Drip refrigerator-radiator dispersed fog collecting device
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering, namely, to heat removal devices in space power plant thermodynamic cycle. Drip refrigerator-radiator (DRR) dispersed fog collecting device comprises working medium supply and delivery units. Supply unit comprises drive and driven pulleys with belt installed on them. On belt return section electric heater is installed. Delivery unit is installed above drive pulley and includes rotor with grooves, accommodating movable blades and pushers with return springs, cam, setting required pushers movement law, and working medium residues removal shutter. Collecting of cooled down as a result of radiation cooling drops is carried out by supply unit moving belt. Liquid film is formed on belt moving together with it to delivery unit. For removal of film from belt moving blades are used. Residual working medium temperature control at belt return movement is carried out by electric heater.
EFFECT: technical result of invention is enabling of DRR cooled working medium transportation to its circulation closed circuit pump input.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises thermostating gas injection holes arranged at head cowl and adapter compartment. Besides, its comprises thermostating gas efflux holes and one-way valves of thermostating gas injection and efflux. Thermostating has injector is composed of a flute with one-way valves as sealing covers arranged at injection hole shaping strips. There are extra thermostating gas injection holes. One-way valves are composed of a flap with counterweight between inlet with protective screen and outlet. There are also heat insulating and heat control coatings.
EFFECT: higher purity and efficiency of thermostating.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a temperature control system (TCS) of the on-board equipment of the spacecraft. TCS is made on the basis of a two-stage heat pump. The on-board instruments are mounted on temperature-controlled panels (1) and give up heat through the steam chambers of the panels to the evaporators (5) of the working body (WB) of the lower cascade (freon). The WB enters to the input of the compressor (2), then - to the intermediate heat exchanger (3) and through the expander (4) to the evaporator (5). In the heat exchanger (3) WB condenses and gives up heat to WB of the upper cascade (a mixture of gases He and Xe). The latter is heated in the regenerator (9) and passes to the input of the compressor (7). After that WB of the upper cascade enters the end heat exchanger (8), where transmits heat to the circuit of radiation heat exchanger (13), then enters to the regenerator (9) and through the expander (10) to the condenser (3). WB of the radiator circuit is a liquid metal coolant pumped by electromagnetic pump (12). After receiving heat in the exchanger (8) from WB of the upper cascade, this coolant gives it to vaporisation zones of heat pipes - the main radiating elements of the heat exchanger (13). Cooling of the compressor-expander turbine unit of each cascade is performed by WB of this cascade through the tubes wound on the walls of the turbine unit casing.
EFFECT: increasing the temperature of the radiation heat exchanger (13), and thus - the improvement of its weight and size characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for thermal control of long-term orbital station modules. Thermal control system includes heat transfer means, electric heaters with control devices, and sensor devices on internal surface of module body surface. Heat transfer means are represented by thermal pipes running along external surface of docking module body symmetrically to each docking aggregate. Thermal pipe strings divide module body into two zones containing at least two docking aggregates each. Each zone includes two circular strings formed by two groups of thermal pipes duplicating each other, and two pairs of S-shaped strings with their heads and ends oriented in the same direction with respective circular string and lying at most two thermal piper diameters apart from the circular string. S-shaped string is formed by a pair of thermal pipes duplicating each other. Electric heaters are installed opposite to each thermal pipe pair in condensation zone.
EFFECT: prolonged operation life and reduced power consumption, weight and dimensions of system.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to methods and means of environment parameter control in rocket-and-space engineering products, in particular during pre-launch preparation of modern carrier rockets (CR) for payload (PL). These CRs are equipped with systems for preconditioning and feeding thermostating gas component (GC) with high degree of purification over on-board gas lines of CR units. The method includes GC delivery and feeding to payload fairing (PLF) through upper and lower atomizers at the same time. Delivery is performed over single trunk gas passage in direction from bottom to top. Splitters of variable cross-section of the upper atomizer are placed mutually opposite so that when GC is blown jets could collide with each other over PL and be reflected by PLF thus equalizing field of GC speeds. This creates GC uniform flow in space between PL and PLF. In the lower cavity of PLF, GC is directed onto PL creating in PLF excess pressure due to which GC is discharged through special holes. In method implementing devices, atomizers are made as opposed splitters of variable cross-section which are blinded off on one end and combined by manifold of variable cross-section on the other end.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of thermal conditions and cleanliness of environment for PL installed on CR under PLF provisioning.
