Moulded catalyst for converting methanol into aromatic hydrocarbons and method of producing said catalyst
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst for converting methanol into aromatic hydrocarbons, method of producing said catalyst and method of converting methanol into aromatic hydrocarbons. Catalyst contains 85 to 99 parts by weight of zeolite ZSM-5, from 0.1 to 15 parts by weight of element M1, which is least one element selected from a group consisting of Ag, Zn and Ga, and from 0 to 5 parts by weight of element M2, which is at least one element selected from a group consisting of Mo, Cu, La, Ce and P, Co, wherein total specific surface area of catalyst is in range of 350–500 m2/g, and specific surface area of micro pores is within range of 200–350 m2/g. Method involves following steps: step I: mixing template agent I, an inorganic acid, silicon source, aluminium source, water, soluble compound of element M1 and, optionally, soluble compound of element M2 to obtain a mixture, converting mixture into gel with subsequent holding and drying of gel to obtain amorphous mixed silicon-aluminium mixed oxide precursor; step II: mixing silicon-aluminium mixed oxide precursor obtained at step I, with a crystal seed and binding agent, moulding and drying mixture to produce a moulded semi-finished product; and step III: crystallisation followed by calcination of moulded semi-finished product obtained at step (II), to obtain said catalyst. Catalyst is characterised by high values of total specific surface area, specific surface area of micro pores and micropore volume.
EFFECT: results of reaction for synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol using a catalyst, provided in present invention, demonstrated good catalytic activity.
14 cl, 3 tbl, 25 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of producing liquid hydrocarbon mixtures is carried out via hydroconversion of lignocellulose biomass in a solvent medium in the presence of a dispersed catalyst precursor. The method includes drying the biomass; grinding the biomass; preparing a paste from the ground biomass, solvent and dispersed catalyst precursor; hydroconversion of the prepared paste; separating the obtained products in a system of separators; the method is characterised by that the solvent used is an organic solvent having viscosity of 0.5-2.5 Pa·s at 60-90°C, which contains 2-5.5 wt % sulphur and 5-25 wt % polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or derivatives thereof, and grinding of the biomass and preparation of said paste is carried out via dispersion with mechanical activation of the biomass in a solvent medium containing a catalyst precursor, wherein the prepared paste is first heated in an inert atmosphere to temperature of 330-380°C and pressure of 0.2-0.5 MPa until removal of the basic amount of oxygen in the biomass in the form of CO, CO2 and H2O, followed by hydroconversion.
EFFECT: high output of liquid products of hydroconversion of the biomass, higher conversion of the biomass and simpler process.
10 cl, 10 tbl, 2 dwg, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing tall oil resin. The method of processing tall oil resin, which contains sterol alcohols, and, possibly, wood alcohols of fatty acids and resin acids, the source of which is tall oil, is characterised by the fact that, at least, a part of the fatty acids and resin acids is released from sterol ethers and ethers of wood alcohols and converted into lower alkyl ethers; alkyl ethers, obtained in he said way, are extracted by evaporation from resin, then condensed, with the further hydration of the obtained condensate. The product, obtained by the claimed method and the application of the method for fuel production are also claimed.
EFFECT: application of tall oil resin, which usually represents a waste product, for obtaining fuel or a fuel component.
17 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to a method of obtaining olefins, including a) steam cracking of an ethane-including raw material in the zone of cracking and under conditions of cracking with obtaining a flow discharged from the zone of cracking, which includes, at least, olefins and hydrogen; b) conversion of the oxygenated raw material in the zone of conversion of oxygenate to olefins in the presence of a catalyst with obtaining a flow, consisting of, at least, olefins and hydrogen, discharged from the oxygenate-to-olefins (OTO) flow; c) combination of, at least, a part of the flow, discharged from the zone of cracking and a part of the flow, discharged from the OTO zone with obtaining a combined output flow; and d) separation of hydrogen from the combined output flow, with the formation of, at least, a part of the oxygenated raw material due to the supply of hydrogen, obtained at stage d), and the raw material, containing carbon oxide and/or carbon dioxide, into the zone of oxygenates synthesis and obtaining oxygenates. The invention also relates to a combined system for the claimed method realisation.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to obtain target products by the improved combined method of ethane cracking and OTO technology.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the catalytic conversion of a renewable raw material - products of the biomass fermentation (ethanol, fusel alcohols) and their mixtures with vegetable oil into an alkane-aromatic fraction C3-C11+, which can be used for obtaining fuel components. The method of obtaining alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons from the products of the biomass processing for obtaining the hydrocarbon fuel components includes passing the products of the biomass processing through a layer of a preliminarily regenerated zeolite ZSM-based catalyst, containing Pd and Zn, in an inert atmosphere at an increased temperature. The method is characterised by the fact that as the catalyst used is the Pd-Zn/ZSM/Al2O3 catalyst of the general formula of 0.6 wt % Pd-1 Zn/Al2O3/ZSM, with the products of the biomass processing, which contain a mixture of organic fermentation products or fusel alcohols, being passed through the catalyst layer at a temperature of 280-500°C and volume rate of 0.3-6 h-1.
