequency of radiation from different independent sources in one channel and sharper interferometric rings on both sides of the centre of the interference pattern.
SUBSTANCE: two beams of coherent optical radiation are created. Each beam is additionally divided to two parts. Using the ring interferometer intensity and phase of only one part of each beam are measured. Input of the measuring beams in the interferometer resonator is performed in mutually opposite directions. Part of first beam passed through the interferometer and rest initial part of the same beam are directed to the first photocell. Part of second beam passed through the interferometer and rest part of the same beam are directed to the second photocell. The angular speed is determined as per difference of natural frequencies of the interferometer resonator for waves bypassing it in mutually opposite directions.
EFFECT: possibility of the angular speed determination upon absence of losses in the ring interferometer resonator or during their compensation.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of instrument making and relates to an angular speed sensor. The sensor comprises a fibre-optic coupler, connected by light guides with a source and a receiver of optical radiation. The radiation receiver is connected to a unit of information processing and a sensitive element. The sensitive element includes a centrally fixed beam and four devices of optical radiation orientation, symmetrically arranged opposite to two opposite horizontal planes of the beam. The beam is made of piezomaterial with a light absorbing coating applied opposite to horizontal planes of optical radiation orientation devices. The orientation devices are made of quartz sand and are partially coated with mirror sputtering. Mirror sputtering is not available on areas corresponding to rectangular projection of the beam to surfaces of orientation devices.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of a sensor.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fibre optics and can be used in engineering angular velocity vector measurers based on optic fibre gyroscopes with using single-mode optic fibres. An optical system comprises two beam-splitters 2×2 (a splitter has two inputs and two outputs) one splitter 1×2 (the splitter has one input and two outputs), three optical radiation circulators (the circulator has two inputs and one output) and three photoelectric receivers. A secondary optical radiation source is additionally provided.
EFFECT: higher reliability of the angular rate vector measurers.
3 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optoelectronic devices for measurement of object motion parameters and can be used for measurement of aircraft or ship velocity vector components with respect to underlying surface. Proposed device comprises projection-optical system, computer unit and two optoelectronic data processing channels. Each of the latter comprises two comparators, adder, differentiator and rectangular radiation receiver. Note here that every channel of this device incorporates two extra adders, three extra comparators, extra divider, extra radiation receiver sifted relative to first radiation receiver.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of determination owing to decrease in sensitivity to low-frequency noises.
SUBSTANCE: method involves detecting reflected light pulses, digitising received signals, calculating range to objects and velocities of moving objects and determining angular coordinates. The signals are differentiated during digitisation. Time intervals between emission and portions of differentiated signals corresponding to front edges of received light pulses, as well as time intervals t2 between portions of differentiated signals corresponding to front edges and trailing edges of received light pulses are simultaneously measured. The velocity x of moving objects is determined:
EFFECT: simultaneity and accuracy of detecting objects, measuring velocity of objects, distance and angular coordinates.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to measuring instruments of speed by the interferometric method by Doppler shift of length of a wave of light reflected from a studied object, with use of the Fabry-Perot interferometer and can be used for increase in brightness of an interferential picture on a slot-hole diaphragm at the outlet of the optical system 2-10 times with small increase in dimensions. The technical result is reached by the fact that the device of a Doppler measuring instrument of speed on the basis of a Fabry-Perot interferometer with fibre input of radiation, containing the following components serially located on one optical axis a cylindrical lens with positive focal length, a Fabry-Perot interferometer, a long-focus building lens, in the focal plane of which there is a slot-hole diaphragm and a detector, contains components serially located on one optical axis before a cylindrical lens with positive focal length a collimating lens and two cylindrical lenses with negative focal length.
EFFECT: reduction of dimensions of optical system, possibility to use light transfer along optical fibre and increase in illumination of a slot-hole diaphragm of a registrar.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on measuring the numerical value of differential frequency offset and the associated relative light intensity when light passes through a system of a polariser and an analyser moving relative each other and crossed at an angle of 90°, characterised by that differential frequency offset of light or relative intensity of light passing through the analyser near the polariser and the analyser is measured. The quantum-relativistic form of Malus law enables to fine frequency offset of the light wave and the associated relative intensity of light passing through the analyser during relative movement of the polariser and the analyser.
EFFECT: enabling determination of the velocity of a fast-moving body in space.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on generation of spatial amplitude modulation of light reflected from the body by raster. Said raster is placed between optical system photo receivers. It comprises also detecting modulated light by, at least, four photo receivers and, at least, three differential amplifiers. Resultant output electric signal frequency is used to define body speed.
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reliability even in the case of soft and poorly reflecting surfaces.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: automotive industry.
SUBSTANCE: pickup comprises housing, sensitive member which rotates around its axis, driving shaft, counter of the number of revolutions, analyzer, and fixing, directing and receiving lenses which connect the source and receiver of optical radiation through fiber optical cable. The sensitive member is made of optical plate with natural polarization mounted in the tube which rotates in bearings. The tube is connected with the driving shaft through a transmitting mechanism whose axis of rotation passes through the intersection of optical axes of the plate. The directing and receiving lenses are set in the guiding pipes.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurements.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises exposing the object to laser radiation, directing it back to the laser resonator, recording autodyne signal by the external photodetector from the change of the laser irradiation power, and dispersing the signal recorded into the spectral components. Before recording, the object or/and the laser undergo vibration with a given frequency and amplitude greater than half wavelength of the laser radiation. After decomposing the signal recorded into components, a sample of signal record which is no less than the value of the inverse frequency, is extracted. The phase of the autodyne signal is calculated from the set of the spectral components. The procedure is repeated for the next signal sample. The time dependence of the phase of the autodyne signal obtained is used for the calculation of the object velocity.