3 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: spacecraft comprises target hardware module, service systems module with power supply incorporates solar cells, ACS module, storage batteries, thermal control system integrating control unit, hydraulic units, panes of suspended composed of separate assembly units with thermal control end heat exchanger with fluid heart carrier and heat pipe, thermal boards with fluid heat carrier, heat tube with flat shelves and heat lines with hydraulic valves. Thermal control end heat exchanger consists of units tightly connected by inlets-outlets composed of hollow body of revolution and solid coil with central part shaped to truncated cone. Material and sizes of heat pipe and thermal control end heat exchanges, spacing between heat pipes are selected subject to maximum transferred thermal power transferred from heat carrier to heat pipe and minimum vulnerability to meter and man-made particles, and thermal control end heat exchanger surface area.
EFFECT: improved multifunctionality.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: instruments of service system and payload modules are mounted at inner surfaces of three-ply cellular panels with built-in heat pipes and circulation manifolds with liquid heat carrier. Two extra unfolding radiator panels are fitted in service system module and provided with built-in fluid manifolds with double-sided radiation. Storage batteries are mounted outside said radiator panels. High-heat capacity and wide operating range instruments are fitted at inner skin of radiator panels with built-in heat pipes. Tanks with fuel of correction system are fitted inside airframe bearing structure and at lower panel. Other instruments are arranged at panels with built-in fluid manifolds. Payload module instruments and fluid manifolds are fitted on inner skin of radiator panels with built-in heat pipes and built-in fluid manifolds. Closed duplicated fluid circuits are executed in parallel circuit of connection of fluid manifolds.
EFFECT: operation of spacecraft at variation if instrumentation operating temperature range.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environment parameter control in rocket-and-space engineering products during their preparation on launch installation and in flight. The device includes installed on adapter module (4) payload fairing (PLF) (3) of payload (PL) (1) brought out by space-mission missile (2). In the top part of PLF (3), splitter (5) of gas flow supplied via transit line (6) is installed. In the bottom part of PLF (3) the hatch (7) for gas component discharge is made. On the inner surface of PLF (3), noise, moisture and metal antistatic protective coatings are installed. In the hatch cover (7), a hole is made, and on the inner side of the cover, flat lattice acoustic muffler is installed. From the other side of cover (7) hole, local fairing is mounted (in the form of subsonic diffuser). On the adapter module (AM) (4), additional hole with filter (screen) and with similar local fairing is made (pos. D). Cavities of AM (4) and PLF (3) are communicated by holes (pos. E) made in ring of AM and by holes (22) in adapter (21). During liftoff and flight of missile (2) with PL (1) the level of acoustical action on them is lowered due to use of the mentioned protective coating, muffler and local fairings. Thus possibility of contaminants formation and entering into PLF cavities and hitting PL surface (in dead zones) is lowered.
EFFECT: high quality of cleanliness of PLF intracavity where PL is accommodated.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers mainly to land tests and drills of spacecraft thermal control system. According to invention, heat carrier deficiency in the system of thermal control system simulator and payload module is determined in advance. For that purpose, heat carrier temperature is measured regularly in fluid paths of the simulator and payload module before payload module test. Gas pressure in gas cavity of pressuriser of thermal control system simulator is measured at mean measured temperature below temperature of heat carrier and gas loading to the simulator. The pressure is compared to acceptable minimum value determined by a certain relation. If the pressure measured is below acceptable minimum then a heat carrier amount missing is added to the simulator fluid path from separate small compensation device.