EFFECT: extension of the raw material base and method for obtaining alkane and aromatic hydrocarbons.
5 cl, 6 tbl, 26 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is catalyst for single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels from oil and fat raw material, containing platinum or palladium, fixed on the surface of porous carrier, represented by borate-containing aluminium oxide, with the following component ratio, wt %: Pt or Pd 0,10-0.50; B2O3 5-25; Al2O3 - the remaining part. Catalyst can be prepared by granulation of mixture of aluminium oxide hydrate of pseudoboehmite structure with orthoboric acid with the following drying of granules at 120°C and annealing at 550-700°C for 16 h. Granules are soaked with solutions of hexachloroplatinic acid or palladium chloride, subjected to drying at 120°C and annealing at 500°C. Method of single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels with improved low-temperature properties from oil and fat raw material in presence of claimed catalyst includes passing mixture of hydrogen and oil and fat raw material through immobile layer of catalyst at temperature 380°C, pressure 4.0 MPa, mass rate of raw material supply 1 h-1 and with volume ratio hydrogen:raw material, equal 1300.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of single-stage manufacturing of components for jet and Diesel fuels with improved low-temperature properties from oil and fat raw material due to simplification of catalyst composition, method of its preparation and reduction of catalyst cost.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing pyrolysis oil. A method of producing biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (38) with low metal content includes steps of: filtering a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (12) with a high-throughput filter unit (20) having throughput of 10 l/m2/h or higher to form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (22) with low content of solid substances; filtering the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (22) with low content of solid substances with a fine filter (28) having a pore diameter of 50 mcm or less to form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (30) with very low content of solid substances; and contacting the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (30) with very low content of solid substances with an ion-exchange resin to remove metal ions and form biomass-derived pyrolysis oil (38) with low metal content. A version of the method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: total metal content is reduced to concentration of 100 ppm or less.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes producing synthesis gas, converting the synthesis gas into methanol, producing a concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons and water from the methanol in the presence of a catalyst, separating the water, blowing off hydrocarbon residues from the water, separating the formed concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons and a hydrogen-containing gas, which is at least partially used when producing synthesis gas, to change the ratio H2:CO=1.8-2.3:1 therein. The production of aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol in the presence of a catalyst is carried out in two series-connected aromatic hydrocarbon synthesis reactors - a first low-temperature isothermic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon synthesis reactor and a second high-temperature adiabatic reactor for synthesis of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons from the aliphatic hydrocarbons formed in the first reactor and subsequent stabilisation in a unit for stabilising the concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons. At least part of the hydrogen-containing gas is fed into a synthesis gas production unit and used to obtain synthesis gas using an autothermal reforming technique with a pre-reforming or non-catalytic partial oxidation unit using oxygen or oxygen-air mixtures as the oxidising agent to change the ratio according to the relationship (m.f.H2-m.f.CO2)/(m.f.CO+m.f.CO2)≥2, where m.f. is the molar fraction of a component in synthesis gas. The invention also relates to an apparatus.
EFFECT: high efficiency of producing concentrates of aromatic hydrocarbons.