EFFECT: widened range of the velocities measured and enhanced accuracy of measurements.
FIELD: navigation of on-water and underwater vessels.
SUBSTANCE: side surface of underwater object has two static stress detectors which are mounted in opposition to each other and are made in form of fiber coils being optically connected with coherent light source and photoreceiver. Spring-loaded screen is mounted onto nose part of floating vehicle; the screen is mounted for movement along axis of floating vessel. Side surfaces of screen have different lengths. End switch is mounted at shorter side of screen which screen is connected with controlled inputs of propulsive device and steering gear of floating vehicle by means of electric terminals.
EFFECT: widened operational capabilities.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for measuring speed and consumption of various liquids including optically opaque for example oil, run-off and technical water, tap water in tubes of large diameter, in an open channel and in seas in extreme conditions.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a submersible sonde which has a body, a shielding window, an oscillator and a photoreceiver located outside of the controlled liquid and a fiber-optic image converter. The input butt-ends of its optical guidewaves form a measuring raster the plane of which is located under an angle to the axis of the flow and output butt-ends are optically connected with the photoreceiver. The output of the photoreceiver is connected with the input of an electronic block. At that the oscillator is optically connected with output even butt-ends of the guidewaves of the converter and the photoreceiver is optically connected with uneven butt-ends of the waveguides.
EFFECT: possibility of using any types of liquids and simplify the construction.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device has coherent optical radiation source, beam splitting means, two light-guides one of which has to be air light-guide and the other one is made of material with light refractivity being higher than refractivity of light. Device has two motionless reflecting mirrors, one of which is mounted to keep light-guides in parallel, semitransparent mirror. Light beams from both light-guides fall onto the mirror to form interference pattern. Device also has optical radiation receiving and processing unit and diaphragms. Beam splitting aid, semitransparent mirror and motionless reflecting mirrors are all provided with diaphragms. Laser interferometer is developed which allows measuring distance to object under control or its size as well as linear speed of motion of transportation vehicle when being installed onto it.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: tachometer can be used to measure speed of rotation and to inspect sign of rotation of self-moving objects. Coding unit in form of toothed disc is put onto shaft to be inspected. Shell aligned with shaft is mounted motionless around the disc. Signal coil is disposed inside shell and reference coil of fiber-optic tachometer is disposed outside shell. When disc rotates, pressure pulses act on signal coil of interferometer, which pulses are transformed by interferometer into photocurrent pulses. Frequency of photocurrent pulses carries information on frequency of rotation of shaft. To determine sign of rotation, the teeth of disc are disposed from axis of rotation to follow to monotonous dependence. Pulses at output of interferometer will have different amplitudes. Manner of change in pulses (increase or decrease in amplitude) gives information on sign of direction of rotation.
EFFECT: prolonged service life in aggressive medium.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording and processing the optical signal that carries information on the fluctuation of flow velocity of the active laser fluid of a CO2-laser. The relative fluctuations of the inverse wave are recorded, and d(v2) is determined from the formula proposed. The inverse wave is generated by the internal resonance of four-wave mixing on the nonlinearity of the coefficient of the active fluid of the laser.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of the measurements.
FIELD: technology for measuring parameters of impulse mechanical loads, possible use for continuous registration of profiles of movement speed of substance under extreme conditions.
SUBSTANCE: capacitive sensor contains measuring flat capacitor, filled with layer of air, with immobile or mobile electrodes, measuring line and power circuit. One of piezo-element electrodes is used as immobile electrode of measuring capacitor. Capacity of piezo-element is selected to be significantly greater than capacity of measuring capacitor. Measuring line is made input form of optical channel for measuring movement parameters of piezo-element surface.
EFFECT: increased interference resistance of sensor from electromagnetic pickups, expanded functional capabilities and area of possible use.
FIELD: fiber optics, applicable in designing of fiber-optic gyroscopes and other fiber sensors of physical quantities on the basis of a ring fiber-optic interferometer.
SUBSTANCE: the sensor has a laser diode, the first and second beam splitters, the first and second loop light-guide elements, phase modulator, fiber circuit and a differential amplifier, temperature-sensitive element, microcontroller, function power-independent storage, central user's equipment and a low-noise amplifier. The output of the differential amplifier is connected to the first input of the low-noise amplifier. The output of the temperature-sensitive element is connected to the information input of the microcontroller by means of a serial code wire. The output parallel wires of the microcontroller are connected to the address inputs of the power-independent storage. The microcontroller is connected to the respective input of the function power-independent storage by the sense wire, and to the respective input of the central user's equipment - by the "Start" wire. The analog output of the CUE is connected to the second input of the low-noise amplifier. The output of the low-noise amplifier serves as the output of the angular-rate sensor.
EFFECT: provided correction of temperature influence on the stability of the output characteristic.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measuring technology, possible use for estimating speed increments of self-propelled underwater and above-water objects.
SUBSTANCE: between two filament coils of fiber-optic interferometer along direction of expansion of acoustic wave hydro-acoustic emitter is mounted. Fiber-optic interferometer also contains a source of coherent light and photo-receiver, amplifier, band filter, electric signal generator, registration device. Fiber-optic interferometer also contains phase-shifting device, mounted in one of filament coils.
EFFECT: protection of increment meter from influence of electric and magnetic interferences, increased precision.
3 cl, 1 dwg