EFFECT: improved long-term operation reliability of thermal control system simulator.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal engineering predominantly geostationary telecommunications satellites with thermal load about 4.5-5.5 kW. Satellite is made of two modules: payload (PL) module and service system (SS) module. Instruments of SS module and part of PL modules are installed on inner surfaces of mutually opposite cellular panels "+Z" and "-Z". The latter execute functions of radiators and include heat transfer tubes parallel to satellite +Y, -Y axes. Other instruments of PL modules are placed on cellular panel perpendicular to "+Z" and "-Z" panels. SS module instruments with most narrow temperature range are installed on inner skins of their radiator panels "-Z" and "+Z". Instruments with high thermal capacity and wide temperature range are placed inside body load-carrying structure and on the lower panel. Other instruments are installed on "+X" panel and inner panel with built-in liquid manifolds. Elements of closed doubled liquid loops are connected with electric motor hydraulic pump package of temperature-control system according to certain sequential scheme.
EFFECT: mass reduction and simplification of given class satellite manufacturing process.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal control systems (TCS) of spacecrafts (SC), predominantly telecommunication satellites. TCS comprises two independent on-board circulation paths identical in composition with heat carrier, which are arranged next to each other in honeycomb panels (or on them). Each one of paths comprises inlet and outlet fluid connectors for connection with fluid connectors of detachable TCS unit. In the latter, liquid-liquid heat exchanger is installed which has cooling capacity exceeding its required value for one path not less than by 2.1-2.2 times. During SC electric testing the detachable unit is connected to one of circulation paths according to SC testing program. At the same time the other path is looped back by liquid path having the same hydraulic resistance as liquid path of detachable unit.
EFFECT: simplification of TCS detachable unit design, reducing its dimensions and mass which simplifies mounting and dismantling detachable unit on SC board.
FIELD: space technology.
SUBSTANCE: unconfined space of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator is subject to periodical change at the same average-mass temperature of heat-transfer agent. The ratio of Vi≤(Vi+l+nϕ) 1) is used to judge if leak-proofness corresponds to standard value, where Vi is volume of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator for i-th measurement, Vi+l is volume of gas chamber of hydropneumatic compensator for subsequent measurement, n is time interval between i-th and i+1 measurement, ϕ is standard value of volumetric loss of heat-transfer agent during specific time interval. Difference in unconfined spaces achieved between (i+1)-th and i-th measurement is used to determine real leakage of heat-transfer agent from system during specific time interval. Current value of unconfined space of system hydro-pneumatic compensator gas chamber is measured instead of measuring working pressure of the system for the same average-mass temperature of heat-transfer agent. Difference between measured spaces related to time interval between measurements has to be value of real leakage of heat-transfer agent observed during specific time interval.
EFFECT: simplified and reliable method of inspection.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems; removal of low-potential heat from on-board systems of spacecraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed trickling cooler-radiator includes heat-transfer agent storage and delivery system, drop generator with acoustic oscillation exciting element, drop collector, transfer pumps and pipe lines. Trickling cooler-radiator is provided with heat stabilization system including heaters mounted on structural members of cooler-radiator and thermostatting units made in form of shield-vacuum insulation of these members. Said system is also provided with bypass pipe line laid between drop generator and collector and provided with volumetric expansion compensator (with electric heater) and automatic temperature control unit ensuring operation of heaters by signals from respective sensors. To reduce emission of heat-transfer agent, trickling cooler-radiator is provided with hydraulic accumulators at drop generator inlet and at drop accumulator outlet. Passages of output grid of drop generator have geometric and hydraulic characteristics varying from axis of symmetry towards periphery for smooth distribution of temperature field. Drop collector may be passive with inner surface formed by walls of one or several slotted passages through which heat-transfer agent is delivered for forming moving film.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; designing artificial satellites.