12 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for obtaining hydrocarbon products, which involves the following stages: (a) provision of synthesis gas containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide; (b) reaction of conversion of synthesis gas to an oxygenate mixture containing methanol and dimethyl ester, in presence of one or more catalysts, which simultaneously catalyse the reaction of conversion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to oxygenates, at pressure of at least 4 MPa; (c) extraction from stage (b) of an oxygenate mixture containing quantities of methanol, dimethyl ester, carbon dioxide and water together with non-reacted synthesis gas, introduction of the whole amount of the oxygenate mixture without any additional treatment to a stage of catalytic conversion of oxygenates (d); (d) reaction of oxygenate mixture in presence of a catalyst, which is active in conversion of oxygenates to higher hydrocarbons; (e) extraction of the outlet flow from stage (d) and separation of the outlet flow into tail gas containing carbon dioxide occurring from synthesis gas and carbon dioxide formed at stage (b), liquid hydrocarbon phase containing the higher hydrocarbons obtained at stage (d) and liquid water phase where the pressure used at stages (c)-(e) is mainly the same as that used at stage (b); besides, some part of tail gas obtained at stage (e) is recirculated to stage (d), and the rest part of tail gas is discharged.
EFFECT: this method is a method in which there is no recirculation of non-reacted synthesis gas to a synthesis stage of oxygenates and without any cooling of a conversion reaction of dimethyl ester to higher hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to liquid fuel compositions. Invention deals with liquid fuel composition, containing, at least, one fuel component and from 0.1%(vil.) to 99.5% (vol.) of fraction of distillation of component, which contains, at least, one C4+ compound, derived from water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon. Method includes supply of water and water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon, including C1+O1+ hydrocarbon, in water liquid phase and/or vapour phase; supply of H2; carrying out catalytic reaction in liquid and/or vapour phase between oxygenated hydrocarbon and H2 in presence of deoxygenation catalyst at temperature of deoxygenation and pressure of deoxygenation to obtain oxygenate, which contains C1+O1-3 hydrocarbon in reaction flow; and carrying put catalytic reaction in liquid and/or vapour phase for oxygenate in presence of condensation catalyst at temperature of condensation and pressure of condensation to obtain C4+ compound, where C4+ compound includes representative, selected from the group, consisting of C4+ alcohol, C4+ ketone, C4+ alkane, C4+ alkene, C5+ cycloalkane, C5+ cycloalkene, aryl, condensed aryl and their mixture. Invention also relates to petrol composition, Diesel fuel composition, kerosene composition and methods of obtaining thereof.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of fuel composition, containing component, obtained from biomass.
9 cl, 19 dwg, 14 tbl, 59 ex
SUBSTANCE: method includes stage of contact of pyrolysis oil, produced from biomass, with first catalyst of oxygen removal in presence of hydrogen under first, preliminarily set conditions of hydropurification with formation of first effluent stream of pyrolysis oil with low oxygen content. First catalyst of oxygen removal contains neutral catalytic carrier, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. First catalyst of oxygen removal contains nickel in quantity from 0.1 to 1.5 wt % in terms of oxide. Version of method is also claimed.
EFFECT: extension of assortment of oxygen removal methods.
10 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: subject of present invention is a novel method of producing olefins which is characterised as a cheap industrial process of producing olefins by direct reaction of a ketone and hydrogen in a single step. In particular, described is a novel method of producing olefins, wherein propylene is obtained with high selectivity by direct reaction of acetone with hydrogen. The method of producing olefins provided by the present invention involves reaction of a ketone and hydrogen in the presence of at least one dehydration catalyst and a silver-containing catalyst. The dehydration catalyst is selected from metal oxide catalysts which contain at least one group 6 (VIB) element, zeolites, aluminium oxides and salts of heteropoly acids wherein some or all protons in the heteropoly acids are replaced with metal cations.
EFFECT: providing a method of producing olefins.
9 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing saturated hydrocarbons - diesel components and fatty acid esters by reacting triglycerides of fatty acids with hydrogen using a copper-containing catalyst. The catalyst is part of a permeable composite material which contains, besides a catalytically active copper compound, copper metal as a reinforcing and heat-conducting component.
EFFECT: use of the present method enables to achieve high degree of conversion of triglyceride of stearic acid to form a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons with boiling point in the range of 200-350°C and fatty acid esters with low content of undesirable substances in the products.
