Method for concealed marking of explosive substances (versions)

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a chemical method of marking and identifying explosive substances (ES), as well as forensic identification of preparations, which can be used in investigation, expert forensic and legal practice. Method for concealed marking of explosives comprises introducing into an explosive, obtained by mixing certain components, a marking composition containing identifiers, number which is proportional to number of technical parameters, to be marked. Each identifier corresponding to a separate property used is a combination of substances (at least two substances), with available detection of fluorescence. Substances can be moulded into separate sets (units), and information (an a unit) is recorded in a binary code with arrangement of substances when detecting on a spectrogram successively built into circuit in accordance with a scale of capacity of units of a binary code. Marking composition is composed of separate sets (units), each of which by a separate stream is fed into an explosive while mixing latter from separate components.

EFFECT: method enables to encode data on an explosive substance, provides high security of marking explosive and reliability of identification of explosive based on its marking when reading a graphical recording of latter.

6 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex

 



 

Same patents:

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of indicator detection of trace amounts of explosives and components of explosives on the basis of three groups of compound classes: nitroaromatic compounds; nitramines and nitroesters; ion nitrates. The method of express detection of explosives on the basis of a set of chemical indicators for three groups of classes of nitrogen-containing compounds includes using a reactive indicator material with reagents, previously applied in dosed quantity onto a carrier, besides, the reactive indicator material is a carrier with immobilised azocomponent of Griess reagent, which is in solid chemically modified protected form with covalently bound amides.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity and reliability, as well as faster detection.

4 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of analytical chemistry, namely to express-detection of explosive substances (ES) based on organic peroxides. Method is based on fixation of hydroxen peroxide, released in the process of explosive substance decomposition by indicator method. For this purpose change of indicator colour is fixed within 1 minute after contact with solid-phase material, possessing function of surface acidity and providing decomposition of ES to hydrogen oxide. Application of claimed method simplifies analysis of cyclic peroxides due to reduction of the number of analysis stages, as well as to elimination of liquid reagents, including concentrated acids and organic solvents.

EFFECT: invention provides carrying out express-analysis of trace quantities of peroxide ES outside laboratory in wide range of climatic conditions.

6 cl, 2 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: indicator testing means for determining content of N-methylaniline in hydrocarbon fuels is neutral aluminium oxide with potassium ferricyanide immobilised on the surface thereof, moulded in form of pellets. The method of determining content of N-methylaniline in hydrocarbon fuels using said indicator testing means is carried out based on colour change thereof after coming into contact with a sample of the analysed sample.

EFFECT: reliability of determining lower concentrations of N-methylaniline in hydrocarbon fuels.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied for the estimation of a washing ability of petrol and diesel fuel and influence of their washing abilities on technical-economic and ecological (TE) characteristics of an engine (E). The method consists in the preliminarily "pollution" of E with an etalon pollution mixture (EPM) of fuel and oil, which ensures its working in a fixed mode. Upon use of 20-40 l EPM the E is stopped, cooled, dissembled and pollutions (P) are registered. Then E works on the test fuel at standard modes (SM). Its TE characteristics are measured. Then P is registered again. Parameters of SM are given.

EFFECT: increased degree of reliability and objectivity of determining the washing ability of petrol and diesel fuel.

9 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbons concentration is measured in vapour-air mix flowing from filler neck as well as time interval from fill in start to initial occurrence of hydrocarbons in said mix, said concentration being taken as the minimum magnitude. Time interval when hydrocarbons concentration reaches maximum magnitude and moment when maximum level in the tank is reached are measured. Bulk of losses of oil or oil products is determined by the formula: M"пп"=V"ц"[(t"ц"tCmax)Cmaxt"ц"+(tCmaxtCmin)(Cmax+Cmin)2tCmax], where M"пп" is bulk of losses caused by evaporation in vapour-air mix emissions, kg; V"ц" is tank volume, m3; t"ц" is time interval from fill in start to maximum fill in level, min; Cmax is maximum concentration of hydrocarbons in said mix, kg/m3; Cmin is minimum concentration of hydrocarbons in said mix, kg/m3; tCmax is time interval from fill in start to occurrence of vapours with concentration Cmax, min; tCmin is time interval from fill in start to occurrence of vapour with concentration Cmin, min.

EFFECT: lower labour input, higher accuracy of loss determination.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: dispersion-indicator composition is prepared, for which purpose hydrochloric acid and water-alcohol solution of bromophenol blue are introduced into distilled water, obtained composition is combined with petrol sample, into which methyl-tert-butyl ether is preliminarily added, mixture is mixed and settled at room temperature, volume of foamy layer of blue-light blue colour is measured at the boundary of “petrol-water" separation, and if its value is not less than 1 cm3 conclusion about detergent additive in petrol is made.

EFFECT: acceleration of identification with high degree of its reliability.