SUBSTANCE: proposed spacecraft has modules where service equipment is arranged and modules where target equipment and command and measuring devices are located. Optical devices of target equipment of infra-red range with cooled elements are mounted in central module. Radio equipment of on-board repeater is arranged in side modules whose position is changeable relative to position of central module. Optical and command and measuring devices are mounted on one frame at reduced coefficient of linear thermal expansion; they are combined with central module through three articulated supports. Cooled elements of optical devices are connected with radiators located beyond zone of thermal effect; service equipment module is provided with solar batteries having low dynamic effect on accuracy of spacecraft stabilization. Besides that, this module is provided with plasma engine whose working medium excludes contamination of said optical devices.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of spacecraft stabilization; electromagnetic compatibility of systems.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems; ground servicing of upper stages of launch vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes evacuation of system, filling the system with de-aerated amount of heat-transfer agent, flow test of heat-transfer agent, calibrated drainage and setting the working pressure. Subjected to evacuation is inner cavity of system including liquid cavity of compensator; atmospheric pressure is built in gas cavity of compensator separated from its liquid cavity by membrane; filling the system with de-aerated heat-transfer agent is effected at excessive pressure in liquid cavity of compensator equal to 2 atm. In filling the system with heat-transfer agent, remaining air passing through liquid cavity of compensator is accumulated before respective drainage valve. Air is evacuated through this valve when heat-transfer agent flows through main communicated with valve.
EFFECT: reduction of air content in system after filling it with heat-transfer agent.
FIELD: the invention refers to means of temperature control of cosmic apparatus working on geostationary or high elliptical orbits.
SUBSTANCE: the proposed apparatus has an instrument container, located in a heat-insulation shield fulfilled in the form of a cylindrical sleeve with a cut. One butt-end of the instrument container is connected with the bottom of the sleeve with possibility of turning the shield relatively to the instrument container and a purpose sampling apparatus is installed at the other butt-end of the instrument container. A cylindrical radiator-refrigerant with thermal screen is installed axially to the instrument container through thermal outcome. The cosmic apparatus has a thermo buffer filled with heat-accumulating substance with the melting temperature on the level of the working temperature of the purpose sampling apparatus. The radiator-refrigerant is formed with several heat-insulating one from another sectors. Every part is connected with the butt-end of the element of the instrument container with low thermal conductivity and with the thermo buffet by the way of a thermo diode. The thermo duffer is connected with the purpose sampling apparatus by a thermal tube. A labyrinth seal may be fulfilled in the gap between the radiator-refrigerant and its thermal shield.
EFFECT: increases effectiveness of maintaining of the two-level temperature regime of optical systems of remote probe of the EARTH at voluntary orientations relatively to the Sun.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: space engineering; manufacture and ground servicing of spacecraft temperature control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes filling the evacuated hydraulic main of temperature control system with de-aerated heat-transfer agent by forcing it out of filling truck tank by pressure. First, pressure is built up in gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator; this pressure exceeds pressure of pressurizing gas of filling truck tank. After forcing the heat-transfer agent into hydraulic main of temperature control system, gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator is brought into communication with surrounding atmosphere and its liquid chamber is filled with heat-transfer agent. Then, maximum permissible pressure created above heat-transfer agent in filling truck tank is applied to system, after which minimum free volume of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator is measured and if measured volume coincides with specified magnitude, decision is made on complete filling of hydro-pneumatic compensator and temperature control system as a whole. Device proposed for realization of this method includes on-board valves and the following ground servicing facilities: filling truck with drain and filling mains, valve control units, vacuum unit, gas pressure source etc. Filling truck is provided with drainage tank connected with on-board and ground components by means of definite fittings. Ground servicing equipment includes reference reservoir fitted with absolute pressure gauge and communicated with atmosphere and on-board vent valve of gas chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator by means of definite fittings.
EFFECT: improved quality of filling due to separate filling of hydraulic main of temperature control system and liquid chamber of hydro-pneumatic compensator.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: communication, TV broadcasting and information retransmission satellites and their heat control systems.