8 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst for realising a method of hydrogenating olefins and oxygen-containing compounds in synthetic liquid hydrocarbons obtained via a Fischer-Tropsch method, containing a porous support made from γ-aluminium oxide on which a catalytically active palladium component is deposited, characterised by that pores in the support have effective radius of 4.0-10.0 nm, wherein content of foreign-metal impurities in the support is not more than 1500 ppm, and content of palladium in the catalyst is equal to 0.2-2.5 wt %. The invention also relates to a hydrogenation method using said catalyst.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain saturated hydrocarbons from liquid Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, which are a complex mixture of paraffin hydrocarbons with 5-32 carbon atoms, with ratio of normal paraffin hydrocarbons to isoparaffin hydrocarbons ranging from 1:1 to 7:1, containing up to 50% olefins and up to 5% oxygen-containing compounds.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: anode chamber of an electrolysis cell is filled with water, while the cathode chamber is filled with aqueous hydrogen iodide solution, after which methanol is fed into the cathode chamber and voltage is applied across the anode and cathode. Oxygen in gaseous phase is taken away from the anode chamber, while methane is taken from the cathode chamber. Chemical processes are carried out in liquid phase at pressure between 0.8 and 1.5 atm and temperature between 18 and 40°C. Molecular iodine formed during the chemical processes in form of a solution in an organic solvent, specifically in methyl iodide - an intermediate product of electrochemical reduction of methanol in aqueous hydrogen iodide solution, is fed into the area around the electrode in the cathode chamber, thereby returning to the beginning of the process.
EFFECT: method considerably improves cost-performance ratio of the process without reducing output of the end product by using additional reagents which form intermediate compounds which enable to carry out the process in liquid phase in a single apparatus.
SUBSTANCE: alkylbenzol with structure R1R2CH(Ph) is obtained from alkylphenyl alcohol with structure R1R2C(Ph)OH. Method includes following stages: (a) supply of initial flow, containing alkylphenyl alcohol with structure R1R2C(Ph)OH, into reactor with catalytic distillation zone; (b) simultaneously in reactor: (i) contacting of initial flow, containing R1R2C(Ph)OH, with hydrogen in catalytic distillation zone in order to convert R1R2C(Ph)OH into R1R2CH(Ph) and to form reaction mixture and (ii) separation of R1R2CH(Ph) from reaction mixture by fraction distillation in order to obtain higher than catalytic distillation zone, flow, which contains R1R2CH(Ph) with lower concentration of R1R2C(Ph)OH in comparison to initial reactor flow in position higher than catalytic reaction zone; R1 and R2 each represent hydrogen or hydrocarbon group with 1-10 carbon atoms and one of R1 and R2 is not hydrogen.
EFFECT: more pure alkylbenzol with smaller amount of undesirable by-products and using smaller number of stages.
6 cl, 5 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst composition for selective catalytic reduction of exhaust gas. The catalyst composition contains a vanadate of formula XVO4/S, where XVO4 denotes a vanadate of Bi, Sb, Ga and/or Al, optionally in a mixture with one or more vanadates of rare-earth metals, or in a mixture with one or more vanadates of transition metals, or in a mixture with one or more vanadates of transition metals and one or more vanadates of rare-earth metals, and S is a support which includes TiO2. A method of producing the catalyst composition is also disclosed.
EFFECT: improved heat resistance and improved NOx conversion activity of the supported catalyst composition.
13 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: uniform, continuous and dense layer of pyrolytic carbon has width of carbon coating, close to monolayer coating, equal 0.4-0.5 nm, density of precipitated carbon coating, equal ρC = 2.0-2.1 g/cm3, specific surface SBET = 90-200 m2/g, cumulative volume of pores ΣVpore≤0.4 cm3/g, average size of pores DBET≤10 nm, most probable size of pores DBJH = 5-7 nm with absence of micro pores. Invention also relates to method of production of such mesoporous composite material.
EFFECT: claimed mesoporous composite material has high-quality thin carbon coating, which totally and uniformly covers external surface and walls of pores of said material.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods for producing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide powders that can be used for the photocatalytic purification and decontamination of water and air, designing photoelectric energy converters, and creating new composites and catalytical materials. The method of producing the nanocrystalline anatase titanium dioxide involves: 1) preparing a sulphuric solution with a titanium agent and an oxidising agent; 2) heating the sulphuric solution to a preset temperature; 3) separating the deposited nanocrystalline titanium dioxide from the solution by a known method. As the initial titanium agent used is titanium nitride, preferentially in the form of powder having a specific surface from 1 to 20 m2/g, whereas the solution is added with the oxidising agent, which is preferentially nitric acid or chromium trioxide.
EFFECT: reducing the hydrolysis reaction time; forming the crystalline structure of anatase directly as a result of crystallisation from the solution at a temperature not exceeding a boiling temperature at an atmospheric pressure without any additional deposit heat treatment required.