1 ex, 5 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of evaluating corrosiveness of jet fuel comprises determining the decrease in weight of copper-containing material placed in the fuel before and after testing at high temperature. The copper-containing material used is copper foil which is placed in the fuel and held in hermetically sealed cells in the form of metal vessels at temperature of 150±2°C for 4 hours while holding in two steps of 2 hours each and replacing the fuel after the first step. The greater the decrease in the weight of the copper foil before and after test, the more corrosive the jet fuel.

EFFECT: high reliability and faster evaluation.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of expertise of explosive substances and forensic identifying preparations. A method of marking an explosive substance consists in the introduction of a marking composition, containing identifiers, the quantity of which equals the quantity of technical parameters to be marked, into the explosive substance, obtained by mixing of separate components. To mark the explosive substance each separate component, included into the mixture of the explosive substance, is marked. The marking composition for each separate component is composed of at least one polymer material from the group of polyorganosiloxanes with the length of a molecular chain, representing an identifier, different from lengths of molecular chains and values of viscosity of polymer materials in the marking compositions of other separate components, constituting the mixture of the explosive substance. As the marking composition of the explosive substance a set of marking compositions of separate components of the said substance mixture is used.

EFFECT: improvement of marking.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes determination of the density at the fuel temperature 20°C, determination of the averaged boiling temperature Tc, °C, by calculated dependences on temperatures of boiling away of different fuel fractions, setting the density range at 20°C from 700 to 1020 kg/m3, determination of kinematic viscosity at a temperature of 50°C with the fuel density from 860 to 1020 kg/m3 and the temperature of boiling away of final fuel fraction higher than 400°C, equipping a nomogram for CI estimation with an additional scale of viscosity, matched with the Tc scale on the section from 268 to 320°C, setting the Te range from 90°C to 320°C, setting the range of the kinematic viscosity scale from 2.0 to 1000 mm2/s, setting the range of cetane index scale, units, from 0 to 70. The nomogram makes it possible to determine CI of any liquid hydrocarbon fuel (from petrol to the residual one).

EFFECT: extension of assortment of analysed fuels and increased reliability of estimation.

1 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of analysis of physical properties of liquids. A device contains a container for sampling with a scale with a piston and rod placed in it, software and hardware to measure time and temperature, a tube for liquid intake during sampling in order to determine the relative viscosity, a thermistor which can be installed at the tube during determination of microcone penetration, demulsifying ability and index of the liquid heating dynamics, a cone that can be installed instead of the piston on the rod by means of a threaded connection for determination of microcone penetration, a plug or a cover which can be installed into the container nipple instead of the tube for determination of microcone penetration and demulsifying ability, and a support for the container installation.

EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of the analysis as well as increase in its information content and reliability.

5 cl, 4 tbl, 10 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of expertise of explosive substances and forensic identifying preparations. A method of marking an explosive substance consists in the introduction of a marking composition, containing identifiers, the quantity of which equals the quantity of technical parameters to be marked, into the explosive substance, obtained by mixing of separate components. To mark the explosive substance each separate component, included into the mixture of the explosive substance, is marked. The marking composition for each separate component is composed of at least one polymer material from the group of polyorganosiloxanes with the length of a molecular chain, representing an identifier, different from lengths of molecular chains and values of viscosity of polymer materials in the marking compositions of other separate components, constituting the mixture of the explosive substance. As the marking composition of the explosive substance a set of marking compositions of separate components of the said substance mixture is used.

EFFECT: improvement of marking.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of inspecting explosive substances and forensic identification preparations. The method of labelling an explosive substance involves adding a labelling composition to the explosive substance, said composition containing identifiers, the number of which is equal to the number of properties to the labelled. The identifiers used are a mixture of polyorganosiloxanes with different molecular chain lengths, wherein each property matches an identifier in form of a polyorganosiloxane with a corresponding molecular chain length and corresponding "exit time" (retention) on a chromatogram. Thus a "chemical barcode" is formed in the explosive substance, which is read from the chromatrogram based on the principle of the presence or absence of a component at a certain time of its "exit" (retention). The method is suitable for labelling mixed and separate explosive substances, as well as components thereof, for example inorganic oxidants, particularly ammonia nitrate.

EFFECT: method provides high reliability of identifying an explosive substance with a simple process of determining its code.

4 dwg

FIELD: blasting.

SUBSTANCE: method to manufacture a composite explosive for explosion welding, includes preparation and mixing of explosive components, at the same time prior to mixing the explosive component is recrystallised to produce a nanodisperse powder from an organic dissolvent in the form of compounds from the group of dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulfide or acetone into water, the produced dispersion is stabilised under higher temperature of not more than 100°C with further evaporation of the organic dissolvent and drying of the residue, which is then mixed with an inert filler, and the composite explosive is formed. The substance produced by this method as an explosive component contains tetranitropentaerytrite, or octogene, or hexogene in the form of pre-transformed to ultradisperse condition with particle size of not more than 10-6-10-8 m in amount of 30-70 wt % and a powdery inert filler in the form of sodium bicarbonate - balance.