SUBSTANCE: on-board device with concentrated heat source is placed inside inner cavity of heat-insulated closed liquid-radiation heat exchanger and excessive heat from this device is removed to circulating water supply line. Inlet and outlet of liquid cavity of said heat exchanger are connected with delivery and discharge lines of circulating water supply system. Connecting pipe lines are provided with drainage and cutoff valves mounted before inlet and outlet of said liquid cavity below heat exchanger level. Parameters of pipe line running from delivery main of circulating water supply system to inlet of said liquid cavity are selected according to special condition. Box-shaped liquid-radiation heat exchanger consists of two sections with double wall: base and hood; their liquid cavities are communicated with atmosphere through drainage holes provided with shut-off members.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure; reduction of expenses.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of heat control systems of communication, TV broadcasting and retransmission systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes manufacture of at least three similar thermal load simulators 2 at width of contact surface equal to width of web of heat-transfer agent collector. Heat transfer factors (K1,K2, K3) are determined at similar forces of pressing the contact plate of simulators 2 to skin surface of panel 1. Heat-transfer temperature at collector inlet is maintained equal to surrounding temperature. Said heat transfer factors are determined as follows: for simulator (K1) separately mounted on panel; for simulator (K2) mounted between two adjacent simulators in way of motion of heat-transfer agent; for simulator under conditions when other simulators (K3) are mounted opposite web of adjacent turns symmetrically relative to it. Quality of construction and technology of manufacture is judged from the following relationship: K2+K3-K1-ΔKj ≥ [K], where ΔKj is factor of influence of thermal resistance of joint between simulator contact surfaces and skin on heat-transfer factor; [K] is permissible magnitude of heat-transfer factor.
EFFECT: simplified procedure of check of honeycomb panel quality; low cost of manufacture of panels.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperature in areas of radiation surfaces of temperature control system, comparison of these temperatures with upper and low limiting magnitudes and delivery of heat to radiation surface when temperatures are below low magnitudes. Flight intervals at power requirement exceeding power generated by primary onboard power sources are determined. Amount of electric power consumed for temperature control of radiation surfaces is determined at the same intervals. Flight intervals for maximum possible accumulation of thermal energy on radiation surface in said zones within permissible temperatures are also determined. Expenses for radiation surface temperature control is taken into account. Before beginning of flight intervals at consumed electric power exceeding electric power generated by onboard power sources, heat is delivered to radiation surface zones which require consumption of power for their temperature control at these intervals. Delivery of heat is performed with upper limiting magnitudes of temperatures taken into account.
EFFECT: reduced loading of spacecraft power supply system due to reduced power requirement for radiation surface temperature control at retained preset temperature ranges on these surfaces.
FIELD: spacecraft temperature control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes measurement of temperature of spacecraft structural members and onboard equipment and components of rocket propellant, heating them by celestial body heat and conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy as measured temperatures reach low limits of thermostatting range. In flight, intervals of thermal energy accumulation in propellant components (at excess of thermal energy and electric power on board) and intervals of its free liberation are determined. In case expected magnitude of accumulated energy during predetermined interval exceeds upper level for preset volume of propellant, heat of celestial bodies is accumulated till the end of this interval. Otherwise, excess of electric power generated on board is converted into heat which is delivered to propellant components. In predicting release of thermal energy from propellant components, its residual amount required for maintaining the propellant component temperature within required ranges is determined; temperature of structural members and onboard equipment is also measured. In case this temperature exceeds permissible levels, delivery of heat is discontinued. When temperature of propellant component gets beyond threshold magnitudes, removal of heat from propellant components is discontinued. Otherwise, delivery of heat to thermostattable elements and onboard equipment and/or to points of accumulation of heat for subsequent useful conversion is continued till beginning of next interval of accumulation of thermal energy. Then, thermal energy accumulation cycle is repeated.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of accumulation and release of thermal energy; reduced mass and overall dimensions; enhanced heat removal.