3 cl, 3 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method consists in electrolytic sedimentation of zinc on foam-nickel and thermal processing in inert medium at temperature from 650 to 750°C for not more than 2 h.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to simplify preparation of skeletal catalyst, reduce time of thermal processing and create foam-nickel with developed porous surface.
3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: described are: a method of obtaining solid disperse particles of a catalyst component, applied for olefin polymerisation, which contains magnesium, titanium, halogen and a donor of electrons as essential composite parts, a catalyst, containing the said catalyst component, and a method of polymerisation. The method of obtaining the catalyst component includes the following stages: (1) dissolution of a magnesium halogenide in a dissolving system with the formation of a homogenous solution and optional addition of compound C - the internal donor of electrons - into the said mixture before dissolution, in the course of dissolution or after dissolution; (2) combination of a titanium compound and a co-precipitating agent with the solution from stage (1) with the formation of a mixture; (3) slow heating of the mixture from stage (2) to a temperature from 60 to 110°C, with compound D - internal donor of electrons - being optionally added in the course of heating or after heating and after achievement of a specified temperature the mixture is mixed for 0.5 to 8 hours, after which mother liquor is removed by filtration and a residual solid substance is washed with an inert solvent to obtain a magnesium- and titanium-containing solid substance; and (4) the magnesium- and titanium-containing solid substance from stage (3) is one or several times processed with the titanium compound and an optional compound E - internal donor of electrons - in an inert solvent with further washing of a solid substance with an inert solvent to obtain the catalyst component. The co-precipitating agent represents a combination of a co-precipitating agent A and a co-precipitating agent B. The agent A is, at least, one diol ester, represented by general formula (I): , in which radicals from R1 to R6 and from R1 to R2n are given in the invention formula. The agent B represents, at least, one organic silane, represented by general formula (II):
EFFECT: method makes it possible to efficiently control precipitation of the catalyst component particles and thus obtain with the high output the catalyst component, possessing good particle morphology and narrow distribution of particles by size, the catalyst component in the application together with a co-catalyst in olefin polymerisation demonstrates high catalytic activity, good response to hydrogen addition, good characteristic of stereoregularity and good kinetic characteristics and makes it possible to obtain a polymer with the small content of fine particles.
14 cl, 8 tbl, 10 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to selective heterogeneous nickel catalysts for hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulphur removal and methods for production and use thereof. Described is a selective heterogeneous catalyst containing nickel on a support which is a diatomite powder having the following physical properties: BET surface area 20-50 m2/g, particle size less than 10 mcm - no more than 15 wt %, greater than 71 mcm - no more than 40 wt %, 10-71 mcm - the balance, or crushed shale taurite, having the following physical properties: BET surface area 12-16 m2/g, particle size less than 10 mcm - no more than 40 wt %, or a mixture thereof in ratio of 50:50. The catalyst has the following composition, wt %: nickel 52.0-54.0, aluminium oxide 2.5-3.8, iron oxide 1.3-1.7, sodium oxide 0.5-1.5, calcium oxide 0.1-0.6, magnesium oxide 0.25-0.8, sulphide sulphur 0.1-0.5, silicon dioxide - the balance. Also described is a method of producing said catalyst by mixing a support with 5-6% aqueous nickel sulphate solution, adding to the obtained suspension 25-27% calcined soda solution until achieving molar ratio of calcined soda to nickel sulphate of 1.6-1.7:1.0, at medium pH 9.0, or in two steps: at the first step to molar ratio calcined soda to nickel sulphate of 0.8-0.9:1.0, at medium pH 6.0-7.0, at the second step to molar ratio calcined soda to nickel sulphate of 1.6-1.7:1.0, at medium pH 9.0-10.0. Further, the method includes steps of filtering, washing, drying and pelletising without steps of reducing with hydrogen and passivation with a nitrogen-air mixture. Before use, activation of the fresh catalyst or recovery of the catalyst after 1500-3000 hours of contact thereof with the material is carried out directly in the hydrogenation reactor in a current of circulating hydrogen at 230-500°C for 5-50 hours. Also described is a method of using said catalyst.
EFFECT: achieving high activity, selectivity and stability of hydrogenating unsaturated hydrocarbons and sulphur removal.
6 cl, 6 tbl, 9 ex