EFFECT: invention provides for the possibility to arrange a link through explosion of fine parts and thin-film elements of assembly structures, for instance, thin plates or foil, without deformation and damage due to provision of minimisation of explosive layer and reduction of critical detonation layer.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocket engineering and specifically to making imitators of mixed solid propellant used when breaking-in equipment for hazardous facilities for mass production of small-size set-in charges of mixed solid propellant and refinement of mechanical processing of said articles and training maintenance personnel. The imitator contains filler in form of a mixture of potassium chloride and dispersed spherical aluminium, binder in form of divinyl nitrile rubber with terminal carboxyl groups and epoxy resin, transformer oil, curing agent in form of tetramethylthiuram disulphide (thiuram D) and zinc oxide, and a surfactant in form of lecithin or cationat-7.

EFFECT: invention provides reliable imitation of standard composition of mixed solid propellant on viscosity, working life, physical and mechanical properties and adhesion to armour.

2 cl, 3 tbl

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.

SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in making mass-volume simulators of ammunition. Proposed composition can simulate, by density, various explosive plastisol mixes. Proposed composition represents high-concentration dispersion of inert powder fillers (table salt and aluminium powder) in binder consisting of plasticiser and polymer. Triacetin is used as plasticiser while polymer represents a copolymer of methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid taken in the ratio of (0.4-0.6):1. Additionally, glass hollow balls in amount of up to 2 wt % may added thereto to adjust the density.

EFFECT: stability is storage, simulation of various-density explosives.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

Propellant charge // 2466975

FIELD: weapons and ammunition.

SUBSTANCE: propellant charge represents a single unit composed of compacted grains with polymer coating applied on their surface. Said polymer coating is made of water soluble polymers of synthetic or natural origin in amount of 5-15 wt %. Unit porosity makes 5-60%.

EFFECT: perfected propellant charge.

5 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to investigation and analysis of materials using radiation methods and can be used as an explosive substance imitator based on hexogene or octogene. The imitator contains a solid body of any shape made from a mixture of powdered nonahydrate aluminium nitrate in amount of 20…36 wt %, melamine in amount of 40…44 wt %, graphite in amount of 11…15 wt %, saccharose in amount of 9…13 wt % and re-dispersible polyvinyl acetate in amount of 9…11 wt %, and density of the solid body is equal to 1.5…1.7 g/cm3.

EFFECT: preparation of a safe explosive substance imitator based on hexogene or octogene for testing apparatus for detecting explosives.

3 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to investigation and analysis of materials with radiation methods and can be used as a nitrogen-containing explosive substance imitator. The imitator contains a solid body of any shape made from a mixture of powdered nonahydrate aluminium nitrate in amount of 29…37 wt %, melamine in amount of 15…21 wt % and graphite in amount of 42…56 wt %, and density of the solid body is equal to 1.4…1.7 g/cm3.

EFFECT: safe imitator of nitrogen-containing explosive substance for testing and calibrating apparatus for detecting explosive substances.

3 cl

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: method for production of such imitator includes injection moulding and drying. Injection moulding is carried out from mass produced by means of addition of up to 1 % of ES into magnesia cement in the form of trotyl or cyclonite, or octogene, or pyroxilic powder, or varnish powder, or ballistit powder, or nitroglycerine, or ammonium nitrate, or penthrite. Drying is carried out at room temperature till permanent weight with production of magnesium-inorganic polymer complex compound with explosive substance of the following structure: .

EFFECT: according to tactic-operational requirements, imitator of ES smell produced by this method excels available specimens in practicalness, convenience in use and durability.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: ballistic solid rocket propellant includes combustion modifying agent which consists of lead copper complex of phthalic acid or nickel lead complex of phthalic acid as combustion catalyst, chrome (III) - copper (II) - oxides or dioxides of titanium, or titanium disilicide, or calcium carbonate as combustion stabiliser, technical carbon and 1,2-dibutoxybenzol. Combustion catalyst is included in the propellant in quantity of 1.5-4.0 wt %, combustion stabilising agent 0.4 - 3.0 wt %, technical carbon 0.1 - 1.0 wt %, 1,2-dibutoxybenzol - 0.5 - 2.0 wt %.

EFFECT: low dependence of propellant combustion velocity on pressure, and increased propellant chemical durability.

1 tbl

FIELD: explosives.

SUBSTANCE: proposed water-in-oil-type explosive composition contains ammonium nitrate, mineral oil, water, and emulsifier. The latter is prepared by mixing poly(isobutylenesuccinic anhydride) or poly(isobutylene-bis-succinic anhydride) with product of its interaction with organic mono- or polyamine, adding, to continuously stirred mixture, esters of fatty acids with polyatomic alcohols, then adding Ca, K, Mg, Mo alkylbenzenesulfonate or mixture thereof in the form of 20-70% solution in industrial oil, mixing, and filtering resulting mixture.

EFFECT: reduced price of explosive composition due to reduced content of emulsifier.

1 tbl, 4 ex

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